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Nuim Grammar
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A Basic Summary of Nuim Grammar
This public article was written by [Deactivated User] on 23 Jan 2015, 20:42.

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Menu 1. Onsets 2. Nouns 3. Pronouns 4. Correlatives 5. Verbs 6. Numbers 7. Clauses
[edit] [top]Onsets

Nuim onsets are short phrases that describe the speaker's emotions, evidence, and attitude. All onsets contain an emotive and may contain an evidential, mood, or interrogative particle.

Emotives
Emotives convey the speaker's feelings about what they are saying. Every onset requires an emotive. Emotives come at the beginning of their onset.
EmotiveEnglish
arhappiness
sunsadness
wefear
fananger
elshame
saslove/like
sohate/dislike
wusurprise
ajealousy
cuaggression
nisubmission
mencuriosity

Intensification
An emotive can be intensified by reduplicating it.

Derivation
An emotive can be derived into an adverb with the -ir suffix. The resulting adverbs cannot be used to describe the emotions of people.

Evidentials
Evidentials describe the speaker's evidence for what they are saying. Evidentials come at the end of their onset and cannot co-occur with mood particles.
EvidentialEnglish
revisual sensory
yernonvisual sensory
hainferential
wilreportative

Moods
Mood particles describe the speaker's attitude about what they are saying. Mood particles come at the end of their onset and cannot co-occur with evidentials. An onset without a mood particle is indicative.
ParticleMoodEnglish
neroptativehope to do
yapotentialcan do
iimperativedo!
kudesiderativewant to do
nahortativelets do
rornecessitativeneed to do

Interrogative
Questions are indicated with the interrogative particle no. This particle comes after any emotives, but before any evidentials or mood particles.

Parts of an Onset
emotive (interrogative) (evidential | mood)


Nuim nouns are not inflected for gender or definiteness. They are inflected for number and possession. Nouns are not inflected for case but do take case particles.

Number
By default Nuim nouns are paucal; they refer to zero, one, or a small number of the entity they name. A reduplicated noun is plural and refers to either a larger number of the entity or the entity as a whole or in general. Nouns explicitly counted with numbers cannot be reduplicated for plurality.

Possession
Possessors come before the nouns they possess and possessed nouns are affixed to show the nature of the possession. Possession is alienable if the relationship between the possessor and the possessed can be changed and inalienable if it cannot be.
PrefixEnglish
-weralienable
ra-inalienable

Possessor Incorporation
Possessing pronouns should be incorporated into the possessed noun as a prefix when possible. A possessed noun with an incorporated possessor cannot be affixed to show alienability.
PrefixEnglish
pa-my
ni-our
lu-your
so-his/her/its

Cases
Case is marked with case particles. Case particles come after their noun. Nouns do not take case particles to show subject- or object-hood.
ParticleCaseEnglish
cilocativein, at, on
naablativefrom
tilallativeto, toward
peperlativethrough, along
kiinstrumentalwith, by means of
kinnegative instrumentalwithout
ofbenefactivefor, on behalf of
tecomparativeas, than
wemessiveas, in the capacity of, in the role of
efconcerning, about

Adverbial Particles
The following particles come after their noun, but before any other particles that noun has.
ParticleEnglish
ceonly
hoalso
sireven
roas expected

Conjunctions
Nouns can be conjoined with the following conjunctions. Conjunctions come between the nouns they conjoin. Conjoined nouns take particles as a single verb.
ConjunctionEnglish
yoX and Y
kaX or Y
nannot X, Y

Parts of a Noun
(relative.clause) (possessor) (number) (possession- | incorporation- | determiner-) NOUN (-possession) (adverbial) (case)

[edit] [top]Pronouns

PronounEnglishSpeaker?Addressee?
pamaI, meyesno
nimawe, usyesyes
lumayounoyes
somahe/she, his/her (merrow)nono
sozuit (animate)nono
sogait (inanimate)nono
sovait (abstract)nono

[edit] [top]Correlatives

InterrogativeDemonstrativeQuantifier
ProximalMedial IMedial IIDistalExistentialUniversalNegative
Determiner-wooba-oni-olu-ozo--kuha-af-
PronounMerrowmawopamanimalumasomamaguhamaafma
Animatesuwopazunizuluzusozusuguhazuafsu
Inanimatekawopaganigalugasogakaguhagaafka
Abstractfawopavanivaluvasovafaguhavaaffa
Locationrawoparaniralurasoraraguharaafra
Timekiwopaginigilugisogikiguhagiafki
Pro-adverbPurposewawopawaniwaluwasowawaguhawaafwa
Reasonramwoparamniramluramsoramramkuharamafram
Mannercawopaxanixaluxasoxacaguhaxaafca
Numberyewopayeniyeluyesoyeyeguhayeafye

Proximal entities are close to the speaker, medial I entities are close to both the speaker and the addressee, medial II entities are close to the addressee, and distal entities are close to neither the speaker nor the addressee.


Nuim verbs are not inflected for agreement, tense, or aspect. They are inflected for animacy and intensification. Verbs are not inflected for negation or voice but do take particles for these things.

Animacy
Nuim nouns are ordered by animacy. People come before animate things, which come before inanimate things, which come before abstract things. Topics come before focuses, if possible. If these orderings would put a verb's object before its subject, the verb should take the -poi suffix.

