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Խէրականը Կշուրնե - Kyuren Grammar
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imagine beautiful persian and beautiful armenian. then there's kyuren
This public article was written by litrobotix, and last updated on 12 Mar 2021, 03:44. Editing of this article is shared with Kşurne Vaxanz.

[comments] [history] Menu 1. Introduction 2. Dialects 3. Nominal morphology 4. Verbal morphology 5. Adjectives 6. Pronouns 7. Syntax
[top]Introduction


 Kyuren (Natively Կշուրներեն) is an Iranian language of the West North-Central Branch spoken by Kurds in Armenia's Syunik Province. It is spoken by about 9,000 people in the province as well as by 6,000 people in Mianeh County, Iran. The language is most closely related to Kurdish, and includes some Old Armenian, Persian, and Turkic borrowings.

It's written in the Armenian alphabet, and occasionally in the Arabic script, mainly in Iran. It's an SOV, head-initial, fusional, split-ergative language, like many Iranian languages.

all of this is actually true, i swear

[top]Dialects


Kyuren has three general varieties, though vocabulary and pronunciation can vary even by village. The dialects are not too different from each other, given the small amount of speakers.

The first variety is the one spoken in Syunik Province, Armenia in the non-urban areas. It is the "standard" dialect, if such a thing can be said of Kyuren. It is characterized, like all Armenian dialects of Kyuren, by increased borrowing from Old Armenian.

The second variety is Meghrani, spoken in the town of Meghri in Armenia. It is the urbanized version of Kyuren. It contains large amounts of borrowings from Modern Armenian and is very colloquial. In business and written works, Standard Kyuren is used instead.

The third variety is Mianehi, spoken in Mianeh Province, Iran. It is characterized by borrowings from Persian and Kurdish instead of Armenian. It is often written in the Arabic script and uses the romanization scheme of Persian.

EnglishStandardMeghriMianehi
blood
խունե [xɨˈɲe]
խնի [xɲi]
ونه [uˈɲe]
good
դասր [ˈdasər]
դաշ [daʃ]
خوب [xub]
mouth
րայհ [raj]
րե [re]
ري [raɪ̯]
tongue
ջվահ [d͡ʑəˈva]
ջվու [d͡ʑvu]
جاوا [ˈd͡ʑava]


[top]Nominal morphology


Nouns in Kyuren are broken up into two different classes based on animacy, which are subdivided based on whether the noun ends in a vowel or a consonant. What is animate and what is not is sometimes tricky to determine: for example, "pain" is animate.

Cases:
NOMNominative (case)
TRANS subject, INTR argument
ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
CNSConstruct state
noun being possessed
VOCVocative (case)
'O [addressee]'
Singular
-ի, ∅, -է, -օ
-ը, -յ
-ո, -յո, -է, -օ
Plural
-օն, -ն, -ի, -յ
-էն, -ն, -էյ, -օյ
-օնը, -նը, -էյը, -օյը
-ուն, -յուն, -էյ, -օյ


Class 1: Animate
This class is characterized by taking -(օ)ն as the NOMNominative (case)
TRANS subject, INTR argument
.PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
and -(յ)ո and -(յ)ուն as the VOCVocative (case)
'O [addressee]'
(SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
and PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
)
Examples (note: allophony still operates here):

աջ [at͡ɕ] - աջօն [aˈd͡ʑɒn]
ճանամ [ˈɕanam] - ճանամո [ɕanaˈmo]
նուշօ [nuˈʃɒ] - նուշօն [nuˈʃɒn]
մօխը [ˈmɒxə] - մօխյուն [mɒxəˈjɨn]

Class 2: Inanimate
This class is characterized by taking -ի or -յ as the NOMNominative (case)
TRANS subject, INTR argument
.PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
and -է/օ and -էյ/օյ as the VOCVocative (case)
'O [addressee]'
(SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
and PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
)
Examples:

վաբանճ [vaˈbanɕ] - վաբանճի [vaˈbanɕi]
ւահ [wa] - ւախէ [waˈxɛ]
նտիջե [nətiˈd͡ʑe] - նտիջեյ [nətiˈd͡ʑej]
սօրակլոխե [sɒrɔkloˈxe] - սօրակլոխօյ [sɒrɔkloˈxɒj]

