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Tnaaq clitics
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This public article was written by xroooox, and last updated on 10 Aug 2019, 21:24.

[comments] Menu 1. Clitic phonological changes 2. Person/case clitics 3. Noun incorporation 4. Mode/evidentiality clitics 5. Emphatic and connective clitics 6. Clitic order 7. Nominal phrase clitics Tnaaq uses a pretty big set of second position clitics. These come after the first phonological word and become attached to it. They are used to express different meanings, including person/case, mode, former incorporated nominals, voice, evidentiality, clause linking and "attitudes/emotions".

Their clitic status is clear when auxiliary verbs and complementizers are involved:

▼ Examples
Sikaaqirknusrarskainai.
s-i-kaaq-i=rk=nus=rar=skai=inai
1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
-IRRIrrealis
mood
-hit-PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
=3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.MMasculine gender (gender)
masculine or male
.OBLOblique (argument)
indirect or demoted object
=RECIPUnknown code=tongue=again=sad

Sadly, we will argue about/because of him again.

Satirknusrarskainai kaaqut.
1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
-PERFPerfect (aspect/tense)
have verb-ed
-PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
=3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.MMasculine gender (gender)
masculine or male
.OBLOblique (argument)
indirect or demoted object
=RECIPUnknown code=tongue=again=sad hit-PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action

... we argued...

Saa nrknusrarskainai skaaqi.
1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
PROGRUnknown code=3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.MMasculine gender (gender)
masculine or male
.OBLOblique (argument)
indirect or demoted object
=RECIPUnknown code=tongue=again=sad 1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
-hit-PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
-PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action

We are arguing...

Ii n sau nurtn qrtnusrarskainai sikaaqi.
3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
-exist LOCLocative (case)
'in, on, at' etc
1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
.POSSPossessive (case)
owns, has
duty CCommon gender (gender/class)
common gender
=3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.MMasculine gender (gender)
masculine or male
.OBLOblique (argument)
indirect or demoted object
=RECIPUnknown code=tongue=again=sad 1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
-IRRIrrealis
mood
-hit-PLPlural (number)
more than one/few

We have to argue...

Turknusrarskainai sikaaqi?
QInterrogative
question
=3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.MMasculine gender (gender)
masculine or male
.OBLOblique (argument)
indirect or demoted object
=RECIPUnknown code=tongue=again=sad 1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
-INTERUnknown code-hit-PLPlural (number)
more than one/few

Are we arguing...?

Tuntusarknusrarskainai sikaaqi?
why=3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.MMasculine gender (gender)
masculine or male
.OBLOblique (argument)
indirect or demoted object
=RECIPUnknown code=tongue=again=sad 1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
-INTERUnknown code-hit-PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
-PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action

Why are we arguing...?


[top]Clitic phonological changes


Some changes can happen to clitics in the word boundary. Usually, an initial =h is dropped.

Some other clitics may have two forms with one or two moras respectively, used accordingly to the foot structure.

[top]Person/case clitics

There are three different sets of person prefixes. Oblique and locative clitics can't appear together. Masculine is different from feminine only in ergative. The feminine is used seldom, and a general animate is common. The order between them is fixed:
[LOC=OBL=ERG].



123
Masc/AnimFemInanim
ERGskt/rnu
OBLsttrtntut
LOCskkrknkuk


Ergative:
The ergative clitic is used with transitive verbs to show the agent. Third person clitics, when present, are anaphorical (they refer to already mentioned things).

▼ Examples
Atis nahunt knaik.
at-i=s
PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action
-PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
=1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
.ERGErgative (case)
TRANS subject; agent
nahun-t
feed-PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action
k-naik
DEFDefinite
"the"
-pig

I fed the pigs.

Tuk iati nahunt knaik?
tu=k
QInterrogative
question
=2Second person (person)
addressee (you)
.ERGErgative (case)
TRANS subject; agent
i-at-i
IRRIrrealis
mood
-PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action
-PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
nahun-t
feed-PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action
``
k-naik
DEFDefinite
"the"
-pig?

Did you fed the pigs?

*Atit nahunt tUnkarank knaik
at-i=t
PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action
-PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
=3MThird person masculine (person)
he/they
.ERGErgative (case)
TRANS subject; agent
nahun-t
feed-PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action

t-unkarank
M-Unkarank
k-naik
DEFDefinite
"the"
-pig

Unkarank fed the pigs.

