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Barrur grammar
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Full grammar
This public article was written by Aarnut, and last updated on 8 Dec 2020, 09:28.

[comments] Menu 1. Introduction 2. Phonology: Consonants 3. Phonology: Vowels 4. Phonology: Allophonic rules 5. Phonology: Syllable structure 6. Phonology: Stress 7. Orthography 8. Nouns: Case system 9. Nouns: Numbers 10. Possession 11. Obviation 12. Head-marking 13. Verbs: To be 14. Verbs: Other verbs 15. Adpositions 16. Syntax: Phrases 17. Derivation affixes 18. Adjectives 19. Numerals
?FYI...
This article is a work in progress! Check back later in case any changes have occurred.

[top]Introduction


 Barrur was spoken by the Amaanamsha people in the northern regions of the Edine continent. The Amaanamsha was one of the first civilizations to discover agriculture. They were also great sailors and merchants. They established many colonies all around the coasts of the Jit-sea. They gave many words to  Ancient-Mawic and  Kemigha. After the great flood the civilisation fell apart, the people needed to move into the desert. The Barrur language was split into two main branches, and the speakers scattered all over the northern regions of Edine.


Map of the western area of the Jit-sea. Barrur was spoken in the areas marked with purple, Siminna and Emmili.

[top]Phonology: Consonants


It has a relatively small phonetic inventory: only 20 consonants.

ConsonantsBilabialLabio-dentalAlveolarPost-AlveolarPalatalVelar
Nasal /m/ m/n/ n[ŋ]
Plosive /p/ p /pʰ/ ph/b/ b/t/ t /tʰ/ th/d/ d/k/ k /kʰ/ kh/g/ g
Fricative /f/ f/v/ v/s/ s/ʃ/ sh/x/ h
Affricate /t͡s/ z
Lateral approximant /l/ l
Approximant /j/ y
Trill /r/ r


[top]Phonology: Vowels


Barrur has only four vowels, which each has a long and a short variant.

VowelsFrontBack
Close/i/ i/u/ u
Open-mid/ɛ/ e
Open/a/ a


[top]Phonology: Allophonic rules


Nasal consonants before labial consonants (/p/, /b/, /f/, /v/) turn into /m/

Nasal consonants before alveolar consonants (/t/, /d/, /s/, /t͡s/) turn into /n/

Nasal consonants before velar consonants (/k/, /g/, /x/) turn into /ŋ/

/n/ turns into /l/ between vowels.

/l/ turns into /d/ in word final position.

/u/ turns into another vowel, if anywhere in the word followed by another vowel. (Well it's not really allophony, rather a historic soundchange or an affix rule. It is marked in writing.)

[top]Phonology: Syllable structure

Syllable structure is simple (C)V(C).

[top]Phonology: Stress

Stress in Barrur language is very complex. It has several rules to predict stress.

    1. The syllable before the first double consonants.

    al'umm (face), kar'assh (try), bel'emm (wise)


    2. After the first aspirated consonant.

    ashth'un (stand), dankh'a (leg)


    3. The first syllable before h /x/.

    v'ahsha (half)


    4. The first syllable before consonant cluster if the syllable ends with a nasal consonant.

    at'antamin (simply),


    5. The first syllable after consonant cluster if not open, word final.

    aarn'ishaat (maker),


    6. The first syllable with long vowel.

    am'aan (man), s'aata (know), y'aani (kid)


    7. The second syllable if closed

    nad'ar (hit),


    8. The first syllable

    t'apa (father), sh'adu (farm)


[top]Orthography


The braaur language uses it's own script. Just like  Ancient-Mawic script, it is developed from a logography. It was called [ashtaraldu] - ashtaraldu (writing), and originally it was carved into stone or clay teblets. Now it has more than 200 characters. Here's a short introduction how it works:

So first, the characters carry both symbolic meaning and phonetic information. The character [ad] means you(pl) or before and also pronounced as /ad/. So these signs can write words that have no dedicated symbol, or can be used as affixes, or inflected forms of words.

Instead of sentences, barrur text is organised into so called [ehup] - "ehups" (sections). Ehups are rough equivalents of a clause or sub-sentence. They end where a comma needs to come. An ehup is marked by a "box" of characters. There are no spaces between words, because usually a sign refers to a whole word.