Topic Incorporation
Topic pronouns can be incorporated into their verb as a prefix. Incorporated pronouns are considered to come before any other nouns, but are allowed to break the animacy hierarchy. If an incorporated pronoun would put a verb's object "before" its subject, the verb should take the -poi suffix.
PrefixEnglish
pa-I
ni-we
lu-you
so-he/she/it

Intensification
A verb can be intensified by reduplicating it.

Negation
A verb can be negated with the particle nan. This particle comes after its verb.

Voices
Voice is marked with voice particles. Voice particles come after their verb. Verbs do not take voice particles to show active-ness.
VoiceEnglish
kupassive
miantipassive
racausative
cilocative applicative
naablative applicative
tilallative applicative
peperlative applicative

  • When making a verb passive, promote the verb's object to its subject. The original subject can be omitted or marked with the ablative case particle na.
  • When making a verb antipassive, omit the verb's object or mark it with the allative case particle til.
  • When making a verb causative, promote the verb's cause to its subject. The original subject can be omitted or marked with the instrumental case particle ki.
  • When making a verb applicative, make a locative, ablative, allative, or perlative object the direct object. The original object can be omitted or marked with the instrumental case particle ki.


Serial Verbs
Verbs can be serialized to combine related actions into a single event. Serial verbs share the same arguments, replicate animacy and topic incorporation affixes, and share negation and voice particles.

Compound Verbs
Verbs can be compounded to add shades of meaning to an action. The "action" verb comes first, determines the compound's arguments, and takes animacy and topic incorporation affixes. The "meaning" verb comes after and takes negation and voice particles.

Derivations
A verb can be derived into a noun with the following suffixes.
SuffixEnglish
-m/-medeverbal; X-ing
-s/-soergative; X-er
-yaaccusative; X-ee
-c/-ciabsolutive; X-er

Conjunctions
Verbs can be conjoined with the following conjunctions. Conjunctions come between the verbs they conjoin.
ConjunctionEnglish
yoX and Y
kaX or Y
nannot X, Y

Parts of a Verb
(incorporation-) VERB (-animacy) (negation) {voice}

Parts of a Serial Verb
(prefix-) V1 (-suffix) (prefix-) V2 (-suffix) {particle}

Parts of a Compound Verb
(prefix-) V1 (-suffix) V2 {particle}

[edit] [top]Numbers

Nuim numbers are octal (base-8) and can be formed into larger numbers with two subsystems: a multiplicative subsystem and a positional subsystem.

Basic Numerals
NumberBase-8Base-10
fi00
na11
la22
en33
yar44
kel55
il66
fa77
si108
kir10064
lo1000512

Multiplicative Numerals
NumberBase-8Base-10
sina119
sila1210
sien1311
siyar1412
sigel1513
siil1614
siva1715
lazi2016
ensi3024
yarsi4032
.........

Positional Numerals
NumberBase-8Base-10
na (nar)11
na lar108
na enra10064
na yarra1000512
na kelra10,0004096
na ilra100,00032768
na far1,000,000262144
na sir10,000,0002097152
na sinar100,000,00016777216
na silar1,000,000,000134217728
.........

Derivations
A number can be derived into other parts of speech with the following affixes.
SuffixEnglish
-efraction (num.)
-waordinal (v.)
ma-negative (num.)
-kefrequency (adv.)

  • Derived fractions are of the form "1/N."


[edit] [top]Clauses

Nuim clauses can be main clauses, dependent clauses, quotations, or relative clauses. Many clauses require an onset to describe the speaker's emotions, evidence, and attitude.

Main Clauses
Main clauses require an onset and a verb. Most main clauses have one or more nouns, but nouns that can be derived from context may be omitted. Every sentence requires at least one main clause.

Dependent Clauses
Dependent clauses rarely have onsets but do require a verb. They depend on other clauses and cannot occur alone. Dependent clauses come before the clauses they depend on.

Dependent clauses take the following dependent particles. Dependent particles follow their dependent clause.
ParticleFunctionEnglish
tirconditionif
nispurposein order to
ulreasonbecause, since
niconcessionbut, although
lomanneras, like

Quotations
Quotations require an onset and a verb. They are always direct and speak from the quoted person's point of view. Quotations come before the clauses that quote them.

Quotations take the quotation particle ye. This particle comes after its quotation.

Relative Clauses
Relative clauses cannot have onsets but do require a verb. They depend on and modify nouns and cannot occur alone. Relative clauses come before the nouns they modify. The noun being modified by a relative clause cannot appear in the relative clause. If the noun would take a particle in the relative clause, a relevant pronoun should take that particle intead.

Serial Clauses
Clauses can be serialized to combine related events into a single utterance. Serial clauses replicate onsets and share particles. Clauses without onsets cannot be serialized.

Conjunctions
Clauses can be conjoined with the following conjunctions. Conjunctions come between the clauses they conjoin.
ConjunctionEnglish
yoX and Y
kaX or Y
nannot X, Y

Parts of a Clause
(onset) (adverb) {noun} verb.phrase (dependent.particle | quotation.particle)

Parts of a Serial Clause
onset C1 onset C2 (particle)
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Comments
[link] [quote] [move] [edit] [del] 30-Dec-15 12:02 [Deactivated User]
So impressive, why did you abandon it?
[link] [quote] 16-May-15 04:38 [Deactivated User]
very nice good job
[link] [quote] [move] [edit] [del] 07-Mar-15 06:09 [Deactivated User]
Wow, thanks! That means a lot to me.
[link] [quote] [move] [edit] [del] 07-Mar-15 06:06 [Deactivated User]
Amazing! One of my favorite conlangs!
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