Ati tUnkarank nahunt knaik, atitsauha suntr knuhna.
at-i
PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action
-PLPlural (number)
more than one/few

t-unkarank
M-Unkarank

nahun-t
feed-PFV
k-naik
DEFDefinite
"the"
-pig
at-i=t=sauha
PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action
-PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
=3MThird person masculine (person)
he/they
.ERGErgative (case)
TRANS subject; agent
=then
sunt-t
water-PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action
k-nuhna
DEFDefinite
"the"
-terror.bird

Unkarank fed the pigs, then he watered the terror birds.


Oblique clitics:
Oblique is used for benefactive and covers some preposicional verbs. The locative covers position but also other meanings, and is used in common auxiliary constructions.
They appear with some verbs instead of a required prepositional phrase. Applicative verbs and passive verbs also use this suffixes as the agent or benefactive.

▼ Examples
Atist tUnkarank nunnahunt knaik.
at-i=st
PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action
-PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
=1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
.OBLOblique (argument)
indirect or demoted object

t-unkarank
M-Unkarank

nur-nahun-t
APPL-feed-PFV

k-naik
DEF-pig

Unkarank fed the pigs for me.

Iqnahunityst knaik.
iq-nahun-i-t=st
PASPast
action occurred before moment of speech
-feed-PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
-PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action

k-naik
DEF-pig

The pigs were fed by me.

Sukiihkrtnak q niqunati us htaasi.
s-ukiihk=rt=nak
CAUSCausative (valency/mood)
cause an action to occur, force another argument to act
-pull=3PThird person plural (person)
neither speaker nor addressee, they/them
.OBLOblique (argument)
indirect or demoted object
=REFLReflexive (valency)
argument acts on itself
q
CCommon gender (gender/class)
common gender
n(i)qun-at-i
(IRRIrrealis
mood
)come-PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
us
PURPUnknown code
k-taasi
DEFDefinite
"the"
-party

I expect them to come to the party.


Locative clitics:
They're used with the other set of suffixes to indicate both physical and metaphorical locations

▼ Examples
Iinknauqqaa ariihauna.
ii=nk=n-auq=kaa
be=3FThird person feminine (person)
she/they
.LOCLocative (case)
'in, on, at' etc
=on-head=ASEVUnknown code
a-riihauna
NMZNominaliser
makes other word a noun
-ugly

She's wearing an ugly one (hat). (wear on head)

Stiisiskuq naik n uahiikrtn!
stiis-i-=sk=uq
EXISTExistential (case)
'there is'
.NEGNegative (polarity)
not
-PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
=1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
.LOCLocative (case)
'in, on, at' etc
=EMPHUnknown code
naik
pig

n
REL
ua-hiikr-tn
NMZNominaliser
makes other word a noun
-butcher-RESResultative (mood)
occurs as result of another action

I havent butchered a pig before!


[top]Noun incorporation

Some Tnaaq verbs take clitics that were former independent nouns. Most of the nouns that were incorporated in this way relate to parts of the body, the meaning of the compounds sometimes has changed so it is not inferable. Some of the clitics have specialized to this function, and a new word has been created to appear by itself. These clitics come after the person clitics and before the modals. They are divided in 3 groups according to their function, and they come in the following order:
[voice]+[positionals]+[corporal]

Voice clitics
They are used to change the voice of the clause. the reflexive =nau and the reciprocal =nus

=nus: Reciprocal
This prefix comes from an old root for body, but it can't be found as an independent root in Classic Tnaaq. It requires the -i plural in the verb.

ViHTHTiZSkNSsV.
Nuuht htyy nuskan susani.
nuuht
time
∅-htyy
3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
-much
n=nus=kan
RELRelative
s-us-han-i
1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
-CAUSCausative (valency/mood)
cause an action to occur, force another argument to act
-open-PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
=RECIPUnknown code=arm

We hugged for a long time.