[ashv-lammarashu-abb,][un-ey-ank-u]
Ashv-lammarash-u-abb, un-ey-ank-u.
First ehup, second ehup
The king thinks, he is a god.

In romanisation words, that are distinct signs within an ehup, are separated with hyphens.

Some basic symbols:

Barrur signBarrur wordEnglish meaning
[amaan]amaanman
[assa]assawoman
[tapa]tapafather
[anna]annamother
[kethe]ketheboy/son
[eyla]eylagirl/daughter
[edan]edansun
[elen]elento sit
[emma]emmawater
[gele]gelefish
[ilan]ilanflower
[mish]mishto see
[vatish]vatishhouse
[ziki]zikistick
[un]unto be
[umm]ummI am
[alan]alanyou are
[uzu]uzuto go
[lammarash]lammarashking


[top]Nouns: Case system


There is only four (or three if we count unmarked accusative and absolutive as one) cases. Barrur uses split ergative alignment. If the subject is animate Nominative-Accusative alignment is used. If the subject is inanimate, Ergative-Absolutive alignment is used.

Nominative case is marked with -u
Ergative case is marked with -iz
Accusative and absolutive are both unmarked.

Nominative-Accusative

ANAnimate (gender/class)
alive, moving
.SUBSubject (argument)-INTRIntransitive (valency)
has one argument


[elen-amaanu.]
Elen amaanu.[ɛlɛn ama:nu]
sit.3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
man-NOMNominative (case)
TRANS subject, INTR argument

The man is sitting

ANAnimate (gender/class)
alive, moving
.SUBSubject (argument)-ANAnimate (gender/class)
alive, moving
.OBJObject (argument)


[thashamenneh-arunnushu-danabb.]
Thashamenneh arunnushu danabb.[tʰaʃamɛn:ɛx arun:uʃu dan]
call.3SAThird person singular animate (person)
he/she/etc, not it
master.PROXProximal (proximity)
close to speaker
-NOMNominative (case)
TRANS subject, INTR argument
slave-OBVObviative (person, proximity)
not near/visible/important
.ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient

The master calls the slave.

ANAnimate (gender/class)
alive, moving
.SUBSubject (argument)-INInanimate (gender/class)
for non-living things
.OBJObject (argument)


[mish-lammarashu-mannubb.]
Mish lammarashu mannubb.[miʃ lam:araʃu man:ub:]
see.3SAThird person singular animate (person)
he/she/etc, not it
king.PROXProximal (proximity)
close to speaker
-NOMNominative (case)
TRANS subject, INTR argument
tree.OBVObviative (person, proximity)
not near/visible/important
.ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient

The king sees the tree.

Ergative-Absolutive

INInanimate (gender/class)
for non-living things
.SUBSubject (argument)-INTRIntransitive (valency)
has one argument


[lassh-aldank.]
Lassh aldank.[laʃ: aldaŋk]
fall.3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
brick-PROXProximal (proximity)
close to speaker
.ABSAbsolutive (case)
TRANS object, INTR argument

The brick falls.

INInanimate (gender/class)
for non-living things
.SUBSubject (argument)-ANAnimate (gender/class)
alive, moving
.OBJObject (argument)


[nadar-aldabbiz-ashtennut.]
Nadar aldabbiz ashtennut.[nadar aldab:it͡s aʃtɛn:ut]
hit.3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
brick-OBVObviative (person, proximity)
not near/visible/important
-ERGErgative (case)
TRANS subject; agent
mason.PROXProximal (proximity)
close to speaker
.ABSAbsolutive (case)
TRANS object, INTR argument

A brick hits the bricklayer.

INInanimate (gender/class)
for non-living things
.SUBSubject (argument)-INInanimate (gender/class)
for non-living things
.OBJObject (argument)


[nadar-lassha-rinkiz-humubb.]
Nadar lassharinkiz humubb.[nadar laʃ:ariŋkit͡s xumub:]
hit.3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
rain.PROXProximal (proximity)
close to speaker
-ERGErgative (case)
TRANS subject; agent
ground-OBVObviative (person, proximity)
not near/visible/important
.ABSAbsolutive (case)
TRANS object, INTR argument

The rain hits the ground.

