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Monyo Grammar in a Nutshell
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This public article was written by [Deactivated User], and last updated on 29 Mar 2019, 10:49.

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Privet~ in this article I will explain Monyo grammar.

Particles

Monyo has 4 nominal cases: Nominative, Accusative, Construct, and Dative. These four cases have certain particles prepositioned to the nominal phrase. The Construct particles are prepositioned (only once) to the phrase (so one can have a long possession chain of adjectives and nouns, and Verbal/Adjective particles are prepositioned to the predicative phrase.


Word Order

Every Monyo sentence has a strict word order, but poetry and normal conversation allow changes in word order. The order is always Subject-Direct Object-Predicate-Indirect Object-Modifiers, with all the particles in between. Modifiers usually can be in any order, but are usually in the order of Comitative-Locative-Temporal.

Conjugation

Verbs and Adjectives are very easy, the only hard part is forming the predicate itself. The general rules are:
1) The Predicative phrase is always in form: <predicative particle> <negative particle (if any)> <voice particle (if any)> <verb>.
2) Adjectives have an additional -s- in the predicative particle (aji -> ajsi).
3) There are four tenses, Past (-im), Present (-i), Probable (-ikma), and Future (-ikna).
4) Perfective tense (Past -in, Present -an) is only for verbs.
5) Declarative and Interrogative predicates use 'aj(s)i', while Imperative predicates use 'ak(s)i'. 'Ak(s)i' is declined and used in the following ways:
'ak(s)in' - debitive past
'ak(s)im' - subjunctive
'ak(s)an' - debitive present
'ak(s)i' - imperative
'k(s)ikna' - debitive future
'k(s)ikma' - propositive
6) Copular predicates come in the form: si/xi <noun> <predicative particle>.
7) Unlike many other languages, adjectives are allowed to have objects, where they are used as verbs.
ex. ji ońuna si manyo ajsi himí. Trees strengthen the land.
8) Passive verbs are also allowed to have objects, where the object particle takes the role of the agent, and in the Comitative case.
ex. ji ńí si ńí upi raharosovu ajin ti rakí. Your orders weren't followed by the soldiers.

The predicative particle chart is shown below:


Noun Declension

Here's where things get interesting. Monyo nouns have one Absolutive case, and three Modifier cases (Temporal, Locative, Comitative).

Absolutive Case
The Absolutive Case is the most used case and is the basic form that is used in simple sentences. The singular form is the form in the Monyo dictionary, the dual form ends in ~oma, and the plural form makes use of the a/í distinction.

A/Í Distinction
Nouns ending in -i/í change ending to -a.
Nouns ending in -a/o/u change ending to -í.
Nouns ending in a consonant add -í, except for nasals which add -a.
ex. husu (wing) -> husí
makí (hand) -> maka
wozyos (soldier) -> wozyosí
kam (mountain) -> kama

Comitative Case
The Comitative Case is the case used for the preposition 'with' and its variants and relatives. The singular ends in ~ovu, the dual ends in ~omu, and the plural ends in ~oi.

Locative Case
The Locative Case is the case used for prepositions relating to location, relative or absolute. The singular ends in ~ik, the dual ends in ~ikom, and the plural ends in ~ikí.

Temporal Case
The Temporal Case is the case used for prepositions relating to time, relative or absolute. The singular ends in ~ań, the dual ends in ~am, and the plural ends in ~ańa.

The noun cases chart is shown below:


Pronouns

Personal pronouns have three persons (1, 2, 3), three numbers (Singular, Dual, Plural), and three cases (Absolutive, Comitative, Locative). Demonstrative also has three numbers and cases, but only two persons (proximal, distal). The pronoun chart is shown below:


Numbers

The Monyo number system is base-5, and is formed using juxtaposition. The number word replaces each vowel with <a> (except for the last vowel).


Questions

There are no interrogative pronouns, instead the question is made like a normal sentence and a particle/adposition is added at the end which corresponds to the answer one wants to get. A very common phrase is <ji ta si> (you are...), which is shortened to <jitasi>. If it is a polar question, only intonation is changed. The punctuation for questions is a single line (comma).
Examples:
Jitasi? (Who are you?)
Jitasi honoros ajan? (Are you a doctor?)

Well, that's it! That is the basic Monyo grammar. Good luck trying to learn it~
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