=nau: Reflexive
This comes from the common word for body, 'taunau'.

uktar nau: wake up
QpiTMZKtRTMPWKtRVSTN.
Quqaatnau suktart nauq uktarnustn.
quqaat=nau
yesterday=REFLReflexive (valency)
argument acts on itself
s-uktar-t
1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
-wake.up-PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action
n=auq
LOCLocative (case)
'in, on, at' etc
=face
uktarnustn
sunrise

Yesterday I woke up before sunrise.

Positionals
They mark the goal of a movement, grounds and positions. See Tnaaq positionals for these ones.

Part
They retain more the body part meaning, but they can also be used for metaphoric extensions such as emotions.

=us: Cognitive
The current word for liver is 'hkanq', and speakers can't relate =us to that meaning. As an independent noun it predates first texts.

usaustans: bring back
usaustans us: remember

UESzBCStNS?
Tukus siqausaustans?
tu=k=us
QInterrogative
question
=2Second person (person)
addressee (you)
.NOMNominative (case)
TRANS subject, INTR argument
=mind
s-(i)qa-us-austans
1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
-IRRIrrealis
mood
-CAUSCausative (valency/mood)
cause an action to occur, force another argument to act
-return

Can you remember me?

=taq: instrumental
This is a general instrumental. It is more used as a nominal phrase clitic, but it sometimes appears with verbs in the older documents.

=tu: foot *Noun: utyyty

This clitic has several meanings, including activities performed by foot, with the foot or in a stepping manner.

=nak: stomach (emotional) *Noun: nak (belly), rasti (stomach)

=(h)aq: mouth (sound-related) *Noun: aq (mouth cavity), kauk (as a whole)

uriisana: play uriisana haq: sing


=(h)auq: face (emotional) *Noun: hauq

suusnar: hide
suusnar/asuusnar auq: be/act like a coward

xeZiSnRTKBKEiK.
Ati hqau suusnart htuuq
Ati
3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
-PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action
-PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
k-qau
DEFDefinite
"the"
-dog
∅-suusnar-t
3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
-hide-PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action
k-tuuq
DEFDefinite
"the"
-bone

The dog hid the bones

Aikasuusnarauq!
AkZiSnLP!
aikasuusnarauq
IMPImperative (mood)
command
-NEGNegative (polarity)
not
-2Second person (person)
addressee (you)
-TSun element (gender/class)-hide=face

Don't be a coward!

=(h)aih: head (cognitive) *Noun: haih

tan: catch tan haih: learn, memorize


=kan: arm (instrumental)*Noun:kanha

This clitic is used when the activity from the verb is performed with the hand or with a hand tool.

=xun: bidimensional

=iq: liquid

[top]Mode/evidentiality clitics


Modal:
=ai desiderative
Tukai inauh sannur?
tu=k=ai
QInterrogative
question
=2Second person (person)
addressee (you)
=DESDesiderative (mood)
wishes, desires, wants
i-nau-ah
IRRIrrealis
mood
-eat-PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
.SUBJUnknown code
san-nur
bread-sweet?

Would you guys like to eat cake?

=inaik des. neg
Sniqunihkkaahinaiqqitkai.
s-n(i)qun-ihk=kaa=inaik=qit=skai
1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
-(IRRIrrealis
mood
)go-TRASUnknown code=beach=DESDesiderative (mood)
wishes, desires, wants
.NEGNegative (polarity)
not
=f...=again

I don't wanna go to the f...ing beach again.

=xaix obligative (syntax: ii xaix X q FV)

=nnu gnomic

Uanqunsai iuu nauqannu sntaharqanuu
Ua-nqun-sai
NMZNominaliser
makes other word a noun
-go-along
iuu
person
n=auqa=nnu
RELRelative=face=GNOGnomic (aspect/mood)
common, timeless truths
s-nta-har-q-anuu
1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
-POTPotential (mood)
likely events, ability
-say-show


A friend is one before whom I may think aloud.

