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Auxiliary verbs
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Verbs (and former verbs) with grammatical functions
This public article was written by xroooox, and last updated on 13 May 2019, 21:26.

[comments] Menu 1. ii 2. at 3. ihk 4. n 5. ruu 6. nqun 7. a(r)
Used as a main verb 'ii' means 'to sit'. It has its own conjugation, and it is always used with the clitic =hut, 'butt/base':



realis
irrealis
interr
afirnegafirnegafirneg
stativeimprfiistiiaistaiaistai
prfiitstiitaitstaitaitstait
unaccusativeimprftaitainautaiutainaitaiitaina
prftaittainatutaitutainatitaititainat
unergativeimprftiitiikutiiutiikitiiitiik
prftiittiikutiitutiikitiititiik


Locational and existential use:
This verb when used without the clitic =hut means 'to be at'. The locative is introduced with the preposition 'n'. Since this preposition doesn't imply any positional relation between the objects, a clitic can be used indicating this (in, on, behind, under...), this clitic is always attached to the verb 'ii'. There is no formal difference between the two meanings, besides a preference for the existential to not use any positional clitics.

Ii X n Y: there's X in Y/ X is in Y.
Ii=(LOC) X n Y: There's X (LOC) Y/ X is in/on/under/behind... Y.

Iinak sau kaunan n quhqaunas: my book is in the box
Iiraa sau kaunan n quhqaunas: my book is behind the box
Iihunq sau kaunan n quhqaunas: my book is on the box
Iihauqa sau kaunan n quhqaunas: my book is in front of the box

T'nak ai sau kaunan n quhqaunas? is my book in the box?
T'raa ai sau kaunan n quhqaunas? is my book behind the box?
T'unq ai sau kaunan n quhqaunas? is my book on the box?
T'auqa ai sau kaunan n quhqaunas? is my book in front of the box?

Iisinak ankausan tantak n sau rasti.
ii-si=nak
exist-PL=in
ankausan
orange

tantak
some
n
LOC

sau
1.POSS
rasti
bag

There are some oranges inside my bag/ Some oranges are inside my bag.

Constructions with a posessed nominal:
This work pretty much as the last sentences. The most common nouns are 'nausi', to love, 'traik', hate, 'asaix', like, be fond of; they function as locatives and are introduced by 'n' if they are nominal phrase or a subordinate verbal phrase and the experiencer of the main one is the same as the object of the subordinate, and 'q' for other subordinate sentences:

Ii X n 1.POSS nausi/traik/...: I love/hate/... X
Ii X n nausi/traik/... X=a: X loves/hates/... X
▼ Examples

T'ai n kau asaix qukyt squu iuu riqausi?
QInterrogative
question
3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
-exist.IRRIrrealis
mood
LOCLocative (case)
'in, on, at' etc
2Second person (person)
addressee (you)
.POSSPossessive (case)
= GEN
like CCommon gender (gender/class)
common gender
=2Second person (person)
addressee (you)
.DATDative (case)
indirect object; recipient, beneficiary, location
3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
-do.IRRIrrealis
mood
massage
Do you like to have a massage?

T'ai n kau asaix quk squu iuu riqausi?
QInterrogative
question
3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
-exist.IRRIrrealis
mood
LOCLocative (case)
'in, on, at' etc
2Second person (person)
addressee (you)
.POSSPossessive (case)
= GEN
like CCommon gender (gender/class)
common gender
=2Second person (person)
addressee (you)
.NOMNominative (case)
TRANS subject, INTR argument
3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
-do.IRRIrrealis
mood
massage
Do you like to give massages?

T'ai n kasaix ran uaituuki nrquk inauhii?
QInterrogative
question
3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
-exist.IRRIrrealis
mood
LOCLocative (case)
'in, on, at' etc
DEFDefinite
"the"
-like 3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
.ANIMUnknown code NMZNominaliser
makes other word a noun
.ANIMUnknown code-pet-PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
CCommon gender (gender/class)
common gender
=3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.ANIMUnknown code.DATDative (case)
indirect object; recipient, beneficiary, location
3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
-IRRIrrealis
mood
-feed-PLPlural (number)
more than one/few

Do your pets like to be fed by you?