[top]Nouns: Numbers


In barrur language grammatical number is a little tricky. Somewhere in the proto-language there was a plural marker -i, which got lost later in the history. The different forms of personal pronouns kept this marking. The basic form of a noun is indefinite. We can clarify this by using numerals, determiners, or adjectives.

[vatish]
vatish
house(s)

[vatishu-re]
vatishu re
two houses

[vatishu-amshu]
vatishu amshu
many houses

We can add an indefinite article -ut, or an definite article -ank/abb, which means we are talking about a single generic object.

[vatish-ut-u]
vatishutu
a house

[vatish-ank-u]
vatishanku
The house (proximate)

[vatish-abb-u]
vatishabbu
The house (obviate)

The collective affix -ammu marks, we are talking about all objects.

[vatish-ammu]
vatishammu
all the houses

Barrur uses inverse numbers too. Usually words for things, that come in pairs, such as bodyparts, have a dual meaning.

[dankha]
Dankha
(Two) leg(s)

If we are talking about on leg, we use the singulative or indefinite article.

[dankhatu]
Dankhatu
A leg

For more than two we use a numeral or an adjective.

[dankhu-amshu]
Dankhu amshu
Many legs

[top]Possession


Possessive verbs

Barrur has more possessive verbs, which work like to have, to own or to belong.

Mer

It is used if the direct object is inanimate. For example an tools, wares, ect.

[mer-vatishank.]
Mer vatishank.[mɛr vatiʃaŋk]
have.3SAThird person singular animate (person)
he/she/etc, not it
.CONTContinuative (tense/aspect)
continuous or durational action
.PREPresent house-PROXProximal (proximity)
close to speaker
.3IThird person inanimate (person)
it, not he/she/they
.ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient

He/she has a/the house.

It is also used as an adposition to create dative constructions.

[gir-khatasank-karstu-mer.]
Gir khatasank karstu mer.[gir kʰatasaŋk karstu mɛr]
give.3SAThird person singular animate (person)
he/she/etc, not it
.PREPresent.CONTContinuative (tense/aspect)
continuous or durational action
pot-PROXProximal (proximity)
close to speaker
.3IThird person inanimate (person)
it, not he/she/they
.ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
priest.NOMNominative (case)
TRANS subject, INTR argument
to
He/she gives the pot to the priest.

Ush

It is used if the direct object is not a (free) human. For example animals, or slaves.

[ush-barthanri.]
Ush barthanri.[uʃ bartʰanri]
have.3SAThird person singular animate (person)
he/she/etc, not it
.CONTContinuative (tense/aspect)
continuous or durational action
.PREPresent lamb.ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient

He/she has a/the lamb.

It is also used to create dative constructions.

[gir-barthanri-karstu-ush.]
Gir barthanri karstu ush.[gir bartʰanri karstu uʃ]
give.3SAThird person singular animate (person)
he/she/etc, not it
.PREPresent.CONTContinuative (tense/aspect)
continuous or durational action
lamb.ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
priest.NOMNominative (case)
TRANS subject, INTR argument
to
He/she gives the lamb to the priest.

Es

It is used if the direct object is a (free) human. For example an relatives, rulers, neighbors, ect.

[es-kethekathar.]
Es kethekathar.[ɛs kɛtʰɛkatʰar]
have.3SAThird person singular animate (person)
he/she/etc, not it
.CONTContinuative (tense/aspect)
continuous or durational action
.PREPresent brother.ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient

He/she has a/the brother.

Es can not be used as a dative adposition, because free people are not subjects to giving, getting, selling or buying.

Possessive affixes

Instead of possessive pronouns, like my, your, his/her/its Barrur uses affixes.

Number/Person1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
2Second person (person)
addressee (you)
3AThird person animate (person)
he/she/they, not it
3IThird person inanimate (person)
it, not he/she/they
.PROXProximal (proximity)
close to speaker
3IThird person inanimate (person)
it, not he/she/they
.OBVObviative (person, proximity)
not near/visible/important
SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
-meph-meran-messh-messhank-messhabb
PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
-meff-merad-mess


[vatishameph]
vatishameph[vatiʃamɛpʰ]
house.ABSAbsolutive (case)
TRANS object, INTR argument
-1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
.POSSPossessive (case)
owns, has

My house.

