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Desanian language family
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Some information about Desanlangs and a comparison of their features
This public article was written by [Deactivated User], and last updated on 2 Jan 2024, 09:19.

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!Warning!
This article has been marked as out of date. There's a possibility that some information is incorrect.
Menu 1. Languages 2. Main common features 3. Phonological comparison 4. Lexical comparison 5. Sample texts Article created in: January 2020

(now marked as out of date because it does not include the most recently created  Rannyei language and I cannot be bothered to stretch those tables even wider)


The Desanian languages are a language family spoken in the western regions of Dawera, among a few other unrelated groups of languages. The total number of speakers is over 40 million – mainly in Kasewaya, Inwez and Nesyania.

[edit] [top]Languages

Old Desani (de-sane-ehi or desa-ne-hi [dɛsanɛhi]) is the oldest attested Desanian language. It evolved from Proto-Desanian and was spoken on the territories of modern day Kasewaya from 5th to 11th century by various nomadic tribes. Later its regional varieties became two separate languages, forming two main branches of the family: northern and southern. Further splits led to the forming of all modern-day Desanian languages.
Animacy in Old Desani nouns

Kasewayan (casyýu [casɨju]) is the most widely spoken language among the whole family; the number of L1 speakers is about 30 million in total. It is the official language of Kasewaya and Inwez, and a recognized minority language in a few neighboring countries. It forms a separate (Northern) branch of the language family.
Grammar

Rashintu (raśiinṭu [ɾɑɕiːɳʈu]) is spoken by an ethnic minority (about 50,000 people) in remote, mountainous regions of western Nesyania. It is disputed whether Rashintu is a Northern Desanian language (like Kasewayan) or forms another branch of the family. It shares many grammatical features with Kasewayan, but is mutually unintelligible with any other Desanian language.
Grammar

Keranian, natively keraniy [k͡xəɾanej], is a continuum of dialects spoken by an ethnic minority – about 3.5 million people in total – in parts of Kasewaya (where about 10% of citizens speak it as their first language), Nesyania and Tazul. It belongs to the Southern branch of the family and has been noticeably influenced by non-Desanian languages like Nesyanian and Northern Tazuro.
Dialects and grammar
Phonotactics

Saridzani (salījani [saliːd͡zaɲi]) is a Southern Desanian language with about 150,000 native speakers. It is spoken in northeastern Nesyania, mainly in the province of Fwarad. Its closest relative is Keranian (especially the eastern dialects) and it was heavily influenced by the Nesyanian language both phonologically as well as lexically.

[edit] [top]Main common features

Nominative-accusative alignment
• direct object marked by a case marker
• verbs agree with the subject only

Strongly head-final head-directionality
• the default word order is SOV
• adjectives preceed nouns they describe
• postpositions only (however, among affixes, not all are head-final)

At least two grammatical verb aspects
IPFVImperfective (aspect)
'interrupted or incomplete'
(default, unmarked) and PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action

PROGProgressive (aspect)
be verb-ing
in Kasewayan, Keranian and Saridzani
ITERIterative (aspect)
repeated actions within an event
and RCURRecurring (aspect)
action reoccurs once (cf. Iterative)
in Keranian
HABHabitual (aspect)
done often or out of habit
in Saridzani

One common writing system
• the Zetaha script derived from the Old Desani syllabary