The cases are used fairly straightforwardly, however, there is one little quirk: the construct case takes priority. For example, the following sentence, "I see the man's dog," "dog" would in theory take two cases, accusative since it's the object, but also the construct case since it's being possessed by "the man," but since the construct case takes priority only the construct case is marked:

Սայ մարջ դայմ։
sa-y marj day-m
dog-CNSConstruct state
noun being possessed
.SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
man see-1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
.NPSTNon-past (tense)
present, continuous and future
.IPFVImperfective (aspect)
'interrupted or incomplete'

"I see the man's dog"

The construct case is also always used before possessive pronouns.

Note: in Kyuren, final հ is not pronounced, but when a word with final հ is inflected, the հ becomes խ. For example, ջվահ [d͡ʑəva] "language" but ջվախը [d͡ʑəvaxə] "language of."

[top]Verbal morphology


Verbs in Kyuren conjugate by tense (NPSTNon-past (tense)
present, continuous and future
and PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
), person, number, and sometimes aspect (PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action
and IPFVImperfective (aspect)
'interrupted or incomplete'
) and mood (CONDConditional (mood)
[if X,] then I would...
). Kyuren is nominally a fusional language, and the affixes reflect that. Kyuren verbs have present (really non-past but whatever) and past roots. They are most often irregular, but present forms are usually the verb minus the infinitive suffix -ր, and past roots are often the same or simplify consonant clusters. For example, գոտ [got] "say.NPSTNon-past (tense)
present, continuous and future
" but գաւ [gaw] "language.PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
" and ջիվեկրաշ [d͡ʑivekraʃ] "survive.NPSTNon-past (tense)
present, continuous and future
" but ջիւկրաշ [d͡ʑiwkraʃ] "survive.PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
". There is no grammatical future tense in Kyuren, only a non-past. As such, future tense has to be inferred, though a NPSTNon-past (tense)
present, continuous and future
.PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action
construction generally means an action that could only happen in the future.

Tense + Person + Number + Aspect:

NPSTNon-past (tense)
present, continuous and future
.IPFVImperfective (aspect)
'interrupted or incomplete'
NPSTNon-past (tense)
present, continuous and future
.PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action
PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
.IPFVImperfective (aspect)
'interrupted or incomplete'
PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
.PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action
1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
-մակ
ըն-
ըն- -ակ
2SSecond person singular (person)
addressee (you)
-իկ
տե-
տե- -ակ
3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
-էկ
ը-
ը- -ակ
1PFirst person plural (person)
we (inclusive or exclusive)
-մօ
-մօր
մ-
մ- -ակ
2PSecond person plural (person)
addressee (plural)
-իյօ
-օկ
շօն-
շօն- -ակ
3PThird person plural (person)
neither speaker nor addressee, they/them
-օր
վօ-
վօ- -ակ


Mood
The imperative is formed using just the base past root. It is used for commands and requests (it's not considered rude, in fact, verbs in constructions using "please" always take the imperative):

Պեշտը տո ջա՜ղ։
peşt-ə to ja!ğ
back-CNSConstruct state
noun being possessed
.SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
2SSecond person singular (person)
addressee (you)
.GENGenitive (case)
possessive
move.IMPImperative (mood)
command

"Move yourself!"

The optative, which expresses wishes and hopes, is formed by adding սե to the end of the verb. It indicates wishes or hopes on the part of the speaker:

Գնա մա՜րդիկ սե։
gna ma!rd-i-k se
fucking die-2SSecond person singular (person)
addressee (you)
.NPSTNon-past (tense)
present, continuous and future
-PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action
OPTOptative (mood)
'wish, hope'

"I hope you fucking die!"

The conditional is formed by prefixing ագ- to the verb, before the subject pronoun prefix (if applicable):

Տու ագխրամմակ ջիզէ կանդր, ջոր խազէ ւեվմակ։
tu ag-xram-m-ak jiz-ê kand-r | jor xaz-ê wev-m-ak
2SSecond person singular (person)
addressee (you)
CONDConditional (mood)
[if X,] then I would...
-order-1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
.NPSTNon-past (tense)
present, continuous and future
-PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action
thing-ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
.SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
do-INFInfinitive (TAM)
non-tensed verb
| if power-ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
.SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
have-1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
.NPSTNon-past (tense)
present, continuous and future
-PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action

"I would order you to do something if I had the power."

