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№2 Учна: Сашемстнаи
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On gender, cases, and others
This public article was written by Yathid, and last updated on 31 Dec 2016, 22:56.

[comments] Menu 1. Noun Gender 2. Plural 3. Grammatical Cases
?FYI...
This article is a work in progress! Check back later in case any changes have occurred.

The Iadrajan language has a complex case system for their nouns. There are 3 genders for the nouns, as well as, 7 grammatical cases which are put on the end of nouns to describe how nouns are being used in the sentence. First we will start on the 3 genders, and how to identify them, then we'll show them in the 7 cases of the Iadrajan language.

[top]Noun Gender

In Iadrajan, to identify a noun's gender, simply look at the ending of the noun. Nouns gender are NOT based on history of said noun, nor are they based on how society viewed said object. Rather, they are just based on the letter, and the sound, that it has.

*For example: the word "Себресо" = Military, is a Neuter noun. Iadrajan speakers, do NOT look at this noun and relate it to its history, nor to how society looks the Military, rather that the word just simply ends in a Neuter ending. Same is true with all Iadrajan words.

There are 3 genders: Masculine, Feminine, and Neuter.

Masculine Nouns always end in a consonant letter, or sound.
Example: Рих = meat

Feminine Nouns always end in '-a'.
Example: Чакруша = meditation

Neuter Nouns end either with '-o' or '-e'.
Examples:
Себресо = military
Лумне = loom

[top]Plural

To pluralize a noun, first look at the noun's gender, then do the following:

Masculine
Nouns add '-и' to the ending
Example: Рихи = meats

Feminine Nouns add '-и' to the ending
Example: Чакрушаи = meditations

Neuter Nouns add '-и' to the ending
Examples:
Себресои = militaries
Лумнеи = looms

[top]Grammatical Cases

Finally for this lesson, we'll be going over the grammatical cases that Iadrajan uses to describe how nouns are being used in the sentence. Nouns change their endings to reflect the case that it's being used in, also each gender has its own endings, as well as, its own plural endings to show this.

First we'll go over each case, to show you how they are used, then show examples of nouns from all 3 genders and their plural form with it. (Note: some of these grammatical cases DO HAVE other uses, but for the sake of simplicity, these examples will just show the main use of the cases.)

Nominative Case:
The Nominative Case is the base, and dictionary, form of a noun. It is used to show the subject of a sentence.
  • Masculine: Рих = meat // Рихи = meats
  • Feminine: Чакруша = meditation // Чакрушаи = meditations
  • Neuter: Себресо, Лумне = military, loom // Себресои, Лумнеи = militaries, looms


Accusative Case:
The Accusative Case shows the object of the sentence. In other words, it shows what the subject(Nominative) is going to object(Accusative) of the sentence.
  • Masculine: Рих = meat // Рихих = meats
  • Feminine: Чакрушя = meditation // Чакрушиаи = meditations
  • Neuter: Себресу, Лумнѐ = military, loom // Себресух, Лумниеи = militaries, looms


Genitive Case
The Genitive Case shows a noun's ownership of other noun, or object. Put the noun who is the owner into the Genitive Case. Also the owner comes after the noun that it owns.
  • Masculine: Рихо = meat's // Рихов = meats'
  • Feminine: Чакрушо = meditation's // Чакрушос = meditations'
  • Neuter: Себресо, Лумно = military's, loom's // Себресов, Лумнов = militaries', looms'


Dative Case
The Dative Case shows the indirect object of a sentence, for example: "I gave flowers to Maria." Maria would be in the Dative Case. Also the Dative Case is used to show motion to an object, or place. Example: " I rode the bus to Yolska." Yolska would be in the Dative Case. The preposition 'к'(to), is used in this case
  • Masculine: К риха = to the meat // К рихахи = to the meats
  • Feminine: К чакрушаи = to the meditation // К чакрушаих = to the meditations
  • Neuter: К себресу, К лумнеи = to the military, to the loom // К себресухи, К лумнеих = to the militaries, to the looms


Instrumental Case
The Instrumental Case in Iadrajan, shows usage of an object. For example: "I wrote with a pen." 'with a pen' is in the Instrumental Case. It can also be used to show company, for example: "I am with Maria." 'with Maria' is in the Instrumental Case, though it is considered slang to use it that way instead of the proper way done by the InstruC Case. Also note that the preposition "са"(with) is used in this case.
  • Masculine: Са рихим = with meat // Са рихимѐ = with meats
  • Feminine: Са чакрушам = with meditation // Са чакрушами = with meditations
  • Neuter: Са себресом, Са лумнем = with military, with the loom // Са себресоми, Са лумнеми = with militaries, with looms


Instrumental-Comitative Case
The Instrumetnal-Comitative Case(InstruC Case) shows the company of an person, or object. For example: "I am with my father" 'with my father' is in the InstruC Case. This case is weird in the fact that you DO NOT NEED to use "ca"(with) in the sentence construction; if you do use са, it emphasizes the given noun.
  • Masculine: Са рихис = with meat // Са рихасѐ = with meats
  • Feminine: Са чакрушаc = with meditation // Са чакрушaсѐ = with meditations
  • Neuter: Са себресос, Са лумнеc = with military, with the loom // Са себресосѐ, Са лумнесѐ = with militaries, with looms


Prepositional Case
The Prepositional Case shows location and position of the noun. For example: "David is in the store." 'in the store' is in the Prepositional Case. When using this case, most to all prepositions, minus a couple of them, will put the noun into the Prepositional Case, though not all. For this we'll use the preposition 'аль'(in).
  • Masculine: Аль рихѐ = in the meat // Аль рихѐх = in the meats
  • Feminine: Аль чакрушѐ= in meditation // Аль чакрушaх = in meditations
  • Neuter: Аль себресѐ, Аль лумнѐ = in the military, in the loom // Аль себресох, Аль лумнѐх = in militaries, in looms




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