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Gutiskar Pronouns
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Gutiskar pronouns
This public article was written by [Deactivated User], and last updated on 3 Jan 2019, 17:01.

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Menu 1. Personal pronouns 2. Reflexive pronoun 3. Possessive pronouns 4. Usage of possessive pronouns 5. Demonstrative and other pronouns
[edit] [top]Personal pronouns

As with nouns, personal pronouns in Gutiskar decline for all cases and numbers. However, unlike the nouns, pronouns are inflected for three numbers: singular, dual, and plural (same as verbs). The third person pronouns also inflect for gender (masculine, feminine, neuter).

SINGULAR1st person2nd person3rd p. masc.3rd p. neut.3rd p. fem.
Nominative ékþúirit
Accusative mekþekín
Genitive mínþinesrǿr
Dative mirþirǽmrǿ
Instrumental ónór
Nominative vetýtírǿr
Accusative ýkíkís
Genitive ýkeríkerér
Dative ýkiríkirǽr
Instrumental ím
Nominative vírýrírǿr
Accusative ýsirfís
Genitive ýserirverér
Dative ýsirirvirǽr
Instrumental ím

[edit] [top]Reflexive pronoun

The reflexive pronoun is the same for all three numbers and genders. It also lacks a nominative form.

Nominative -
Accusative sek
Genitive sín
Dative sir

[edit] [top]Possessive pronouns

Gutiskar has separate possessive pronouns which decline like adjectives; they all follow the same paradigm. The table below presents the declension paradigm of the first person singular pronouns ("my").

SINGULAR1st p. masc1st p. neut.1st p. fem.
Nominative mínarmíntmínó
Accusative mínanmínar
Genitive mínasmínrór
Dative mínammín
Instrumental mínamín
Nominative mínæmínómínór
Accusative mínar
Genitive mín
Dative mínær
Instrumental mínir

The other personal pronouns follow the same pattern:
  • þínar "your/thine" (2nd p. sg.)
  • esar "his" (3rd p. sg. m.) and "its" (3rd p. sg. n.)
  • rǿrar "her" (3rd p. sg. f.
  • ýkar "our" (1st p. dual)
  • íkar "your" (2nd p. dual)
  • érar "their" (3rd p. dual and pl.)
  • ýsar "our" (1st p. pl.)
  • sínar "self's" (reflexive, used for all persons and genders)

The 2nd person plural possessive pronoun ("your") is, however, slightly irregular:
SINGULAR1st p. masc1st p. neut.1st p. fem.
Nominative irvarirftirvó
Accusative irvanirvar
Genitive irvasirðrór
Dative irvamirðrú
Instrumental irvairðró
Nominative irvæirvóirvór
Accusative irvar
Genitive irðrá
Dative irvær
Instrumental irvir

[edit] [top]Usage of possessive pronouns

The usage of the possessive pronouns is rather straightforward, but a few things should be noted, mainly in regard to the reflexive pronoun.

Observe the following examples:
  1. Hit í mínó bókar. ("This is my book.")
  2. Þat í þínó bókar. ("That is your book.")
  3. Lisir míná bók. ("You have my book.")
  4. Lisó þíná bók. ("I have your book.")
  5. Lisó síná bók. ("I have my [own] book.")
  6. Lisir síná bók. ("You have your [own] book.")
  7. Lisó esá bók. ("I have his book.")
  8. Lizi síná bók. ("He has his [own] book.")
  9. Lizi esá bók. ("He has his [someone else's] book.")

As exemplified above (examples 5, 6, and 7), the reflexive possessive pronoun is used when the speaker/subject is possessing their own object and not someone else's object.

[edit] [top]Demonstrative and other pronouns

Gutiskar has 3 demonstrative pronouns. Like the personal pronouns, they are inflected for gender, case and number. Other pronouns, such as interrogative and relative pronouns, likewise decline. Their declension patterns are somewhat irregular - see their individual dictionary entries for the inflection.

The demonstrative pronouns are:

The interrogative pronouns are:

The interrogative pronouns are also used as relative pronouns.

Other pronouns are:

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[link] [quote] [move] [edit] [del] 20-Mar-15 09:21 [Deactivated User]
@hashi Yeah, it's "they/them (male)", etc. The distinction exists in only nominative and accusative anyway. And the neuter gender is used for mixed groups, yep.
[link] [quote] 20-Mar-15 01:32 [Deactivated User]
I noticed the plural pronouns have gender distinction too. Would this be akin to 'them (males)' etc. What would you use for a generic third person plural? The neuter?
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