Posessive construction:

The posessive construction has the same form, but the preposition used is 'su'. When the posessor is a pronoun it usually goes as a dative clitic, attached to the verb 'ii'.
Ii x su y: Y has X/ There's X for Y.
Ii=st X: I have X/ There's X for me.
Ii=nt X: She has X/ There's X for her.


Ii=kyt=is sastu aux n aunu!
3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
-exist=2Second person (person)
addressee (you)
.DATDative (case)
indirect object; recipient, beneficiary, location
=EMPHUnknown code sock 3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
-one ADVAdverbial
e.g. English '-ly'
3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
-only
You only have one sock left!

Iixisinnu qittasqana ryqiiri su hkurtak.
3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
-exist.DISTRDistributive (case)
'each', 'per'
-PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
-GNOGnomic (aspect/mood)
common, timeless truths
nail 3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
-strong-PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
to tiger
Tigers have strong claws.

The distributive form of the posessive is as follows:
Iixi X N su Y sau: Existential distributives (there's N of x for each y) Here the verb 'ii' is in the distributive, as 'iixi'.
Siixi sa n qiihaux su qu-qiinuta sau.
1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
-exist.DISTRDistributive (case)
'each', 'per'
1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
.NOMNominative (case)
TRANS subject, INTR argument
COPCopula
used to link the subject of a sentence with a predicate
3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
-four to DEFDefinite
"the"
-table 3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
-all
We're four at each table.

Indefinite pronouns:
There are five of these: 'iuu', human, 'nyrt' thing, 'nuuht' time, 'iqna', place, 'antusa' reason. These are mostly used with the verb 'ii'. The kind of pronoun (universal, negative, existential) depends on the verb and the modifiers of the pronoun, as well as their role in the sentence. Universals are accompanied with the verb 'sau', all; negatives with the negative form of the verb 'ii', and existential with the affirmative form. Elective existentials use the irrealis of 'ii'. 'Iuu' 'nyrt' are followed by a VP introduced by 'q' if they're are an agentive subject, and with 'n' if they're the object or they are patientive subjects, time and location. Other obliques use 'su' + PRON, that can be accompanied with a case clitic.
Ii iuu q X (*(su) Y): Somebody does X (to Y). *Su is used in Rasaata.
Stii iuu q X: Nobody does X.
Ii iuu sau q X: Everybody does X.
T'ai iuu q X?: Does anybody do X?
Ii iuu n X: Somebody does/suffers X.
Ii iuu n X Y: Y does X to somebody.
Ii iuu n X Y s'uu: Y does sth for somebody.
Ii iuu n X Y s'uuti uu: Y does sth with someone.
Ii iuu n X Y s'taq uu: Y does sth using somebody.
Ii nyrt q X: Something does X.
Ii nuuht n X: sometime X happens.
Ii iqna n X: Somewhere X happens.
Ii antusa n X: Somehow X happens.

Comparative sentences:

The comparatives use the clitics for 'above' and 'below'. The verb 'ii' is always followed by a VP, and the compared thing is introduced by the preposition 'su'.
Ii=unq/=kait V X su Y: X is more/less V than Y= there's X doing V over/below Y.

Obligative construction:

This sentences use the clitic =xaix and the subordinate clause is introduced by the complementizer 'q'. The subject can be marked with a nominative clitic, but in Rasaata it might come as a dative, like the posessive construction.
Ii =xaix X q Y: X has to Y
There's an alternative and older form of this construction that uses the nominal 'nurtn', 'duty', always posessed.
Ii n X's nurtn q Y: X has to Y/ It's in X's duty to do Y


As a main verb:
This verb means 'to finish', 'to end'. The former meaning was 'to come', but it has specialized to certain phrases, being replaced with 'nqunat'. It has the following forms:



