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Verbs in Spitind
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Verbs
This public article was written by Cyneweard, and last updated on 18 Jul 2017, 23:26.

[comments] Menu 1. Verb Tenses 2. Passive form 3. Je, jed and śa- 4. Particle vaś 5. Imperative with ġå 6. Active-stative alignment 7. Interrogative form 8. Irregular Verbs
[top]Verb Tenses

Active FormPresentPastFuture
Indicative
-it
-et
-ut
Conditional
-itr
-etr
-ot1
Gerunde and Sostantivate2
-at
-atr
-utr
Infinitive
-it
-et
-ut
Participle
(lu) -it
(lu) -et
(lu) -ut
Imperative3-4
-it
---
---
Impersonal5
-ittoe
-ettoe
-uttoe

1 -ot is used to make the future in the past.
2 With the meaning of contemporaneity if it is preceded by the subject. If it is not, the verb is sostantantivated.
3 The subject is needed in all the cases except for the second-person singular.
4 You have to put -il instead of -it when the verb is monosyllabic.
5 For the conditional tense, the impersonal suffixes are -itroe and -etroe, while there isn't any impersonal form for what concerns the other tenses.


Imminent future
The imminent future is an action that is going to happen very soon. In Spitind this tense is marked with the particle bas placed before the verb.
• Naśe bas vekout ike ūi. - Someone is going to buy the onion.

[top]Passive form

To turn an active verb into a passive verb, it is used the particle dar before the verb. The agent is always preceded by the preposition ce. It can be omitted if it is not essential to understand the meaning of the sentence.

E.g.:
Active
• Naśe vekoet ike ūi. - Someone has bought the onion.

Passive
• Ike ūi dar vekoet (ce naśe). - The onion has been bought (by someone).

[top]Je, jed and śa-

The particle je is used between two verbs. The second one must be in the infinitive form.

E.g.:
• Das måtterit je sugit ike ralust kiryata. - You want to see the new film.

The particle jed is used to express a duty that the person feel as necessary for them. It can also be used as "in order to", depending on the context.

E.g.:
• Å jed delyaritra. - I must speak to her
• Å laetekūe jed tegegiteda jed putekūe. - I said that in order to remind you to do it.

The prefix śa- is used before a verb to express the repetition of an action.

E.g.:
• Śapilekūe - Do it again

[top]Particle vaś

The particle vaś is used to form the causative form. It is always placed before the verb. The object is always marked with the particle kėd, except for personal pronouns, that use the accusative form. Kėd never needs the article.

E.g.:
• Ras vaś ttalet kėd otka. - She made the cat run.
• Ras vaś ttaletyå. - She made me run.

In case there is a ditransitivity, the thing, the person or the animal preceded by kėd is placed before the other object.

E.g.:
• Ras vaś rekondet kėd emeral ike otka. - She made the dog chase the cat.

[top]Imperative with ġå

The particle ġå is used before the verb to form the imperative form. It is always followed by the infinitive form and is less strong than the imperative tense. While the imperative is something mandatory or an obbligation, ġå is more like a suggestion. As well as the imperative, it never needs the second person singular pronoun das.

E.g.:
• Ġå pitekūe. - (You'd better) do it.
• Bes ġå pitekūe. - Let's do it.

[top]Active-stative alignment

The active-stative alignment is used with intransitive verbs and only if they are preceded by a personal pronoun. Indeed, the subject turns into the accusative form. If used, it means that something is done voluntarily or with empathy.

E.g.:
• Yå drecolet. - I fell (voluntarily).
• Ra deret. - She died (and I'm sorry for that).

[top]Interrogative form

Binary questions
Da is a question particle that is used to turn statements into yes-no questions.

E.g.:
• Das travat as naś podejet - You're working for a company.
• Das travat as naś podejet da? - Are you working for a company?

Indirect questions
To make an indirect question, it is used the particle jav. It can only be used with verbs for asking (to ask, to beg, to wonder, etc...). While in English the question mark is not needed, in Spitind it is mandatory.