[top]Obviation


Obviation is a distinction between different third persons.

The first, or most prominent third person is proximate if the subject is first, or second person. The others are obviate. The third person is obviate too if the subject is another third person.

Animate proximal third person has no special marking.
Inanimate proximal third person is marked with -nk.
Inanimate or animate obviate third person is marked with -bb.

These suffixes come from the words for this (ank) and that (abb). They always come to the end of the noun, but before the case marker affix.

[mish-ap-kethe-meph]
Mishap kethemeph.[miʃap kɛtʰɛmɛpʰ]
see-1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
.CONTContinuative (tense/aspect)
continuous or durational action
.PREPresent boy.ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
-1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
.POSSPossessive (case)
owns, has
.PROXProximal (proximity)
close to speaker

I see my son (prx).

[mish-kethe-meph-abb]
Mish kethemephabb.[miʃ kɛtʰɛmɛpʰab:]
see.3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.CONTContinuative (tense/aspect)
continuous or durational action
.PREPresent boy.ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
-1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
.POSSPossessive (case)
owns, has
-OBVObviative (person, proximity)
not near/visible/important

He sees my son (obv).

[mish-ap-vatish-a-meph-ank]
Mishap vatishamephank.[miʃap vatiʃamɛpʰaŋk]
see-1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
.CONTContinuative (tense/aspect)
continuous or durational action
.PREPresent house.ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
-1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
.POSSPossessive (case)
owns, has
-PROXProximal (proximity)
close to speaker

I see my house (prx).

[mish-vatish-a-meph-abb]
Mish vatishamephabb.[miʃ vatiʃamɛpʰab:]
see.3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.CONTContinuative (tense/aspect)
continuous or durational action
.PREPresent house.ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
-1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
.POSSPossessive (case)
owns, has
-OBVObviative (person, proximity)
not near/visible/important

He sees my house (obv).

[top]Head-marking


Barrur language uses head-marking in many situations.

Location

[shut-tapu-vatishabb]
Shut tapu vatishabb.
be_in.3SAThird person singular animate (person)
he/she/etc, not it
father.NOMNominative (case)
TRANS subject, INTR argument
house-OBVObviative (person, proximity)
not near/visible/important

Father is in the house.

Posession/genitive

[ala-nk-tapabb-vatishmesshank]
Alank tapabb vatishmesshank.
3IThird person inanimate (person)
it, not he/she/they
.PROXProximal (proximity)
close to speaker
.COPCopula
used to link the subject of a sentence with a predicate
father-OBVObviative (person, proximity)
not near/visible/important
.ABSAbsolutive (case)
TRANS object, INTR argument
house-3SAThird person singular animate (person)
he/she/etc, not it
.POSSPossessive (case)
owns, has
-PROXProximal (proximity)
close to speaker
.ABSAbsolutive (case)
TRANS object, INTR argument

This is father's house.

Comitative

[zian-pa]
Zian pa.
be_with-2SSecond person singular (person)
addressee (you)
1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
.NOMNominative (case)
TRANS subject, INTR argument

I am with you.

[uzup-zian]
Uzup zian.
go-1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
with-2SSecond person singular (person)
addressee (you)

I go (to be) with you.

Instrumental

[nadarap-ank-eleremesshabb-zannashabb]
Nadarap ank eleremesshabb zannashabb.
hit-1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
this.ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
use-GERGerund
verbal noun
-3IThird person inanimate (person)
it, not he/she/they
.POSSPossessive (case)
owns, has
-OBVObviative (person, proximity)
not near/visible/important
spear.OBVObviative (person, proximity)
not near/visible/important

I hit it with a spear.
(Lit.: I hit it the spear's using.)

Ablative

[tashank-linankiz-shatabb]
Tashank linankiz shatabb
be_from.3IThird person inanimate (person)
it, not he/she/they
.PROXProximal (proximity)
close to speaker
chickpea-PROXProximal (proximity)
close to speaker
-ERGErgative (case)
TRANS subject; agent
village-OBVObviative (person, proximity)
not near/visible/important
.ABSAbsolutive (case)
TRANS object, INTR argument

The chickpea (is) from the village.

