Niđalosa Švutavart - Nithalosian Nouns
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Morphological information on Nithalosian Nouns
This public article was written by hashi, and last updated on 5 Aug 2014, 21:00.
10. Times and dates
Nouns in Nithalos have a possible four cases: Nominative, Accusative, Genitive and Stative. Nithalosian nouns do not show definiteness, number and very rarely, gender. All four cases are formed by the addition of a suffix to the end of the noun. The suffix in question depends on the case being formed, and the end of the noun in it's nominative form.
|-o||-Ø||-u or -i||-a||-u|
As you can see, the forms all follow a fairly straight forward pattern, with a few exceptions marked in red above. The reason for these are purely aesthetic choices made by Nithalosians that caught on and became the de facto suffixes. For example, the word tegna (angel) is not phonotactically pleasing if declined as tegnaa, so the form tegnae for the genitive is used instead.
A similar occurence happens with accusative words ending in -o. Both šemou and šemoi are acceptable accusative forms of šemo (island). The stative is generally declined the same as the accusative, however stative words ending in -o (such as šemo), must take -u.
The stative case is a grammatical case (as far as I'm aware) unique to Niđalos. This case is used for sentences where a simple "x is y" statement is made. This is in lieu of any other verb than 'be'. In these sentences, the stative case is always applied to the subject of the sentence, not the object. The object remains in nominative, not accusative.
An example (the stative is underlined):
This is my mother Kou ana kravđi
So how did this come about? Niđalos is normally a SOV-oriented language. However historically, the stative sentences were SVO, where the verb used was yu. So in theory, the above example would have looked like this (also taking into account older vocabulary and orthography):
Kó yu ana kravxi
Over time, the yu verb slowly merged into the subject of the sentence to create what is today, the stative case. After the merger for a while, the stative and accusative were used in free association (particularly where nouns ended in -o). However, in later times, this has been edged out and now the above systems are in place.
Nithalosian derivational morphology is fairly regular (except when nominalising verbs - but that's neither here nor there). Below are some example suffixes you can use to create specific types of nouns:
|-iam /-i.am/||agent1 (-er)||đai> đaiam||love [v] > lover [n]|
|-aam1 /-ajam/||itami > itamaam||hurt [v-trans] > victim [n] (one who is hurt)|