Greetings Guest
home > library > journal > view_article
« Back to Articles » Journal
1▲ 1 ▼ 0
How pronouns work
This public article was written by Remy Remington Lucien, and last updated on 23 Oct 2018, 17:56. Editing of this article is shared with A Priori Conlangers.

[comments] [history] Pronouns in Ric may appear fairly complex due to their several overlapping forms, but once the rules are learned they aren’t all that hard to use. Ric pronouns are marked for both person and number. There are two numbers, singular and plural, and four persons. The fourth person equates to the English “one”, but is also used when referring to abstract concepts, and does not inflect for number like the other pronouns. Pronoun dropping is not permitted due to the intricate way in which pronouns interact with verbs in the nominative case.

Consider the example below which shows the various pronouns in the nominative case using the present tense verb far meaning “to run”:

"I run."
Xi far.
1S run

"We run."
Vu far.
1PL run

"You run."
Lo faro.
2 run.2S

"You all run."
Lo faron.
2 run.2PL

"He/she/it runs."
Lo faren.
3S run.3

"They run."
Fen faren.
3PL run.3

"One runs."
Fen far.
4 run

Here we can see that several of these pronouns occupy multiple junctures. The word lo, for example, can be used to indicate both the second and third person singular, as well as the second person plural. Though the meaning of these pronouns cannot be derived from the word alone, each of these potential meanings causes the verb to inflect differently. Similarly, verbs inflect the same way for both first and fourth person, and therefore cannot be distinguished without the presence of a pronoun. But if both the pronoun and the verb are accounted for, there is no ambiguity to the meaning of the phrase.

This is true of the past tense as well, as shown below:

"I ran."
Xi fara.
1S run.PAST

"We ran."
Vu farajn.

"You ran."
Lo fara.
2 run.PAST

"You all ran."
Lo farajn.
2 run.PL.PAST

"He/she/it ran."
Lo faran.
3S run.3S.PAST

"They ran."
Fen farajn.

"One ran."
Fen fara.
4 run.PAST

Pronouns decline for case the same way all other nouns do, with no irregularity to their forms. To form a pronoun in the accusative case, simply add the suffix -(o)c. To form a pronoun in the dative case, simply add the suffix -(o)k. Unlike in the nominative case, the pronouns which cover multiple forms in the accusative and dative cases are ambiguous, and their meaning must be derived through context. Loc, the accusative form of the pronoun lo, may refer to “you”, “you all”, or “he/she/it”. There is rarely any confusion, however, as the number and person being referenced is usually easy to interpret through context alone.
Comments (0)
Edit history
on 23/10/18 17:56+72Remy Remington Lucienfixing color coding
on 23/10/18 17:55+72Remy Remington Lucienfixing color coding
on 23/10/18 17:54-126Remy Remington Lucienfixing gloss
on 23/10/18 17:51+1029Remy Remington Luciencolor coding gloss
privacy | FAQs | rules | statistics | graphs | donate | api (indev)
Viewing CWS in: English | Time now is 25-Nov-20 13:39 | Δt: 85.6349ms