[top]Verbs: To be


To use the language properly, first we must understand how to use the verb "to be". In barrur verbs mark the subject. Here is how it works for the most frequently used irregular verb, un "to be".

un/"to be"1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
2Second person (person)
addressee (you)
3AThird person animate (person)
he/she/they, not it
.PROXProximal (proximity)
close to speaker
3IThird person inanimate (person)
it, not he/she/they
.PROXProximal (proximity)
close to speaker
3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.OBVObviative (person, proximity)
not near/visible/important
SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
ummalanunalankalabb
PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
aladuz



Verbs are also marked for tense/aspect. (But they can not mark both subject and tense. You will see later how it is done.) Every verb has a basic (unmarked, present), future, and a so called "past/perfective" form. It is so called, because it is not used in only past and perfective aspects. (later you'll see why.) For most words it is just about suffixing. "Past/pfv" is marked with -a future is marked with -e. But because un is highly irregular, it is different. Here's how it looks for un "to be":

formto be
"past pfv"ala
Presentun
Futureele


To form phrases such as "I am", "I was", "you will be", ect we must combine two forms of un.

The present contionus form for 1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
is simply Umm. Present habitual is Umm un, Present perfective is Umm ala. Past and future forms are simplier. Every past tense form of "I am" is Umm ala. Every future tense form of "I am" is Umm ele.

1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
PASPast
action occurred before moment of speech
PREPresentFUTFuture (tense)
action occurring after the moment of speech
CONTContinuative (tense/aspect)
continuous or durational action
umm alaummumm ele
HABHabitual (aspect)
done often or out of habit
umm alaumm unumm ele
PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action
umm alaumm alaumm ele


If the subject is not 1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
you need to replace umm with another form of un.

[top]Verbs: Other verbs


To inflect other verbs to subject, aspect and tense, we need to use the inflected forms of "to be", the subject, and the "tense" suffixes.

subject suffixes1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
2Second person (person)
addressee (you)
3AThird person animate (person)
he/she/they, not it
.PROXProximal (proximity)
close to speaker
3IThird person inanimate (person)
it, not he/she/they
.PROXProximal (proximity)
close to speaker
3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.OBVObviative (person, proximity)
not near/visible/important
SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
-p-an--nk-bb
PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
-f-ad-sh


"tense" suffixes
"PASTPast tense (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
/ PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action
"
-a
"PREPresent" -
"FUTFuture (tense)
action occurring after the moment of speech
"
-e


barr - to speak
PersonAspectPASPast
action occurred before moment of speech
PREPresentFUTFuture (tense)
action occurring after the moment of speech
1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
CONTContinuative (tense/aspect)
continuous or durational action
barrap alabarrapbarrap ele
HABHabitual (aspect)
done often or out of habit
umm barraumm barrumm barre
PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action
umm barra alaumm barraumm barra ele
2SSecond person singular (person)
addressee (you)
CONTContinuative (tense/aspect)
continuous or durational action
barran alabarranbarran ele
HABHabitual (aspect)
done often or out of habit
alan barraalan barralan barre
PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action
alan barra alaalan barraalan barra ele
3SAThird person singular animate (person)
he/she/etc, not it
.PROXProximal (proximity)
close to speaker
CONTContinuative (tense/aspect)
continuous or durational action
barr alabarrbarr ele
HABHabitual (aspect)
done often or out of habit
un barraun barrun barre
PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action
un barra alaun barraun barra ele
3IThird person inanimate (person)
it, not he/she/they
.PROXProximal (proximity)
close to speaker
CONTContinuative (tense/aspect)
continuous or durational action
barr alabarrbarr ele
HABHabitual (aspect)
done often or out of habit
alank barraalank barralank barre
PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action
alank barra alaalank barraalank barra ele
3IThird person inanimate (person)
it, not he/she/they
.OBVObviative (person, proximity)
not near/visible/important
CONTContinuative (tense/aspect)
continuous or durational action
barr alabarrbarr ele
HABHabitual (aspect)
done often or out of habit
alabb barraalabb barralabb barre
PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action
alabb barra alaalabb barraalabb barra ele
1PFirst person plural (person)
we (inclusive or exclusive)
CONTContinuative (tense/aspect)
continuous or durational action
barraf alabarrafbarraf ele
HABHabitual (aspect)
done often or out of habit
umm barraumm barrumm barre
PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action
umm barra alaumm barraumm barra ele
2PSecond person plural (person)
addressee (plural)
CONTContinuative (tense/aspect)
continuous or durational action
barrad alabarradbarrad ele
HABHabitual (aspect)
done often or out of habit
alad barraalad barralad barre
PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action
alad barra alaalad barraalad barra ele
3PAThird person plural animate (person)
they
CONTContinuative (tense/aspect)
continuous or durational action
barrash alabarrashbarrash ele
HABHabitual (aspect)
done often or out of habit
uz barrauz barruz barre
PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action
uz barra alauz barrauz barra ele