AFIRNEG
realisatatan
irrealisuatuatan
interrogativeiatiatan


Perfective:
As an auxiliary it adds a perfective aspect to the main verb. It receives person and number agreement, mode and polarity marking, while the main verb gets the transitivity, reduplicative aspects and the optional perfective suffix -t. When the suffix is absent it implies that the action is about to finish, when present it has already finished. Only transitive or unergative verbs can use this auxiliary. Unaccusative and stative verbs use just the suffix which means the distinctions above don't work.
PERS-MODE-at-PL TR-main(ASP)-(PERF)

At nart tasiisak n sytauq aik n kunahq.
3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
-PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action
run-PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action
3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.MMasculine gender (gender)
masculine or male
-1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
-sibling LOCLocative (case)
'in, on, at' etc
morning PROXProximal (proximity)
close to speaker
.NNeuter (gender)
neutral or neuter
LOCLocative (case)
'in, on, at' etc
DEFDefinite
"the"
-park
My brother ran in the park this morning.

At nar tasiisak n tikniit qarqiihn.
3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
-PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action
run 3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.MMasculine gender (gender)
masculine or male
-1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
-sibling LOCLocative (case)
'in, on, at' etc
minute 3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
-five-ORDOrdinal
1st, 2nd, 3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
rd, etc.

My brother stops running in 5 minutes.


As a main verb:
The verb 'iihk' meang 'leave', also 'begin'. It is used for the starting point of a movement and metaphorically of an action.



AFIRNEG
realisihkahkin
irrealisuhkuahkin
interrogativeihkiahkin


Inchoative:

This verb as an auxiliar is used for the begining of a state or action. It has the same structure of the -at perfective, the main verb with transitivity marking and the suffix -t.

Prospective perfective:

This meaning is expressed with the same construction above, but the main verb doesn't get a suffix -t.

'become x' preffix:

This verb has become a prefix in some stative verbs that means a change of state. Most of this verbs were already stative. Other kinds of verbs that take this preffix have also the suffix -tn.


Former main verb use:
This verb, with the form 'nuu', means 'to stand'. In Classic Tnaaq it became replaced through time with a clitic form 'nuu=tu' and another verb, 'haa'. Its causative forms specialized to meanings such as 'leave', 'loose', 'forget', etc, and the forms of 'haa' were used. This has led to differences in the daughter languages, being fully replaced with 'adu' (<haa=tu) in Hosterguian, and became suppletive with the former in Rasatan and Isian.


pfvimpfv

afirnegafirneg
realisnuunuunanuutnuunat
irr/interrinuuinuunainuutinuunat


Nuutunq skait tyr n knuuti.
nuu=tu=unq
stand=foot=on
skait
guy
tyr
MMasculine gender (gender)
masculine or male
.DISTDistal (proximity)
far from speaker (and addressee)
n
LOCLocative (case)
'in, on, at' etc
k-nuuti
DEFDefinite
"the"
-wall

The guy is standing on top of the wall.

Ruuktu atahaah taakan un?
ruu=k=tu
give=2Second person (person)
addressee (you)
=foot
ata-haa-h
CAUSCausative (valency/mood)
cause an action to occur, force another argument to act
-DYNDynamic.NVOLNon-volitional (role)
non-volitional, by accident
-stand-PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
.AGUnknown code

taakan
log
un
INInanimate (gender/class)
for non-living things
.DISTDistal (proximity)
far from speaker (and addressee)

Would you help me make this log stand?

As verb 'to be'
This verb is used in nominal predicates. It only has polarity and mode marking. In proto-Tnaaq it was the main locative copula, being latter replaced with 'ii' in this function. The form 'n' retained its locative sense, see below.


ipfvpfv

afirnegafirneg
realisnnunnatnunt
irr/interrtintuntinttunt



Relativizer:

This verb has become an invariable word that introduces a relative clause. The person clitics of the clause attach to this word. Here's more about them.

Progressive aspect
This verb is used also as an auxiliary for progressive aspect. Here it has no inflection which is in the main verb, so it would be better to call it an aspect word than an auxiliary. In this one the agent goes before the verb: X n V 'X is Ving'.