=ris certainty

=suu I think

=tqai: Weak possibility (nta-V=tqai)

=xyyk: Strong possibility (nta-V=xyyk)

The following are used to form a conditional:

n (irr)-V=sauti implicative
Quqsau uuksauti n isiiqsaq iintuis qurt su iaitqa.
quqsau uuk=sauti
today=CONDConditional (mood)
[if X,] then I would...
PROGR
RELRelative
i-siiqsaq
IRRIrrealis
mood
-rain
i-untuis
IRRIrrealis
mood
-smell.like
qurt
soil
su
to
iaitqa
wet.soil

If it rains today it will smell like wet soil.

n (irr)=suu hipotetical
Kasiiqsaqsuu n iaat niqunqutat tanqan nraa nuuht.
k-a-siiqsaq=suu
DEFDefinite
"the"
-NMZNominaliser
makes other word a noun
-rain=CONDConditional (mood)
[if X,] then I would...
n
PROGRUnknown code
iaa-t
stop-PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action
n(i)qun-qut-at
(IRRIrrealis
mood
)come-home-CISUnknown code
ta-nqan
NMZNominaliser
makes other word a noun
.MMasculine gender (gender)
masculine or male
-father
n=raa
LOCLocative (case)
'in, on, at' etc
=back
nuuht
time

If the rain stopped your father would come home earlier.

n (irr)=aqsy counterfactual
Isqahats asuhasiq nysaqsy iinaq q siiqsaq n qurtan aik.
i-sqah-at=s
IRRIrrealis
mood
-bring-CISUnknown code=1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
.ERGErgative (case)
TRANS subject; agent
a-suxas-iq
NMZNominaliser
makes other word a noun
-cover-water
n=aqsy
PROGRUnknown code=CONDConditional (mood)
[if X,] then I would...
i-iinaq IRR-know q
CCommon gender (gender/class)
common gender
siiqsaq
rain
n
LOCLocative (case)
'in, on, at' etc
qurtan
night
aik
DEMDemonstrative
e.g. this/ that
.LOCLocative (case)
'in, on, at' etc
.PROXProximal (proximity)
close to speaker

I would have brought an umbrella if I had known that it was going to rain tonight.

[top]Emphatic and connective clitics

Emphatic:
=is mirative
Used for conveying information considered new for the listener.

Hkaihntis, kniinrunqnik. Hkirirtnunquuti.
k-kaih=nt=is
2Second person (person)
addressee (you)
-be.like=3FThird person feminine (person)
she/they
.OBLOblique (argument)
indirect or demoted object
=MIRMirative/admirative (mood/emotive)
surprise, doubt
k-niin-n=unq=nik
2Second person (person)
addressee (you)
-short-INALInalienable (possesson)
thing that can't be gained or lost
=over=but

k-hir-ir-tn=unq=uuti
2-annoy-FREQ-RES=over=also

You're just like her, only shorter. And more annoying.

auhai emphatic/suddenly

It is used for events that have just happened and were abrupt or unexpected.

Ihkyksanauhai kantaust syyhtn taitat kaahqntan
ihk=k=san=auhai
INCHInchoative (aspect)
'beginning, becoming'
=2Second person (person)
addressee (you)
.ERGErgative (case)
TRANS subject; agent
=eye=just
kantaus-t
find.out-PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action

syyhtn
piece

taitat
stone
kaahq-n=tan
big-ATRUnknown code=GENGenitive (case)
possessive

You have just discovered a big piece of stone.

=inan emphatic (sad)
It appears on complains. It was used un older times for petitions, as a self-humiliating way of speaking to higher hierarchy people.

Snuraatnitiniqanauhi
s-nur-aatn-i-t=iq=inan=auhi
1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
-APLUnknown code-run.out-PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
-PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action
=sad=just

We just ran out of water :C

=kaa aseverative
This clitic implies that the speaker holds what xe says as truth, but not common knowledge (gnomic clitic =nnu is used in those cases)

Iinknauqqaa ariihauna.
ii=nk=n-auq=kaa
be=3FThird person feminine (person)
she/they
.LOCLocative (case)
'in, on, at' etc
=on-head=ASEVUnknown code
a-riihauna
NMZNominaliser
makes other word a noun
-ugly

She's wearing an ugly one (hat). (wear on head)

=qit fucking x

Tuntusaqqit inuraat?
tuntusaqqit
why=2Second person (person)
addressee (you)
.ERGErgative (case)
TRANS subject; agent
=fuck
s-i-nur-aa-t
1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
-IRRIrrealis
mood
-APLUnknown code-do-PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action
?

Why did you fucking do this to me?