Old DesaniKasewayanRashintuKeranianSaridzani
Morph. typology
mainly analytic
fusional
fusional
fusional
fusional
Animacy
sentient, animate,
inanimate
human, non-human
human, non-human
none
none
Nominal cases
none
(DODirect object (case/role) marked with
an adposition)
3 (NOMNominative (case)
TRANS subject, INTR argument
, ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
, DATDative (case)
indirect object; recipient, beneficiary, location
)
9 (NOMNominative (case)
TRANS subject, INTR argument
, ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
, GENGenitive (case)
possessive
, DATDative (case)
indirect object; recipient, beneficiary, location
,
INSTRInstrumental (case)
'with' 'using'
, LOCLocative (case)
'in, on, at' etc
, ABLAblative (case)
away from
,
TRANSLTranslative (case)
becoming
, COMComitative (case)
'together with'
)
6 (NOMNominative (case)
TRANS subject, INTR argument
, ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
, GENGenitive (case)
possessive
, DATDative (case)
indirect object; recipient, beneficiary, location
,
INSTRInstrumental (case)
'with' 'using'
, ESSEssive (case)
'as, similar'
)
6 (NOMNominative (case)
TRANS subject, INTR argument
, ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
, GENGenitive (case)
possessive
, DATDative (case)
indirect object; recipient, beneficiary, location
,
INSTRInstrumental (case)
'with' 'using'
, ESSEssive (case)
'as, similar'
)
Noun-noun possession
adpositional
adpositional
genitive case
genitive case
genitive case
1PIFirst person plural inclusive (person)
we (inclusive)
vs 1PEFirst person plural exclusive (person)
we (exclusive)
distinction
separate pronouns
and verb forms
no distinction
no distinction
separate pronouns
(+ verb forms in dialects)
separate pronouns
Noun numbers
singular and plural
singular and plural
singular and plural
singular, plural
and collective
singular, plural,
dual and collective
Pronoun numbers
singular and plural
singular and plural
singular and plural
singular, plural
and collective
singular, plural,
dual and collective
Copula dropping
none
none
none
present tense
present tense
Causative
no
no
yes
yes
yes
Double negatives
amplify negative
ungrammatical
amplify negative
remain negative
(often obligatory)
remain negative
Old Desani is marked with a paler shade of grey as it is an extinct proto-language.


[edit] [top]Phonological comparison

WIP.

Syllable structure and general phonotactics

Old Desani
• the only allowed syllable structure was CV, no clusters or coarticulation allowed
• no vowel length distinction
• in its descendants, closed syllables and consonant clusters appeared due to vowel deletion

Kasewayan
• the maximum syllable structure is CVC or CVːC
• the only clusters allowed are cross-syllable
• in rapid speech /ə ɨ/ can be deleted, which creates word-initial or word-final clusters, e.g. /xajən/ [xajn]

Rashintu
• the maximum syllable structure is CwVC or CwVːC
• most consonants have palatalized equivalents
• other CC clusters are allowed only cross-syllabically

Keranian
• the maximum syllable structure is CCLVCC (L being an approximant or a trill)
• no vowel length distinctions
• most consonants have palatalized and/or geminated equivalents
• clusters larger than CCC are not allowed even cross-syllabically

Saridzani
• the maximum syllable structure is CCVCC or CCVːCC
• most consonants have geminated equivalents
• clusters larger than CCC are not allowed even cross-syllabically

Nasals
Old DesaniKasewayanRashintuKeranianSaridzani
Bilabial
m
m
m mʲ
m mː [mʲ mʲː]
m mː
Alveolar
n
n
n
n nː
n nː
Retroflex
[ɳ]
Palatal
[ɲ]
ɲ
ɲ
ɲ
Velar
[ŋ]
[ŋ]
[ŋ]
ŋ
Uvular
[ɴ]
[ɴ]

Plosives
Old DesaniKasewayanRashintuKeranianSaridzani
Bilabial
p b
p b
b bʲ
b bː bʲ
b bː
Dental/Alveolar
t d
t̪ d̪
t̪ t̪ʲ d̪ d̪ʲ
t tː d dː
tʲ dʲ
t tː d dː
Retroflex
ʈ ɖ
Palatal
c ɟ
Velar
k g
k
k g
k kː g
k g
Uvular
q
q

Fricatives
Old DesaniKasewayanRashintuKeranianSaridzani
Labiodental
v
v vʲ
Alveolar
s z
s z
s z
s sː z
s sː z zː
Postalveolar
ʃ
ʃ ʒ
Alveolopalatal
ɕ
ɕ ʑ
Velar
x
x
Uvular
χ
χ χʲ

Affricates
Old DesaniKasewayanRashintuKeranianSaridzani
Alveolar
t͡s d͡z
t͡s d͡z
t͡s d͡z
Alveolopalatal
t͡ɕ d͡ʑ
t͡ɕ d͡ʑ d͡ʑː
Velar
[k͡x ɡ͡ɣ]

