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Uyendur Tense and Aspect
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This public article was written by clawgrip, and last updated on 2 May 2018, 16:50.

[comments] Menu 1. Tense 2. Aspect
?FYI...
This article is a work in progress! Check back later in case any changes have occurred.

Tense and aspect in Uyendur are marked by means of suffixes. They will be explained briefly below.

[top]Tense

Uyendur has only two morphological tenses: past and nonpast. The past tense is indicated with the suffix d -d. Some of the personal endings are altered when combined with the past tense morpheme, and all in the plural:

1P2P3P masc3P fem
singular -d(a)-di-dur-dum
plural -dŏ-dĕ-dwŏ-dom


Predictable sound changes may occur when the suffix is added to verb stems:

aBuhur Baiubom
Aḅungur ḅayubom.
/ab̥uŋur b̥ajubom/
"He lives on an island."

aBuhdur Baiubom
Aḅundur ḅayubom.
/ab̥undur b̥ajubom/
"He lived on an island."

The past is used exclusively for past events, while the nonpast may be used both for present and certain future events (some future events are marked with a modal construction, explained elsewhere).

tagum
Tagum.
"She is eating." / "She will eat."

tagdum
Tagdum.
"She ate." / "She was eating."

[top]Aspect

Uyendur has three morphological aspects: simple/progressive, perfect, and habitual. Each one will be described below.

Simple/Progressive
This is the default aspect, indicated by the bare verb stem. The basic use of this aspect is to show actions that are in progress or which begin at the indicated time frame. It also may act as a perfective (i.e. no internal time structure) in the past or future, or following conjunctions.

Examples:
ga-xor guxakkit
Gaxor guxakkit.
break-3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.MASCMasculine (gender)
masculine or male
-PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
brickwork-ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
-DEFDefinite
"the"

"They are breaking the brickwork." (progressive)

hurio Bimgeuabum
Nguryo ḅim gewabum.
leave-1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
.PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
when arrive-3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.FEMFeminine (gender)
feminine or female

"We will leave when she arrives." (inchoative, perfective)

The simple/progressive is also used to describe states or actions that are considered invariable and/or permanent.

pidur tuhot soxlBiGGilu
Pidur tungot tŏl ḅiġġilu.
have.INALInalienable (possesson)
thing that can't be gained or lost
-3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.MASCMasculine (gender)
masculine or male
spider-NOMNominative (case)
TRANS subject, INTR argument
-DEFDefinite
"the"
eye-ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
-PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
many-INANInanimate (gender/class)
inanimate, sessile

"Spiders have many eyes."

mudur guxt nudirmutu
Mudur gĭt nudimmutu.
sleep-3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.MASCMasculine (gender)
masculine or male
sun-NOMNominative (case)
TRANS subject, INTR argument
-DEFDefinite
"the"
west-LOCLocative (case)
'in, on, at' etc
-DEFDefinite
"the"

"The sun sets in the west."

Like English, statements regarding classes of nouns may indicate the generic quality of the statement by placing that noun in the plural indefinite:

tatio ruxxenumol tenkiren
Tatyo rĭxenumol tenkiren.
catch-1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
.PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
bustard-ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
-PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
challengingly
"It is challenging to catch bustards." (Lit. "We catch bustards challengingly.")

Perfect
Tube perfect aspect is used for actions or events that are finished our completed at the referenced time-frame. This is used for two purposes, one of which is essentially the same as the English perfect, while the other is not.

The perfect is formed by adding the suffix k -k to the verb stem. This suffix then conjugates as a class IV (i-stem) verb in the first and second persons, and uniquely for the third person.

munkwr guxt
Munkĕr gĭt.
sleep-PERFPerfect (aspect/tense)
have verb-ed
-3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.MASCMasculine (gender)
masculine or male
sun-NOMNominative (case)
TRANS subject, INTR argument
-DEFDefinite
"the"

"The sun has set."

hukkixdox Bimgeuabdum
Ngukkĭdŏ ḅim gewabdum.
leave-PERFPerfect (aspect/tense)
have verb-ed
-PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
-1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
.PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
when arrive-PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
-3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.FEMFeminine (gender)
feminine or female

"We had (already) left when she arrived."

Habitual
The habitual aspect indicates actions or states that are usually or frequently true:

mulnuxruateru
Munnĭr wateru.
walk-HABHabitual (aspect)
done often or out of habit
-3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.MASCMasculine (gender)
masculine or male
.SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
slowly
"He always (generally) walks slowly."

sinnoxm tohom rulatilutmeg
Tinnŏm tongom rulatilut meg.
visit-HABHabitual (aspect)
done often or out of habit
-3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.FEMFeminine (gender)
feminine or female
.PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
bird-FEMFeminine (gender)
feminine or female
.NOMNominative (case)
TRANS subject, INTR argument
.PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
marsh-ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
.MASCMasculine (gender)
masculine or male
.SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
.DEFDefinite
"the"
this.here
"Birds often visit this marsh."

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