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Iadraja: Participles
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How to use and identify Iadrajan participles
This public article was written by Yathid, and last updated on 2 Sep 2017, 15:39.

[comments] Menu 1. Types of Participles 2. Present Active and Passive Participles 3. Past Active and Passive Participles 4. Future Active and Passive Participles 5. Present Adverbial Active and Passive 6. Past Adverbial Active and Passive 7. Future Adverbial Active and Passive
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One of the hardest things to learn in Iadraja is the language's participles. Iadraja sees distinct differences between active/passive, adjectival/adverbial, and finally participle tenses: Present/Past/Future.

[top]Types of Participles


Here are the different types of participles in Iadraja.

Present Active
Present Passive
Past Active
Past Passive
Future Active
Future Passive
Adverbial Present Active
Adverbial Present Passive
Adverbial Past Active
Adverbial Past Passive
Adverbial Future Active
Adverbial Future Passive
[top]Present Active and Passive Participles


We'll start with the present active participle. To form a present active participle, drop the verb ending "-ць" and replace it with "-чтий". For example: Чѐнаць(to work) to Чѐначтий(working). Participles in Iadraja act like adjectives so remember that the adjectives must agree with the noun they modify. Here is an example sentence:

Халок, чѐначтий ну кажирѐ. = The man working on the car/The man, who's working on the car.

Now for the present passive participle, drop the verb ending and replace it with "-ский". Again: Чѐнаць(to work) to Чѐнаский(being worked/that is worked). Here's an example sentence:

Кажира, чѐнаская уст ла халокѐ.
= The car, being worked on by the man/ The car, that is worked on by the man.

[top]Past Active and Passive Participles


The form the past active participle, drop the verb ending and replace it with "-вмий". Using our example: Чѐнаць(to work) to Чѐнавмий(was working). Again with another sentence example:

Халок, чѐнавмий ну кажирѐ. = The man was working on the car./The man, who was working on the car.

To form the past passive participle, drop the verb ending and replace it with "-взий". Чѐнаць(to work) to Чѐнавзий(was being worked/that was being worked). Example sentence:

Кажира, чѐнавзая уст ла халокѐ.
= The car was being worked on by the man./The car, that was being work on by the man.

[top]Future Active and Passive Participles


To form the future active participle, drop the verb ending and replace it with "-рчий". Чѐнаць(to work) to Чѐнарчий(will be working/about to work). Example sentence:

Халок, чѐнарчий ну кажирѐ.
= The man will be working on the car./The man, who will be working on the car./The man's about to work on the car./ The man, who's about to work on the car.

To form the future passive participle, drop the verb ending and replace it with "-рмий". Чѐнаць(to work) to Чѐнармий(is going to be worked/will be worked). Example sentence:

Кажира, чѐнармая уст ла халокѐ.
= The car is going to be worked on by the man./The car, that's going to be worked on by the man./The car will be worked on by the man./The car, that will be worked on by the man.



[top]Present Adverbial Active and Passive


To form the present adverbial active, drop the verb ending and replace it with "-шно". Чѐнаць(to work) to Чѐнашно(Working/While working). Example sentence:

Чѐнашно ну кажирѐ, халок бракалуд мрач кажиру. = (While) working on the car, the man broke the car door.
Халок бракалуд мрач кажиру, чѐнашно. = The man broke the car door, while working.
Омскашно, халок чѐналуд ну мрачѐ кажиру. = While waiting, the man worked on the car door.

To form the present adverbial passive, drop the verb ending and replace it with "-вть/-авть(if there's no vowel)". Чѐнаць(to work) to Чѐнавть(Working/While working). Example sentence:

Мрач кажиру чѐналуд уст ла халокѐ, омскавть ях. = The car was worked on by man, while they waited.
Омскавть, мрач кажиру бракалуд жѐнст уст ла халокѐ. = While waiting, the car door got broken again by the man./While waiting, the car door broke because of the man.

[top]Past Adverbial Active and Passive


To form the past adverbial active, drop the verb ending and replace with "-лно". Чѐнаць(to work) to Чѐнално(Having worked/While having worked). Example sentence:

Чѐнално ну кажиру, халок убалуд дума. = (While) having worked on the car, the man went home.

To form the past adverbial passive, drop the verb ending and replace it with "-влать". Чѐнаць(to work) to Чѐнавлать(Having worked/While having worked). Example sentence:

Чѐнавлать ну кажиру, ама нулялуд уст ла мёкѐх. = (While) having worked on the car, it was driven home by the owners.
Кажира нулялуд уст ла мёкѐх, чѐнавлать ну кажиру. = The car was driven home by the owners, (while) having worked on the car.

[top]Future Adverbial Active and Passive


To form the future adverbial active, drop the verb ending and replace it with "-рно". Чѐнаць(to work) to Чѐнарно(when working/when someone's about to work). Example sentence:

Чѐнарно ну кажиру, ви ли слокалдѐ свий веш. = When working on the car, you should сlean the whole thing.

To form the future adverbial passive, drop the verb ending and replace it with "-врать". Чѐнаць(to work) to Чѐнаврать(when working/when someone's about to work). Example sentence:

Кажира ли улслокалдѐмя уст ла вѐс, нучѐнаврать вас. = The car should be cleaned out by you guys, when you guys work on it.
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