Approximants, trills and taps
Old DesaniKasewayanRashintuKeranianSaridzani
Alveolar trill/tap
r
r
ɾ ɾʲ
ɾ ɾː ɾʲ
Lateral approximant
l
ɫ [l]
l lʲ
l lː lʲ
l
Approximant
j
j w
j w
j jː w wʲ
j w


[edit] [top]Lexical comparison

Numerals from 1 to 10
Old DesaniKasewayanRashintuKeranianSaridzani
StandardKaswihiliyBevaradiy
one âsi [ˈɑsi]ate [ˈæt̪e]aty [ɑtʲ]áśi [ˈɑɕe][ˈɒʃi][ˈɑʃe] [aʃ]
two tole [ˈtɔlɛ]səl [səɫ]ṭul [ʈul]tol [tol][tuɫ][tul]tul [tul]
three dezare [dɛˈzarɛ]zar [zær]jar [d͡zɑɾ]dzar [d͡zaɾ][d͡zaʁ][zaɾ]jal [d͡zal]
four soqe [ˈsɔqɛ]tək [t̪ək]tug [t̪ug]soq [sok][sok][suk]suk [suk]
five xoma [ˈχɔma]humə [ˈxumə]huma [huˈmɑ]home [ˈχumə][ˈχumə][ˈxumə]huma [ˈxuma]
six zore [ˈzɔrɛ]dər [d̪ər]dur [d̪uɾ]zor [zoɾ][zoʁ][zuɾ]zul [zul]
seven ikoma [iˈkɔma]ekmə [ˈekmə]ekma [ækˈmɑ]ikome [eˈkumə][iˈkumə][eˈkumə]ekuma [eˈkuma]
eight voye [ˈvɔjɛ]bəý [bəj]buy [buj]vwi [vwe][vəj][vwe]bwe [bwe]
nine duse [ˈdusɛ]zot [zot̪]ḍut [ɖut̪]dwoś [dwoɕ][dwoʃ][duʃ]dus [dus]
ten lâye [ˈlɑjɛ]laý [ɫæj]lay [lɑj]láy [lɑj][ɫɒj][lɑj]laý [laj]

Basic colors
Old DesaniKasewayanRashintuKeranianSaridzani
StandardKaswihiliyBevaradiy
black laga-hi [laˈgahi]láxy [ˈɫɑːʀɨ]laajəś [ˈlɑːd͡zəɕ]lagay [ˈlagaj][ˈɫagaj][ˈlaɣəj]lage [ˈlage]
white hosa-hi [hɔˈsahi]oteý [ˈot̪ej]utaś [uˈt̪ɑɕ]osay [ˈosaj][ˈusaj][ˈosəj]ose [ˈose]
red oxeva-hi [ɔχɛˈvahi]ośibeý [oˈʃibej]uhebaś [uhæˈbɑɕ]wahvay [ˈwaʁvaj][ˈwagvaj][ˈwaʔvəj]wahbe [ˈwaɣbe]
blue âta-hi [ɑˈtahi]ásy [ˈɑːsɨ]aaṭəś [ˈɑːʈəɕ]átay [ˈɑtaj][ˈɑtaj][ˈɒtəj]ate [ˈate]
yellow xaba-hi [χaˈbahi]hápy [ˈxɑːpɨ]haapəś [ˈhɑːpəɕ]habay [ˈχabaj][ˈχabaj][ˈxabəj]habe [ˈxabe]
green roda-hi [rɔˈdahi]rozeý [ˈrozej]ruḍaś [ɾuˈɖæɕ]dray [dɾaj][dɾaj][dɾəj]dle [dle]
brown zama-hi [zaˈmahi]dámy [ˈd̪ɑːmɨ]daaməś [ˈd̪ɑːməɕ]zamay [ˈzamaj][ˈzamaj][ˈzaməj]zame [ˈzame]
grey âvara-hi
[ɑvaˈrahi]
ábreý [ˈɑːbrej]aabraś [ˈɑːbɾɑɕ]ávaray [ɑˈvaɾaj][ɑˈvaɾaj][ɒˈwaɾəj]abale [aˈbale]
pink/orange si-hoxeva-hi
[sihɔχɛˈvahi]
tewśibeý
[t̪ewˈʃibej]
twəhebaś
[t̪wəhæˈbɑɕ]
śohvay [ˈɕoʁvaj][ˈʃugvaj][ˈʃoʔvəj]śohbe [ˈʃoɣbe]