A hortative or volitive meaning can be achieved using the construction խազ "want.IMPImperative (mood)
command
" + inflected verb + սե "OPTOptative (mood)
'wish, hope'
":

Նիստէ խազ լայօր սե։
nist-ê xaz lay-â-r se
chair-ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
.SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
want fix-3PThird person plural (person)
neither speaker nor addressee, they/them
.NPSTNon-past (tense)
present, continuous and future
-PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action
OPTOptative (mood)
'wish, hope'

"They should fix the chair." or "Let them fix the chair."

Another way to indicate the volitive is by ending the sentence with թող [θ̞oɣ] "allow.IMPImperative (mood)
command
":

Պանեվադի ւարէկ թո՜ղ։
panevad-i war-ê-k tho!ğ
badger-ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
.SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
eat-3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.NPSTNon-past (tense)
present, continuous and future
-PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action
allow.IMPImperative (mood)
command

"Let him eat the badger!"

Voice
The passive is usually indicated by conjugating a verb to the third person plural (i.e. "it was done by them; somebody"). Effectively it's unmarked.

Կատօ վօկուրմակ։
kat-â vâ-kurm-ak
house-ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
.SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
3PThird person plural (person)
neither speaker nor addressee, they/them
.PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
-build-PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action

"The house was built." (Lit. "They built the house")

A less common way of expressing passivity is by using passive participles:

Կատը կուրմո։
katə kurm-o-∅
house build-PASSPassive voice (valency)
be verb-ed
.PCPParticiple
adjectival form of a verb
-ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient

"The house was built."

Copula
There are two forms of the copula in Kyuren: շա [ʃa], the past tense copula (as the non-past copula is dropped in Kyuren), and շտա [ʃta], the negative copula, which is the same for past and non-past.

Պօզը տո հայոճե շա։ Նենտու, պօզը մե հայոճե շտա՜
pâz-ə to hayoç-e şa | nentu | pâz-ə me hayoç-e şta!
nose-CNSConstruct state
noun being possessed
.SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
2SSecond person singular (person)
addressee (you)
.GENGenitive (case)
possessive
armenian-ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
COPCopula
used to link the subject of a sentence with a predicate
.PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
| forgive.2SSecond person singular (person)
addressee (you)
| nose-CNSConstruct state
noun being possessed
.SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
.GENGenitive (case)
possessive
armenian-ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
COPCopula
used to link the subject of a sentence with a predicate
.NEGNegative (polarity)
not

"Your nose used to be Armenian." "I'm sorry, my nose was never Armenian!"

Auxiliaries
Kyuren only has two uninflected auxiliaries:
- լեր [ler] "can"
- պէտ [pɛt] "must"

The rest are inflected, with the affected verb following in the infinitive (this is the structure of subordinate phrases):

Կե լեր խազէ ջա՞նկր։
ke ler xaz-ê ja?nk-r
who can want-3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.NPSTNon-past (tense)
present, continuous and future
.IPFVImperfective (aspect)
'interrupted or incomplete'
kill-INFInfinitive (TAM)
non-tensed verb

"Who can want to kill?"

A verb chart for your enjoyment (note, this is quite simplified, a maximally inflected Kyuren verb can technically have the form ):



[top]Adjectives


Adjective agreement is very minimal: they agree with the noun in case, not number, only if the adjective ends in a consonant, and only in the accusative and vocative case.

Accusative
The accusative affix is -ե:

Գորտի ճարե մպարակ։
gort-i çar-e m-par-ak
frog-ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
.SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
evil-ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
1PFirst person plural (person)
we (inclusive or exclusive)
.PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
-ask-PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action

"We asked about the evil frog."

Vocative
The vocative affix is -ու:

Զօ՛նամո մերաբօնու։
zấnam-o merabân-u
parent-VOCVocative (case)
'O [addressee]'
.SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
generous-VOCVocative (case)
'O [addressee]'

"Oh generous parent!"