Ynar un n usnainah rars sruutqairi.
ynar
child
un
DISTDistal (proximity)
far from speaker (and addressee)
.PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
n
PROGProgressive (aspect)
be verb-ing
us-hnain-ah
CAUSCausative (valency/mood)
cause an action to occur, force another argument to act
-clean-PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
.AGUnknown code
ra=rs
ANAnimate (gender/class)
alive, moving
.POSSPossessive (case)
= GEN
=IDENTUnknown code
sruutqairi
classroom

Those children are cleaning their (own) classroom.

Saa nskainai nqaik sau aushankan.
1.S PROG=again=MAL 3-look.for 1.POSS key.
I'm looking for my keys again :C

Resultative
It is similar to the progressive, but the main verb has a nominalizer -tn. The argument fronted is a patient here: X n Vtn 'X is Ved'.

Hkiikr naikran n tnairiktn nauq ruus.
<DEFDefinite
"the"
>meat pig=of PROGProgressive (aspect)
be verb-ing
roast-NMZNominaliser
makes other word a noun
LOCLocative (case)
'in, on, at' etc
=face fire
The meat is roasted over the fire.

while:
This can also be used as a conjunction between sentences that occur or happen to be true simultaneously. This adverbial clauses follow the main verb.

Ati sankaqut n hahan knaas naasqau.
3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
-PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action
-PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
stare-PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action
SIMSimilative (case)
similarity
3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
-laugh DEFDefinite
"the"
-baby puppy
The baby stared at the puppies laughing.

Locative preposition:
It is used as a general locative preposition, being the spatial relations coded by the positional clitics that are usually added to it.


As a main verb
This verb was used with the meaning 'to give'. It is still used in this way, but its form has changed to 'r' in the irrealis and interrogative.
Tus katan irt hkunstauqa?
QInterrogative
question
=1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
.NOMNominative (case)
TRANS subject, INTR argument
2Second person (person)
addressee (you)
-PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action
.NEGNegative (polarity)
not
IRRIrrealis
mood
-give-PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action
breakfast
Didn't I give you breakfast?

Mild imperative
This verb is also used as a mild and respectful imperative. In this meaning it doesn't change form and has no inflection, but remains as independent word that receives the 2nd position clitics. The main verb goes in irrealis mood.

Ruuk uhar kau tiihan?
IMPImperative (mood)
command
=2Second person (person)
addressee (you)
.NOMNominative (case)
TRANS subject, INTR argument
IRRIrrealis
mood
-say 2Second person (person)
addressee (you)
.POSSPossessive (case)
= GEN
name
Would you tell me your name, please?

Ruuquk siir?
IMPImperative (mood)
command
=3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
=2Second person (person)
addressee (you)
.NOMNominative (case)
TRANS subject, INTR argument
1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
-IRRIrrealis
mood
-give
Can you give it to me?

[top]nqun

This verb has the general menaning of 'to go'. It compounds with the verb roots ihk and at that indicate the direction of movement.
Ihki nqunyntaskat. She just rode away very fast!

Manner of movement:
This verb can form compounds with manner of movement adverbs, introduced with a connector -n-.
Path:

[top]a(r)

As a main verb:
The verb 'ar', originally 'to make', has been almost replaced by the verb 'tnart' with this meaning. It is mostly used as an auxiliary verb, ad its paradigm is suppletive.

Anaphoric use
This verb is used to refer to another verb already mentioned. It is used in this way with the clitic =tu with the meaning “do the same“.

Use with loan verbs
This verb also introduces a borrowed verb. Verbs in other languages are borrowed as nominals, so this verb receives all the inflection and the noun is used as its complement.

Imperative and phohibitive prefix
This verb has grammaticalized to two prefixes: ak-, for the imperative and arak- for the prohibitive. They originally come from the affirmative and negative forms of the verb. When a prohibitive is present the verb can't take a negative suffix.

In the subordinator qar:
This verb has also become a marker for final clauses. It is a fusion of this verb and the preposition 'q', 'from'.

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