[top]Adpositions


In barrur adpositions come after the noun they modify. They are also agree with the modified noun.

[uz-ena-ala-aldank-rammubb-ababb.]
Uz ena ala aldank rammubb ababb.[ut͡s ɛla ala aldaŋk ram:ub: abab:]
3PAThird person plural animate (person)
they
.COPCopula
used to link the subject of a sentence with a predicate
use-PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action
PASPast
action occurred before moment of speech
.AUXAuxilliary brick-3IThird person inanimate (person)
it, not he/she/they
.PROXProximal (proximity)
close to speaker
.ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
stone-3IThird person inanimate (person)
it, not he/she/they
.OBVObviative (person, proximity)
not near/visible/important
instead-3IThird person inanimate (person)
it, not he/she/they
.OBVObviative (person, proximity)
not near/visible/important

They used brick instead of stone.

[mennehap-ele-an-adan.]
Mennehap ele (an*) dun**.[mɛn:ɛxap ɛlɛ an dun]
come-1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
.CONTContinuative (tense/aspect)
continuous or durational action
FUTFuture (tense)
action occurring after the moment of speech
.AUXAuxilliary 2SSecond person singular (person)
addressee (you)
after.2SSecond person singular (person)
addressee (you)

I will be coming after you
*If a personal pronoun is marked on the adposition, it is not necessary for it to appear in itself.
** dun is an irregular form of ud inflected to 2SSecond person singular (person)
addressee (you)


Some adpositions also work as verbs. For example shut:

[lammarashu-tannank-shatank.]
Lammarashu-tannank-shatank[lam:araʃu tan:aŋk ʃataŋk]
king-NOMNominative (case)
TRANS subject, INTR argument
city-PROXProximal (proximity)
close to speaker
.3IThird person inanimate (person)
it, not he/she/they
in.3IThird person inanimate (person)
it, not he/she/they
.PROXProximal (proximity)
close to speaker

The king in the city.

[shut-lammarashu-tannank.]
Shut lammarashu tannank.[ʃut lam:araʃu tan:aŋk]
be_in.3SAThird person singular animate (person)
he/she/etc, not it
king-NOMNominative (case)
TRANS subject, INTR argument
city-PROXProximal (proximity)
close to speaker
.3IThird person inanimate (person)
it, not he/she/they
.ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient

The king is in the city.

[top]Syntax: Phrases


"Wh"-questions

The "wh-words" - just like adverbs - come after the main verb.

What is that?
[alabb-khar]
Alabb khar?[alab: kʰar]
3IThird person inanimate (person)
it, not he/she/they
.OBVObviative (person, proximity)
not near/visible/important
.be what

Negation

For negation barrur uses the adverb nish, which means not. It is placed after the main verb of the sentence.

I see you
[mishap-an.]
Mishap an.[miʃap an]
see-1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
2SSecond person singular (person)
addressee (you)
.ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient


I see you
[mishap-nish-an.]
Mishap nish an.[miʃap niʃ an]
see-1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
NEGNegative (polarity)
not
2SSecond person singular (person)
addressee (you)
.ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient


Imperative

The main verb goes to the end of the sentence.