Connective
=sauha then (non causal)

Ati tUnkarank nahunt knaik, atitsauha suntr knuhna.
at-i
PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action
-PLPlural (number)
more than one/few

t-unkarank
M-Unkarank

nahun-t
feed-PFV
k-naik
DEFDefinite
"the"
-pig
at-i=t=sauha
PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action
-PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
=3MThird person masculine (person)
he/they
.ERGErgative (case)
TRANS subject; agent
=then
sunt-t
water-PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action
k-nuhna
DEFDefinite
"the"
-terror.bird

Unkarank fed the pigs, then he watered the terror birds.

=sai simultaneous (used with n)


=irau then (causal)
Trqunkannu skiih nuhna ahquutrs iqauh, n tiikikaki. Hqaktairiirau, tn tari n kaarusau arqiih n sauhati us nautaisi
t-t-qunk-ah=nnu
HABHabitual (aspect)
done often or out of habit
-swallow-PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
=GNOGnomic (aspect/mood)
common, timeless truths
k-siih nuhna
boa constrictor
ahquut=rs
prey=own
iqauh
whole
n
ADVAdverbial
e.g. English '-ly'
tiikik-ak-i
swallow-NEGNegative (polarity)
not
-PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
hqa-k-tair-i=irau
POTPotential (mood)
likely events, ability
-NEGNegative (polarity)
not
-move-PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
=thus
tn
CONJConjunction
links two arguments or clauses together
tari
sleep-PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
n
LOCLocative (case)
'in, on, at' etc
kaarusau
month
arqiih
six
n
RELRelative
sauhat-i
need-PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
us
PURPUnknown code
nautais-i
digest-PLPlural (number)
more than one/few

Boa constrictors swallow their prey whole, without chewing it. After that they are not able to move, and they sleep through the six months that they need for digestion.

=uuti: too, also

Atykaihuuti ustant qaq uriisana!
at=k=haih=uuti
PFV=2=head=also

us-tan-t
CAUS-catch-PFV
q=aq
CCommon gender (gender/class)
common gender
=mouth
uriisana
play

And you taught him to sing!

=tnau so, because of that

Suhaska, sutiihustnau n ruuhaik
s-uaska
1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
-old
s-u-tii=us=tnau
1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
-IRRIrrealis
mood
-sit=thus
n
ADVAdverbial
e.g. English '-ly'
ruu-haik
way-other

I'm old, so I'm giving it anyway

Discursive/Adverbial

=nyyk: too, excesively

=auhi: just

=nty: what about?

=tnuu: keep on x, still, yet

=skai: again

=qsy: instead

=ank: partitive, do some x

=tuq: about to

[top]Clitic order

ALL THESE CLITICS COME IN SECOND POSITION OF THE PHRASE
WORD=[DAT=ACU=NOM=LOC]=[ASP=VOICE=POS=CORP]=[MODE=EVID=EMPH]=[CONN=DISC]

Na nuqsytsainakinaikinaisauhauti siqaxihki: that's why she doesn't want to take them along with her to there for me, too (how sad!)
n=uq=st=sai=nak=inaik=inai=sauha=uuti
n=3.INAN.ACC=1.DAT=along=ILAT=DES.NEG=sad=then=too
n=ACC=DAT=ASP=POS=MODE=CON1=CON2=EMPH

[top]Nominal phrase clitics

There are two kinds of nominal clitics in Tnaaq. Second position clitics follow the first word of the noun phrase. They are dissapearing, being the only one functional the correferential. Final position clitics are more common, and usually indicate cases like intruments and genitives.

second position:
=rs correferentiality.
Contrast:
At kart Ati nau sqaastat: Ati(h) broke her(i) pencil.
At kart Ati nars sqaastat: Ati broke her own pencil.
At kart Ati sqaastatrs: Ati broke her own pencil.
At nquunatinak, sqaxihkatn rars raantnqas. They came and took their own television away.
At nquunatinak, sqaxihkatn ra raantnqas. They(i) came and took their(j) television away.

Final position:
=a Possesive genitive
Tusuxasatixqainai hkaunan tasisaka.
My brother's book got wet.


=taq instrumental

=uuti comitative (also present in the second position)
=tar origin genitive
=ran material genitive
kainatkih hikaakarantaq.

There are two clitic conjunctions:

N N=qur: N or N

N=qur N=qur

N N=kn: N and N

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