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Grammar of pronouns in Yusak
This public article was written by nai888, and last updated on 10 Sep 2016, 00:19.
6. Telling Time
There are nine personal pronouns that represent various persons and numbers.
Yusak has four persons. The first, second, and third persons represent the same as other languages. The fourth person represents generalities and universals.
There are pronouns for singular and plural for all four persons. For the first person, there are plural pronouns for both inclusive and exclusive plurals.
Pronouns can be declined to create substantival pronouns (e.g. “ours” or “yours”). They decline to match the referent’s gender and number, and can be declined for definiteness when used as a noun.
There are a number of other pronouns beyond the personal pronouns.
There is a single reciprocal pronoun, sembe, which can be translated as “each other” or “one another”. It signifies that two or more agents act reciprocally upon each other.
There is a single reflexive pronoun, brog, which can be translated as “self”. Unlike in English, it does not decline to indicate whose self (e.g. “myself” vs “yourself”); rather, this is understood within the context of the sentence.
The main method of relativizing a clause is by using verb participles. In more complex relative phrases, this construction is sometimes impossible. For these cases, there exist two relative pronouns. Any clause that relativizes an oblique argument must use one of the relative pronouns.
English contrasts restrictive vs. non-restrictive relativization using commas in writing and pauses in speech. Yusak, on the other hand, uses different lexical pronouns. Restrictive relative clauses (e.g. “The man who lives in this house is gone”) are formed using the pronoun tel. Non-restrictive relative clauses (e.g. “The man, who lives in this house, is gone”) are formed using the pronoun sor. Unlike in English, non-restrictive relative clauses do not need commas or any change in prosody.
Relative pronouns are declined to match the gender and number of its referent in the matrix clause, and its grammatical case in the embedded clause.
Interrogatives and Interrogative Pronouns
Interrogative pronouns are used in place of the normal usage of their referent. The syntax and intonation of the sentence do not normally change, though many speakers may add vocal emphasis to the pronoun.
Answering a non-yes/no question can involve answer ellipses. In such a case, only the focused constituent is provided, declined into the proper case.
Yes/no questions are asked by adding the clitic mu- to the beginning of a verb. If a different word within a question is the focus of the question, the clitic can be prefixed to that word.
A yes/no question can also be asked by making a statement and then finishing with either “yes?” or “no?”
For responding to yes/no questions, Yusak has three distinct particles that signify “yes”, “no”, or “yes” in response to a negative question.
|Determiner & Pronoun||muk||lyk||šyk||tulke||werke||juk||fynke||ryk|
For details on pronoun declension, view the grammar tables for pronouns and pronoun substantivals.