Come here!
[arkharuzur-mennehan]
Arkharuzur mennehan![arkʰarut͡sur mɛn:ɛxan]
hither come-2SSecond person singular (person)
addressee (you)


Positional Phrases



Subordinate phrases

Instead of stacking verbs, barrur prefers to use verbal nouns.

I doubt that he writes a letter.
[shatap-ifizimesshank,][khas-ashtar-azabbut.]
Shatap ifizimesshank, (khas*) ashtar azabbut.[ʃatap ifit͡simɛʃ:aŋk kʰas aʃtar at͡sab:ut]
1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
.be_in doubt-3IThird person inanimate (person)
it, not he/she/they
.POSSPossessive (case)
owns, has
-PROXProximal (proximity)
close to speaker
.ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
| how write.3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
letter.OBVObviative (person, proximity)
not near/visible/important
-IDFUnknown code.ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient

(Lit. "I'm in the doubt of that, (how*) he writes a letter")
*khas (how) is used mostly in formal speech to avoid misunderstanding. It can be omitted in these kind of sentences.

I hope that he will write a letter.
[shatap-bahamesshank,][khas-un-ashtara-ele-azabbut]
Shatap bahamesshank, khas un ashtara ele azabbut.[ʃatap baxamɛʃ:aŋk kʰas un aʃtara ɛlɛ at͡sab:ut]
1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
.be_in hope-3IThird person inanimate (person)
it, not he/she/they
.POSSPossessive (case)
owns, has
-PROXProximal (proximity)
close to speaker
| how 3SAThird person singular animate (person)
he/she/etc, not it
.be write.3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
-PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action
FUTFuture (tense)
action occurring after the moment of speech
letter.OBVObviative (person, proximity)
not near/visible/important
-IDFUnknown code.ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient

(Lit. "I'm in the hope of that, how he writes a letter")

I need to write a letter.
[shatap-ideyamesshank,][khas-ashtarap-azankut]
Shatap ideyamesshank, khas ashtarap azankut.[ʃatap idɛjamɛʃ:aŋk kʰas aʃtarap at͡saŋkut]
1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
.be_in need-3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.POSSPossessive (case)
owns, has
-PROXProximal (proximity)
close to speaker
.ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
| how write-1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
letter.PROXProximal (proximity)
close to speaker
-IDFUnknown code.ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient

(Lit. "I'm in the need of that, how I write a letter")

Relative phrases

I am the man who buys an apple
[umm-amaanu,][amadshazushnut]
Umm amaanu, amadshazushnut[um: ama:nu amadʃat͡suʃnut]
1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
.be man-NOMNominative (case)
TRANS subject, INTR argument
apple-buy-AGNAgentive (case)
active or volitional case
.ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient

(Lit. "I am the apple-buying man")

I see the man, whom she sees as well
[mishap-kevi-amaan,][misharemesshabb]
Mishap-kevi-amaan, misharemesshabb.[miʃap kɛvi ama:n miʃarɛmɛʃ:ab:]
1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
.see too man.ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
.PROXProximal (proximity)
close to speaker
| see-GERGerund
verbal noun
-3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.POSSPossessive (case)
owns, has
-OBVObviative (person, proximity)
not near/visible/important
.ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient

(Lit. "I too see the man of her seeing")

Conditional phrases and subjunctive

Conditional sentences are created by adding the word ha (if), but it goes to the end of the clause. Ha also marks subjunctive mood, so it goes to the end of both clauses.

If she were here, I would tell her.
[shut-ala-arkhararmu-ha,][barrap-ele-an-ha]
Shut ala arkhararmu ha, barrap ele an ha.[ʃut ala xa bar:ap ɛlɛ an xa]
be_in.3SAThird person singular animate (person)
he/she/etc, not it
.CONTContinuative (tense/aspect)
continuous or durational action
PASTPast tense (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
.AUXAuxilliary here.ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
if | speak-1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
.CONTContinuative (tense/aspect)
continuous or durational action
FUTFuture (tense)
action occurring after the moment of speech
.AUXAuxilliary 3SAThird person singular animate (person)
he/she/etc, not it
.ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
if
(Lit.: If she were here, I will tell her.)