Comparative
The comparative is indicated using բիստ [bist], and "than" is indicated using եմ [em] (lit. "but"), while the superlative is indicated using բիսատ [bisat], a derivative of բիստ. Բիստ and բիսատ mean "more" and "most" on their own respectively.

Գէսէյը զե բիստ գեղարե, եմ տո։ Նօ, գէսէյը զամ բիսա՜տ գեղարե
gês-êyə ze bist geğar-e | em to | nâ | gês-êyə zam bisa!t geğar-e
hair-CNSConstruct state
noun being possessed
.PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.GENGenitive (case)
possessive
COMPComparative (comparison)
e.g. 'better'
beautiful-ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
but 2SSecond person singular (person)
addressee (you)
.GENGenitive (case)
possessive
| no | hair-CNSConstruct state
noun being possessed
.PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
.GENGenitive (case)
possessive
SUPSuperlative (comparison)
English 'most', '-est'
beautiful-ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient

"Her hair is more beautiful than yours." "No, my hair is the most beautiful!"

[top]Pronouns


Personal
Kyuren is a pro-drop language, pronouns (in the nominative) are only used for emphasis or in past transitive sentences to disambiguate the subject due to Kyuren's split ergativity (see Syntax). The vocative pronouns merged with the possessive pronouns, and as such pronouns are not considered to have a vocative form, but some older speakers might use them as vocative pronouns, for example, տո [to] "you!"

1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
2SSecond person singular (person)
addressee (you)
3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
1PFirst person plural (person)
we (inclusive or exclusive)
2PSecond person plural (person)
addressee (plural)
3PThird person plural (person)
neither speaker nor addressee, they/them
Nominative/Accusative
ըն [ən]
տու [tu]
ըվ [əv]
մօ [mɒ]
շօմ [ʃɒm]
ըվօ [əˈvɒ]
Genitive
մե [me]
տո [to]
զե [ze]
զամ [zam]
շեմ [ʃem]
վէ [vɛ]


Interrogative

Interrogative pronouns don't decline; possessive forms are indicated using the construct affixes, i.e., կե "who" > -ը կե "of whom"

Kyuren (Nominative)Kyuren (Relative)English
կե [ke]
կե [ke]
who
ջի [d͡ʑi]
կե [ke]
what
կի [ki]
կիր [kir]
when
ջիւէ [d͡ʑiˈwɛ]
ջուի [d͡ʑuɪ̯]
where
բուջի [ˈbud͡ʑi]
բուջի [ˈbud͡ʑi]
why
ջո [d͡ʑo]
ջո [d͡ʑo]
how
ջոշոտ [ˈd͡ʑoʃot]
ջոշոտ [ˈd͡ʑoʃot]
how much/how many


[top]Syntax


Sentence structure
The basic word order in Kyuren is SOV. It's a head initial, verb-final language. As mentioned previously, the subject is often dropped, especially if it's a pronoun, as they are indicated on the verb.

Սա պիշի ըւատակ։
sa piş-i ə-wat-ak
dog cat-ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
.SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
-eat-PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action

"The dog ate the cat."

Հենջիզ նօ ճանմ։
henjiz nâ çan-m
anything NEGNegative (polarity)
not
know-1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
.NPSTNon-past (tense)
present, continuous and future
.IPFVImperfective (aspect)
'interrupted or incomplete'

"I don't know anything."

Noun phrase

The Kyuren noun phrase generally take the shape [preposition/circumposition + noun + circumposition + determiner + comparative/superlative marker + adjective + adverb + possessive pronoun]:

ան դերեվադէյը թո հեն բիսատ գեղար մե
an derevad-êyə tho hen bisat geğar me
in.front.of fence-CNSConstruct state
noun being possessed
.PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
CIRCCircumfix
part of a circumfix
all SUPSuperlative (comparison)
English 'most', '-est'
beautiful 1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I

"in front of all my most beautiful fences"

Copula

Kyuren has a zero copula in the present (NPSTNon-past (tense)
present, continuous and future
) tense. As such, the pronoun is required. Also, the word order in copula constructions is SVO. Adverbs that describe the copula remain in their original position as if there is still a verb:

Ըն վեստ խոդի։
ən vest xod-i
1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
definite god-ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
.SGSingular (number)
one countable entity

"I'm definitely a god."

