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Morphological derivation in Yusak
This public article was written by nai888, and last updated on 31 Dec 2016, 02:23.

3. Nouns
7. Verbs
1. Prefixes
2. Suffixes

Yusak has a highly productive system of derivation using affixes. Additionally, some verbs can be converted directly to nouns, and some nouns directly to verbs, when the meaning is obvious (and none of the derivational affixes are sufficient).


Semantic ChangeExample or ExplanationAffix
malewaiter→male waiter, actor→male actoraž-
femalewaiter→waitress, actor→actressyh-
both sexes togetheryš-
relation by marriagebrother→brother-in-law, father→father-in-law, friend→friend of one’s spousehol-
formerhusband→ex-husband, musician→ex-musiciangju-
antonym (of binary concepts)up→down, long→short, large→small, clockwise→counterclockwise, follow→precedeðim-
interrogative (question)mu-
pejorative (negative affect or poor opinion of object or action)house→hovel, to write→to scrawl, weather→bad weather, person→scoundrel, word→profane word, mind→foul-mindug-
laudative (positive affect or good opinion of object or action)to write→to script i.e. to write calligraphy, weather→good weather, person→gentleperson (i.e. Gentlemanjil-
affectionate (affectionate affect or opinion of a person)fus-
respectative (respectful affect or opinion of a person)jun-
in, at, or oneð-
into, to, or ontowu-
out, from, or off ofyl-
across, through, or viaeþ-
one of somethinglike English “mono-” or “uni-”ha-
two of somethinglike English “du-” or “bi-”ri-
three of somethinglike English “tri-”fri-
four of somethinglike English “quadri-”bru-
five of somethingpri-
six of somethingtjo-
seven of somethingdi-
eight of somethingdra-
nine of somethingtre-
ten of somethingžu-
multiple/many of somethinglike English “multi-” or “poly-”fjor-
both of somethingdextrous→ambidextrousrui-


Semantic ChangeExample or ExplanationAffix
frequent, repeated, or continual actionto run→to keep on running-fir
accusative (increased transitivity, to cause to have quality)to rain→to water [plants], to die→to kill, to have→to give, knowledgeable→to teach, to heal (intransitive)→to heal (transitive)-atto
separation, scatteringto throw→to throw about/scatter, to give→to distribute, to break→to shatter-itši
sudden or momentary actionto light/shine→to flash-rit
an instance of a verbto walk→walk-gym
incorrectly, awryto place→to misplace, to accuse→to wrongly accuse, to understand→to misunderstand-avlo
over againto send→to resend, to build→to rebuild-ðul
back againto send→to send back, to light/shine→to reflect-þin
to bedog→to be a dog, green→to be green-bel
to becomewolf→to become a wolf, man→to become a man, teacher→to become a teacher, red→to blush-bjol
to make into/cause to becomerational→rationalize-žo
to use a noun in a typical waytongue→to taste, ear→to hear, eye→to see, nose→to smell, finger→to feel, lip→to kiss, hammer→to hammer-kwi
an action or processto speak→a speech i.e. to give a speech-þuu
a machineto write→typewriter, data→computer-sus
a thing or substance which typically results from a verbto sweat→sweat, to cry→tear, to lactate→milk-bre
a thing or substance to which a verb is typically doneto eat→food, to think→thought-šeg
a place characterized by an actionto learn→school, to sell→store, to judge→court, to cook→kitchen, to sleep→bedroom, to heal→hospital/clinic-teb
an instrumentto play→toy, to cut→knife, to help→remedy-pyr
a person who is currently the agent of a verbto run→runner, to swim→swimmer, to sing→singer-hwo
a person who is occupied with a verb or noun habitually, as an amateur, or as a professionalto teach→teacher, to run→runner, to sing→singer, to swim→swimmer, tooth→dentist, music→musician, library→librarian-lwo
a productnovelty→news, cow→beef-ljež
a member, follower, participant, or inhabitantChrist→Christian, Marx→Marxist, America→American, family→family member, place→resident/inhabitant-rjen
the name of a language from a country/regionSpain→Spanish, Finland→Finnish, Germany→German, England→English-hoþ
a collective group without a specific numbertree→forest, word→dictionary, human→humanity, person→crowd, person+pejorative→mob, book→library, house→city, animal→flock or herd-byn
diminutivehouse→hut, book→booklet, break→crack/fracture-byt
augmentativehouse→mansion, book→tome, human→giant-fuš
an abstractionfriend→friendship, father→fatherhood-hun
a place characterized by a nounbook→library, dog→kennel-jer
a place where a noun is soldbook→bookstore, food→grocery store-fyh
a leader or bossschool→principal, city→mayor-šu
an offspring or descendantcat→kitten, king→prince, tree→sapling, person→child, duck→duckling-pil
a doctrine or systemChristian→Christianity, communist→Communism-oddi
one characterized by a noun or adjectiveyouth→youth (i.e. young person), holy→saint, near→neighbor-kra
worthy ofto remember→memorable, to believe→credible, to trust→trustworthy-pjuur
possibleto believe→believable, to see→visible-vlo
having a propensity or tendency of doing verbto play→playful, to talk→talkative, to believe→credulous, to inflame→flammable-žje
full ofmountain→mountainous, muscle→muscular, pore→porous, money→rich, word→verbose-puk
lackingmoney→moneyless/poor, tooth→toothless, water→dry, light→dark-rum
an abstraction of a qualityhappy→happiness, sad→sadness, healthy→healthiness, quick→quickness, girly→girlishness-byv
adjective pertaining to nounmind→mental, world→global, forest→arboreal-tyh
adjective made of noungold→golden, wood→wooden-dem
adjective resembling nouncat→catlike, mint→minty-mju
having a propensity or tendency of being adjectivesad→depressed-maš
the quality of acting a verbto die→dead-pik
having a qualityquick→quickly, sad→sadly, happy→happily, girly→girlily, duckish→duckishly-wak

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