[top]Derivation affixes


-aldu - product affix
Used to create noun from a verb. Result of doing the verb.

karassh (try) + -aldu = karasshaldu (trial)
belen (flow) + -aldu = belenaldu (time)

-aru - -ing
Verb to noun. The act of doing the verb.

mevett (hunt) + -aru = mevettaru (hunt [noun])

-ammu - collective affix
Creates a collective group of the root word.

saata (know) + -ammu = saatammu (knowledge)
amaan (man) + -ammu = ammanammu (mankind)

-en - verbaliser
Creates verb from a noun, by using the noun.

latta (mouth) + -en = latten (talk)
emma (water) + -en = emmen (irrigate/water plants)

-sha - verbaliser
To make something more or less ADJ-er

darem (strong) + -sha = dareza (strengthen/train)
shalak (flat) + -sha = shalaksha (flatten)

[top]Adjectives


In Barrur there are two main types of adjectives; One is the verb-like, which behaves as a verb, the other is the noun-like. For example bikhi, which means happy, is a verb-like adjective. It is used similarly to verbs.

I am happy.
[bikhip]
Bikhip.[bikʰip]
happy-1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
.PREPresent.CONTContinuative (tense/aspect)
continuous or durational action


The girl is happy.
[bikhi-eylu]
Bikhi eylu.[bikʰi ɛjlu]
happy girl-NOMNominative (case)
TRANS subject, INTR argument


The word order might change the meaning of the sentence.

The happy girl.
[eylu-bikhi]
Eylu bikhi.[ɛjlu bikʰi]
girl-NOMNominative (case)
TRANS subject, INTR argument
happy

But darem, strong is noun-like. Noun-like adjectives agree with the noun in number and case, and they need a copula to express a statement.

I am strong.
[umm-darem-u]
Umm daremu.[um: darɛmu]
1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
.be.CONTContinuative (tense/aspect)
continuous or durational action
strong-NOMNominative (case)
TRANS subject, INTR argument


The man is strong.
[un-amaan-u-darem-u]
Un amaananku daremanku.[un ama:naŋku darɛmaŋku]
3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.be.CONTContinuative (tense/aspect)
continuous or durational action
man-NOMNominative (case)
TRANS subject, INTR argument
strong-NOMNominative (case)
TRANS subject, INTR argument


The strong man.
[amaan-u-darem-u]
Amaananku daremanku.[ama:naŋku darɛmaŋku]
man-NOMNominative (case)
TRANS subject, INTR argument
strong-NOMNominative (case)
TRANS subject, INTR argument


If we want to talk about the material of a thing, we use the -ze (of) affix on the head (the noun).

[ashteze-rammu.]
Ashteze rammu.[aʃtɛt͡sɛ ram:u]
wall.ABSAbsolutive (case)
TRANS object, INTR argument
.of stone.ABSAbsolutive (case)
TRANS object, INTR argument

Wall (of) stone.

[top]Numerals


Cardinal numerals

Barrur uses seximal number system. The numbers from one to six are:

1 - [ut] - ut
2 - [re] - re
3 - [am] - am
4 - [shu] - shu
5 - [massha] - massha
6 - [ash] - ash

From six the format is the next:

ash e "n"
where "ash" is six, "e" is and "n" is the number.

7 - [ash-e-ut] - ash-e-ut
8 - [ash-e-re] - ash-e-re
9 - [ash-e-am] - ash-e-am
10 - [ash-e-shu] - ash-e-shu
11 - [ash-e-massha] - ash-e-massha
12 - [khu] - khu
13 - [khu-e-ut] - khu-e-ut
14 - [khu-e-re] - khu-e-re
15 - [khu-e-am] - khu-e-am
16 - [khu-e-shu] - khu-e-shu
17 - [khu-e-massha] - khu-e-massha
18 - [zan] - zan
24 - [id] - id
30 - [az] - az
36 - [kut] - kut
And so on...

Ordinal numerals

Ordinal numerals are created by adding the suffix -ita (which also means to born) to the numeral.

First - [itita] - itita
Second - [reita] - reita
Third - [amita] - amita
Fourth - [shiita] - shiita
Fifth - [masshaita] - masshaita
Sixth - [ashita] - ashita
And so on...

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