Unusually, the subject complement (be noun, adjective, or participle) takes the accusative case:

Ըն շտա վեստե
ən şta vest-e
1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
NEGNegative (polarity)
not
.COPCopula
used to link the subject of a sentence with a predicate
sure-ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient

"I'm not sure"

Մօ կարեմօնէն։
mâ karemân-ên
1PFirst person plural (person)
we (inclusive or exclusive)
hero-ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
.PLPlural (number)
more than one/few

"We're heroes."

Prepositional/circumpositional phrases

Prepositional phrases are distinguished from adverbs in Kyuren, and go after the verb. The hierarchy is generally [location > time > other].

Շինակ նիստէ թո գաֆեսը զե։
şinak nist-ê tho gafes-ə ze
bird sit-3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.NPSTNon-past (tense)
present, continuous and future
.IPFVImperfective (aspect)
'interrupted or incomplete'
on cage-CNSConstruct state
noun being possessed
.SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.GENGenitive (case)
possessive

"The bird is sitting on his cage."

Conditional phrases

Conditional phrases take the shape [apodosis, protasis]. The apodosis verb is always in the conditional, while protasis can either be expressed using ջոր [d͡ʑor] "if" or the conditional again. The latter has a more dated association.

Նամեկէ ագնեվշմակ, ջոր մատիդէ ւեվմ։
namek-ê ag-nevş-m-ak | jor matid-ê wev-m
letter-ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
.SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
CONDConditional (mood)
[if X,] then I would...
-write-1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
.NPSTNon-past (tense)
present, continuous and future
-PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action
| if pencil-ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
.SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
have-1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
.NPSTNon-past (tense)
present, continuous and future
.IPFVImperfective (aspect)
'interrupted or incomplete'

"I would write a letter if I had a pencil."

Նամեկէ ագնեվշմակ, մատիդէ ագւեվմ։
namek-ê ag-nevş-m-ak | matid-ê ag-wev-m
letter-ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
.SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
CONDConditional (mood)
[if X,] then I would...
-write-1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
.NPSTNon-past (tense)
present, continuous and future
-PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action
| pencil-ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
.SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
CONDConditional (mood)
[if X,] then I would...
-have-1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
.NPSTNon-past (tense)
present, continuous and future
.IPFVImperfective (aspect)
'interrupted or incomplete'

"I would write a letter if I had a pencil."

Indirect object

Kyuren has a few ditransitive verbs. In these circumstances the indirect object is indicated using the preposition ատ [at] "to" following the object and before the verb:

Դերէ ատ տու դատմ։
der-ê at tu dat-m
present-ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
.SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
to 2SSecond person singular (person)
addressee (you)
give-1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
.NPSTNon-past (tense)
present, continuous and future
.IPFVImperfective (aspect)
'interrupted or incomplete'

"I give the present to you."

Topicalization

Topicalization in Kyuren can be achieved through simple fronting:

Սաբունէ սիյօսմ ընխազակ կիտր։
sabun-ê siyâsm ən-xaz-ak kit-r
soap-ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
.SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
politician 3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
-want-PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action
buy-INFInfinitive (TAM)
non-tensed verb

"Soap, the politician wanted to buy."

If the subject is a pronoun and it is only indicated on the verb, the emphasis particle հի [hi] can be used instead:

Սաբունէ հի խազմ կիտր։
sabun-ê hi xaz-m kit-r
soap-ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
.SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
EMPEmphatic
stressed or emphasised
want-1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
.NPSTNon-past (tense)
present, continuous and future
.IPFVImperfective (aspect)
'interrupted or incomplete'
buy-INFInfinitive (TAM)
non-tensed verb

"Soap, I want to buy."

Clefting is also common. It can be achieved using ւաշ [waʃ] and a relative pronoun:

Ւաշ սաբուն, սիյօսմ ա ընխազակ կիտր։
waş sabun | siyâsm a ən-xaz-ak kit-r
it.is soap | politician that.RELRelative 3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
-want-PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action
buy-INFInfinitive (TAM)
non-tensed verb

"It is soap that the politician wanted to buy."