E.g.:
• Å śenderit gas das petekūe jav? - I wonder how you did it.

Rhetorical questions
The ċen particle is used to form rhetorical questions, namely questions with no answer or an obvious one.

E.g.:
• Rus daġ bist sbandanem. Das bordenit rus putekūe ċen? - He is very lazy. Do you really think he will do it?

[top]Irregular Verbs

Some verbs have irregularities in these cases:

• All the verbs that at the infinitive before -it has an a, lose the a and -a+t/tr will be added instead.
• All the verbs that at the infinitive has an â or an å before -it, lose the å or â and -a+t/tr will be added instead.
• All the verbs that at the infinitive has an e before -it, lose the e and -ė+t/tr or -e+ttoe will be added instead.
• All the verbs that at the infinitive has an ė before -it, lose the ė and -ė+t/tr or -e+ttoe will be added instead.
• All the verbs that at the infinitive has an o before -it, lose the o and -o+t will be added instead.
• All the verbs that at the infinitive has an u before -it, lose the u and -u+t/tr or -u+ttoe will be added instead.
• All the verbs that at the infinitive has an ū before -it, lose the ū and -u+t/tr or -u+ttoe will be added instead.

Other verbs can have a completely different layout than the regular ones.
Brelapit (step on)PresentPastFuture
Indicative
brelâpit
brelâpet
brelâput
Conditional
brelâpitr
brelâpetr
brelâpot
Gerunde and Sostantivate
brelâpat
brelâpatr
brelâputr
Infinitive
brelapit
brelapet
brelaput
Participle
(lu) brelâpit
(lu) brelâpet
(lu) brelâput
Imperative
brelâp
---
---
Impersonal
brelâpittoe
brelâpettoe
brelâputtoe


Fokanġit (mutate)PresentPastFuture
Indicative
fokanġit
fokanġet
fokanġut
Conditional
fokangitr
fokangetr
fokangot
Gerunde and Sostantivate
fokaġan
fokaġans
fokaġun
Infinitive
fokanġit
fokanġet
fokanġut
Participle
(lu) fokanġit
(lu) fokanġet
(lu) fokanġut
Imperative
fokanġ
---
---
Impersonal
fokangittoe
fokangettoe
fokanguttoe


Etureit (resort to)PresentPastFuture
Indicative
etureit
eturėn
eturus
Conditional
eturitr
eturetr
eturot
Gerunde and Sostantivate
eturan
eturans
eturun
Infinitive
etureit
eturet
etureut
Participle
(lu) etureit
(lu) eturėn
(lu) eturut
Imperative
eture
---
---
Impersonal
eturittoe
eturettoe
eturuttoe


Suterit (lift)PresentPastFuture
Indicative
suterit
sutret
sutrut
Conditional
sutritr
sutretr
sutrot
Gerunde and Sostantivate
sutran
sutrans
sutrun
Infinitive
suterit
suteret
suterut
Participle
(lu) suterit
(lu) sutret
(lu) sutrut
Imperative
suter
---
---
Impersonal
suterittoe
suterettoe
suteruttoe


Velegit (bear)PresentPastFuture
Indicative
velegit
veleġen
velerrus
Conditional
velerritr
velerretr
velerrot
Gerunde and Sostantivate
velerran
velerrans
velerrun
Infinitive
velegit
veleget
velegut
Participle
(lu) velegit
(lu) veleġen
(lu) velerrus
Imperative
veleg
---
---
Impersonal
velegittoe
velegettoe
veleguttoe


Vyatvūit (give up, give away)PresentPastFuture
Indicative
vyatvūit
vyatvūet
vyatvut
Conditional
vitr
vetr
vyot
Gerunde and Sostantivate
vitran
vitrans
vitrun
Infinitive
vyatvūit
vyatvūet
vyatvut
Participle
(lu) vyatvūit
(lu) vyatvūet
(lu) vyatvut
Imperative
vyatvu
---
---
Impersonal
vyatvūittoe
vyatvūettoe
vyatvuttoe


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