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Venuzian grammatical cases
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A brief explanation of the Venuzian case system with examples
This public article was written by RobertOsmolovsky, and last updated on 14 Oct 2019, 00:04.

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Venuzian is a language with a well developed system of grammatical cases. Cases is divided into two groups according to meaning and method of words inflections.
In work with cases, Venuzian language shows its deep agglutinativeness. Little deviation is observed only in some cases when working with words ending with vowels: in these situations, the last vowel is discarded and the affix is ​​added to base on penultimate vowel or on last consonant.
1st group is most often referred to as the main cases and includes 6 positions. These cases are usually described as standard cases found in different quantities in other languages ​​with case system. These are: Nominative, Accusative, Dative, Causal, Instrumental and Translative. Inflections formation in this group is directly dependent on the paradigm system.

Nominative
Animate 1st p.Animate 2sd p.Inanimate 1st p.Inanimate 2sd p.
Singular----
Plural-i, -s-ni, -n-e, -k, -ek-ki, -*ki

'Aho chhri?' - Where is worms?
'Œtlam ulieak' - People living

Accusative
Animate 1st p.Animate 2sd p.Inanimate 1st p.Inanimate 2sd p.
Singular-um-u-t-ta
Plural-e-em-te-tu

Ir ezaim en emhhru – I will eat the human
Eelvhhxu en kenhhtet – I'm reading a book

Dative
Animate 1st p.Animate 2sd p.Inanimate 1st p.Inanimate 2sd p.
Singular-an-a-en-en
Plural-am-am-enk-enk


Causal
Animate 1st p.Animate 2sd p.Inanimate 1st p.Inanimate 2sd p.
Singular-*nt-*t-*c-*c
Plural-*nd-*d-*nc-*nc


Instrumental
Animate 1st p.Animate 2sd p.Inanimate 1st p.Inanimate 2sd p.
Singular-om-o-os-us
Plural-ot-od-ons-uns


Translative
Animate 1st p.Animate 2sd p.Inanimate 1st p.Inanimate 2sd p.
Singular-vo-ov-*mm-*mme
Plural-vu-vom-*mma-*mmu


Locomotors
CaseAffixExamplesMeaning
Ablative-tor
Sublative-le
Superessive-*n
Inessive-oen
Elative-vol
Adessive-nal
Delative-lor
Terminative-iǵl


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