Negation
Negation is achieved using a particle that goes before the verb (and auxiliary if there is one), նօ [nɒ], which is manifested as նե- [ɲe] in derivation.

Նեվշամ նօ սօնէ։
nevşam nâ sân-ê
writer NEGNegative (polarity)
not
sing-3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.NPSTNon-past (tense)
present, continuous and future
.IPFVImperfective (aspect)
'interrupted or incomplete'

"The writer isn't singing."

There is also a prohibitive particle, մա [ma], which goes before the verb, only in the imperative. This is somewhat of an archaic feature, and younger speakers may just opt to use նօ instead.

Պիշի մա՜ խարս։
piş-i ma! xars
cat-ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
.SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
PROHProhibitive (mood)
negative imperative
strike.IMPImperative (mood)
command

"Don't hit the cat!"

Questions
There is not a dedicated indicator of questions in Kyuren, it is simply achieved through intonation.

Վիկիպիդիյօ կւա՞նդիկ։
vikipidiyâ-â kwa?nd-i-k
wikipedia-ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
.SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
read-2SSecond person singular (person)
addressee (you)
.NPSTNon-past (tense)
present, continuous and future
-PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action

"Will you read Wikipedia?"

To respond to questions, either հեզա/հե "yes (formal)/yes (informal)" or նօ "no," or repeat the verb, both are acceptable.

Սօրէյ աշտ ւեվի՞։ «Հեզա», «Ւեվմ»
sâr-êy aşt wev-i? | heza | wev-m
year-ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
.PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
eight have-2SSecond person singular (person)
addressee (you)
.NPSTNon-past (tense)
present, continuous and future
.IPFVImperfective (aspect)
'interrupted or incomplete'
| yes | have-1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
.NPSTNon-past (tense)
present, continuous and future
.IPFVImperfective (aspect)
'interrupted or incomplete'

"Are you eight years old?" "Yes." or "Yes."

Relative clauses
Kyuren uses relative pronouns to construct relative clauses, and in these constructions the noun goes first. There are a host of relative pronouns.

Մարջի, կե կարը մե ըկետակ ըն ըդեկ։
marj-i | ke kar-ə me ə-ket-ak ən ə-de-k
man-ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
.SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
| who.RELRelative fish-CNSConstruct state
noun being possessed
.SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
.GENGenitive (case)
possessive
3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
-take-PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action
1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
-see-PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action

"I saw the man who took my fish"

The relative pronoun takes the position the noun would have taken, no matter how deep in the sentence:

Մարջի, ըն դերէ ատ կե ըդարակ դայմ։
marj-i | ən derê at ke ə-dar-ak day-m
man-ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
.ANAnimate (gender/class)
alive, moving
.SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
| 1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
present-ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
.INANInanimate (gender/class)
inanimate, sessile
.SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
to who.RELRelative 3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
-give-PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action
see-1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
.NPSTNon-past (tense)
present, continuous and future
.IPFVImperfective (aspect)
'interrupted or incomplete'

"I see the man, whom I gave a present."

Split-ergativity
Although Kyuren is generally nominative-accusative, it exhibits ergativity in past transitive sentences. In these circumstances, the verb, instead of agreeing with the subject, agrees with the object.

Տօրի դէրէ ընակ։
târ-i dêr-ê ə-nak
boy-NOMNominative (case)
TRANS subject, INTR argument
.PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
door-ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
.SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
-wash.IPFVImperfective (aspect)
'interrupted or incomplete'

"The boys were washing the door."

However, in circumstances where the verb used to indicate the dropped subject pronoun, it is not clear anymore what the subject is, and the full separate subject pronoun must be used:

Ըն կիտէբէ ըգաժակ։
ən kitêb-ê ə-gaq-ak
1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
book-ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
.SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
-steal-PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action

"I stole the book."

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on 12/03/21 03:44-53litrobotixortho
on 07/05/20 03:59-2250litrobotixremoved derivation section
on 03/05/20 17:08+12litrobotixadded !
on 03/05/20 17:04+311litrobotixprohibitive
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