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Structure, subjects, tenses, commands, and some basic idioms
This public article was written by Northwest, and last updated on 18 Jan 2017, 04:30.
[comments] petverbscommandslessonslesson 1
Verbs in Knødtser are usually derived from related nouns. The table below shows some basic verbs (the ones we'll be using in this lesson) and the nouns they were derived from.
|eye --> to see||sheút||sheúton|
|ear --> to hear||fit||fiton|
|tongue --> to taste||et||eton|
|nose --> to smell||dúut||dúuton|
|finger --> to touch||dit||diton|
Based on the information in the table, it should be pretty easy to identify the affix for infinitive verbs. Type it into the field below.
[top]Subjects & Tenses
There are three parts to a fully conjugated verb: a subject prefix, the stem, and a tense suffix. There are 18 different possible subject affixes. Each individual prefix in turn is made of two parts. The first is "i-", "de-", or "ú-", which indicate, in order; first, second, or third person. Following that is a consonant that indicates the gender and number (singular or plural) of the subject. If that letter is "r", the subject is singular and aerial; "s" is plural for that gender. "D" and "n" are singular and plural (respectively) for the aqueous gender, and "t" and "b" indicate singular and plural for the terrene. Here are a few examples in the present tense:
|Irditig.||I [aerial] touch.|
|Denfitig.||You all [aqueous] hear.|
|Útetig.||They [singular terrene] taste.|
A quick aside: A more complete explanation of gender in Knódtser can be found HERE, but for the purposes of this lesson, we'll be translating aerial as "he", aqueous as "she", and terrene as "they".
As for tense, Knódtser has six: past, present, future, and the imperfective versions of each. Regular tense endings begin with "i" and imperfective ones begin with "u". After the aspect vowel, "ts" is used for future, "g" for present, and "sh" for past. Below are a few examples.
|Itsheútush.||I [terrene] used to see.|
|Isdúutish.||We [aerial] smelled.|
|Únetits.||They all [aqueous] will taste.|
Commands in Knódtser are very easy to form. Add nuh (do) or knuh (do not) before the verb, conjugate the verb to the second person according to the comandee's gender and number, and remove the infinitive "-on" ending. A few examples are shown below.
|Nuh dedsheút!||See! [directed at an aqueous individual]|
|Knuh desfit!||Don't hear! [directed at more than one aerial person]|
|Nuh dedit!*||Touch! [directed at an aqueous individual]|
*You may have noticed that this word seems to be missing a letter; it is composed of "de" for the second person and "dit," the verb stem. However, it is translated for an aqueous individual. The letter that should follow the "de" is "d", but this is the first letter of the verb stem, and double letters are forbidden in Knódtser. So, we simply drop one of the d's, making the single letter serve three grammatical functions: to identify the gender and number of the subject, and to identify the verb.
Suh is an adposition that typically translates to "for". It is used to introduce the purpose or reason for a verb, but it also can be used with the sense-verbs we introduced earlier to make their meanings more specific. For example, "Idsheútig fuh let" means "I [aqueous] see a tree", while "Idsheútig suh fuh let" means "I [aqueous] look at a tree." The use of the adposition gives the verb a more deliberate character. Try to guess what the effect that adding suh would be on the verb "hear".
▼ Click to ContinueThe verb fiton, "hear", becomes "listen" or "listen to". Suh has similar effects on the other sense-verbs. "Touch" becomes "feel", "taste" becomes more like "savor", and so on.
You've reached the end of the lesson! At this point, you should have a basic understanding of how verbs work in Knódtser. If you'd like to test yourself, try to answer the questions below.
1. What vowel in the tense suffix of a conjugated verb indicates the imperfective aspect?
2. What consonant in the subject prefix indicates a single aerial subject?
3. Which adposition is used to form a negative command?
4. Translate diton to English.
5. How would you say "savor" in Knódtser?
You're done! Have a nice day :)