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Һүйлгенча - Colloquial Khalik
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This public article was written by litrobotix, and last updated on 7 Jul 2020, 03:23.

[comments] Menu 1. Context/Lexical change 2. Grammatical change
[top]Context/Lexical change


(Note: Colloquial Khalik is not normally written outside of online contexts, as such this article will contain non-standard spellings of Standard Khalik lexemes)

While formal Khalik preserves some archaic features, colloquial Khalik (CK) has undergone a number of changes. This has included the loss of redundant features, repurposing of other features, influence from North Khalik, loss of Perso-Arabic loanwards (and an influx of Russian ones), and a general trend towards a more analytic structure.

Much of the influence has come from North Khalik, the dialect spoken in the largest urban area where Khalik is spoken, Pavlodar. Since it is closer to Russia, in colloquial Khalik Perso-Arabic loanwords have been generally lost, considered archaic or showy, in the place of words of Turkic or Russian origin.

арзан "cheap" (from Persian ارزان) --> очоз "cheap" (Turkic)
батша "queen" (from Persian پادشاه) --> королева "queen" (Russian)
дошман "enemy" (from Persian دشمن) > жав "enemy" (Turkic)
жаннат "heaven" (from Arabic جَنَّة) > ожмақ (Turkic)
иқтисад "economy" (from Arabic اِقْتِصَاد) > экономика (Russian)

Some phonological features have also occurred from the North Khalik influence, namely the loss of /h/ word initially and word finally.

һар "each" --> ар
гонаһ "sin" --> гона*

*this word is actually of Persian origin, and speakers would likely use жазық instead

One word, һам "and", has resisted the /h/ loss because of the vulgar word ам "cunt; pussy".

[top]Grammatical change


Verbs in CK are simplified significantly. Pro-drop is mandatory:

Мин үлдим "I died(-I)" --> Үлдим "Died(-I)"
Улар қачарлар "They will flee-(they) --> Қачарлар "Will flee-(they)"

The present tense is no longer marked:

Мин үртейим "I'm hiding" --> Үртим "I'm hiding"
Без белейир "We know" --> Белир "We know"

The third person singular is also no longer marked. This is the only context where the present tense is still marked, to reduce ambiguity with the second person imperative:

У хатирлейи "He remembers" --> Хатирлей "He remembers"
У жаздысы "She wrote" --> Жазды "She wrote"

Most of the complicated moods/aspects used in Standard Khalik are rarely if not used at all in CK, generally substituted with auxiliary constructions:

Мин жилзедим "I would have eaten"--> Ғайн жилдим "I would have eaten" (from моғаен)
Мин жилқейдим "I might have eaten" --> Ки жилдим "I might have eaten" (from балки)

The necessitative, commonly marked using the auxiliary тиеш in Standard Khalik, is instead marked with the ending -ас (from the Standard Khalik archaic necessitative ending -асы) and the auxiliary бар.

Мин жулға тиеш "I must go" --> Жул(ы)мас бар "I must go"

The question marker -ме/-мы has been lost in most contexts, and negation is no longer marked on the verb root, instead the particle эч is used, from Persian هیچ "no".

Һин онакмы? "Are you okay?" --> Һин онак? "Are you okay?"
Мин бейлбейим "I don't dance" --> Эч бейлим "I don't dance"

The past/passive participles have merged, a process which is also happening in Standard Khalik.

The singular pronouns have lost the accusative forms, except for the third person, which has become ун:

Һин мине күрдиң "You saw me" --> Мин күрдиң "You saw me"
У уны тибейи "He's kicking him" --> Ун тибей "He's kicking him"

У (third person singular pronoun) is now either у before consonants and ул before vowels or в- in both contexts:

У ағаданы биекреқ "She is taller than her brother" --> Ул ағаданы биекреқ "She is taller than her brother"
У ағаданы биекреқ "She is taller than her brother" --> Вағаданы биекреқ "She is taller than her brother"

The plural ending -лар/-лер becomes -дар/-дер after /ɫ/:

Һаллар қалай? "How are you?" --> Һалдар қалай? "How are you?"
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