Verbs in Spitind
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This public article was written by Cyneweard, and last updated on 18 Jul 2017, 23:26.
1 -ot is used to make the future in the past.
2 With the meaning of contemporaneity if it is preceded by the subject. If it is not, the verb is sostantantivated.
3 The subject is needed in all the cases except for the second-person singular.
4 You have to put -il instead of -it when the verb is monosyllabic.
5 For the conditional tense, the impersonal suffixes are -itroe and -etroe, while there isn't any impersonal form for what concerns the other tenses.
The imminent future is an action that is going to happen very soon. In Spitind this tense is marked with the particle bas placed before the verb.
• Naśe bas vekout ike ūi. - Someone is going to buy the onion.
To turn an active verb into a passive verb, it is used the particle dar before the verb. The agent is always preceded by the preposition ce. It can be omitted if it is not essential to understand the meaning of the sentence.
• Naśe vekoet ike ūi. - Someone has bought the onion.
• Ike ūi dar vekoet (ce naśe). - The onion has been bought (by someone).
[top]Je, jed and śa-
The particle je is used between two verbs. The second one must be in the infinitive form.
• Das måtterit je sugit ike ralust kiryata. - You want to see the new film.
The particle jed is used to express a duty that the person feel as necessary for them. It can also be used as "in order to", depending on the context.
• Å jed delyaritra. - I must speak to her
• Å laetekūe jed tegegiteda jed putekūe. - I said that in order to remind you to do it.
The prefix śa- is used before a verb to express the repetition of an action.
• Śapilekūe - Do it again
The particle vaś is used to form the causative form. It is always placed before the verb. The object is always marked with the particle kėd, except for personal pronouns, that use the accusative form. Kėd never needs the article.
• Ras vaś ttalet kėd otka. - She made the cat run.
• Ras vaś ttaletyå. - She made me run.
In case there is a ditransitivity, the thing, the person or the animal preceded by kėd is placed before the other object.
• Ras vaś rekondet kėd emeral ike otka. - She made the dog chase the cat.
[top]Imperative with ġå
The particle ġå is used before the verb to form the imperative form. It is always followed by the infinitive form and is less strong than the imperative tense. While the imperative is something mandatory or an obbligation, ġå is more like a suggestion. As well as the imperative, it never needs the second person singular pronoun das.
• Ġå pitekūe. - (You'd better) do it.
• Bes ġå pitekūe. - Let's do it.
The active-stative alignment is used with intransitive verbs and only if they are preceded by a personal pronoun. Indeed, the subject turns into the accusative form. If used, it means that something is done voluntarily or with empathy.
• Yå drecolet. - I fell (voluntarily).
• Ra deret. - She died (and I'm sorry for that).
Da is a question particle that is used to turn statements into yes-no questions.
• Das travat as naś podejet - You're working for a company.
• Das travat as naś podejet da? - Are you working for a company?
To make an indirect question, it is used the particle jav. It can only be used with verbs for asking (to ask, to beg, to wonder, etc...). While in English the question mark is not needed, in Spitind it is mandatory.
• Å śenderit gas das petekūe jav? - I wonder how you did it.
The ċen particle is used to form rhetorical questions, namely questions with no answer or an obvious one.
• Rus daġ bist sbandanem. Das bordenit rus putekūe ċen? - He is very lazy. Do you really think he will do it?
Some verbs have irregularities in these cases:
• All the verbs that at the infinitive before -it has an a, lose the a and -a+t/tr will be added instead.
• All the verbs that at the infinitive has an â or an å before -it, lose the å or â and -a+t/tr will be added instead.
• All the verbs that at the infinitive has an e before -it, lose the e and -ė+t/tr or -e+ttoe will be added instead.
• All the verbs that at the infinitive has an ė before -it, lose the ė and -ė+t/tr or -e+ttoe will be added instead.
• All the verbs that at the infinitive has an o before -it, lose the o and -o+t will be added instead.
• All the verbs that at the infinitive has an u before -it, lose the u and -u+t/tr or -u+ttoe will be added instead.
• All the verbs that at the infinitive has an ū before -it, lose the ū and -u+t/tr or -u+ttoe will be added instead.
Other verbs can have a completely different layout than the regular ones.
|Brelapit (step on)||Present||Past||Future|
|Etureit (resort to)||Present||Past||Future|
|Vyatvūit (give up, give away)||Present||Past||Future|