Basic animal names
Old DesaniKasewayanRashintuKeranianSaridzani
StandardKaswihiliyBevaradiy
cat simâla [siˈmɑla]tymál [t̪ɨˈmɑːɫ]timaal [t̪iˈmɑːl]śimále [ɕeˈmɑlə]
mince [ˈmʲint͡ɕɤ]
[ʃeˈmɑɫə][ʃeˈmɒlə]minśe [ˈminʃe]
dog zâqa [ˈzɑqa]dák [d̪ɑːk]daag [d̪ɑːg]záqe [ˈzɑqə][ˈzɑkə][ˈzɒkə]zaka [ˈzaka]
horse rige [ˈrigɛ]rex [reʁ]riz [ɾiz]ridz [ɾed͡z][ɾed͡z][ɾed͡z]liź [liʒ]
cow poxa [ˈpɔχa]pohə [ˈpoxə]puhe [puˈhæ]bohe [ˈboχə][ˈboxə][ˈboxə]wuha [ˈwuxa]
goat bure [ˈburɛ]pur [pur]pur [pur]bwor [bwoɾ][bwoʁ][bwoɾ]bul [bul]
sheep kapa [ˈkapa]háp [xɑːp]kaap [kɑːp]kabe [ˈk͡xabə][ˈk͡xabə][ˈkabə]hapa [ˈxapa]
wolf tâlu [ˈtɑlu]salo [ˈsæɫo]ṭalu [ʈɑˈlu]tál [tɑl][tɑl][tɒl]tal [tal]
mouse gana [ˈgana]xán [ʀɑːn]kaan [kɑːn]gane [ˈg͡ɣanə][ˈg͡ɣanə][ˈganə]guna [ˈguna]
duck duga [ˈduga]zoxə [ˈzoʀə]ḍuke [ɖuˈkæ]doge [ˈdogə][ˈdogə][ˈdogə]duga [ˈduga]

Everyday verbs
Old DesaniKasewayanRashintuKeranianSaridzani
StandardKaswihiliyBevaradiy
to be i-ne [inɛ]ýən [jən]yen [jæn]in [en][en][en]in [in]
to have ahi-ne [aˈhinɛ]aýən [ˈæjən]aśen [ɑˈɕæn]ayin [ˈajen][ˈajen][ˈajən]en [en]
to go rehi-ne [rɛˈhinɛ]
qami-ne [qaˈminɛ]
kamin [ˈkæmin]gamin [gɑˈmin]rin [ɾen][ɾen][ɾʲen]līn [liːn]
to stand deli-ne [dɛˈlinɛ]
agi-ne [aˈginɛ]
zylin [ˈzɨlin]ajhin [ɑˈd͡ʑin]dlin [dlen][dlen][dlen]aźin [ˈaʒin]
to eat koti-ne [kɔtinɛ]kosen [ˈkosen]kuṭin [kuˈʈin]kotin [ˈk͡xoten][ˈk͡xoten][ˈxoten]hotin [ˈxotin]
to sleep xâhi-ne [χɑˈhinɛ]haýən [ˈxæjən]haśen [hɑˈɕæn]háyin [ˈχɑjen][ˈxɑjen][ˈχɒjən]haýen [ˈxajen]
to see tari-ne [taˈrinɛ]cemin [ˈcemin]ṭarin [ʈɑˈɾin]vlayin [ˈvlajen][ˈvlajen][ˈvlajən]śmin [ʃmin]
to look velahi-ne
[vɛlaˈhinɛ]
bylin [ˈbɨːlin]bəlaśen [bəlɑˈɕæn]cmin [t͡ɕmʲin][t͡ʃmʲin][t͡ʃmʲin]blen [blen]
to speak imihi-ne
[imiˈhinɛ]
tepaýən
[t̪eˈpæjən]
tipaśen
[t̪ipɑˈɕæn]
imiyin [eˈmejen][eˈmijen][eˈmejən]imīn [ˈimiːn]
to say sibahi-ne
[sibaˈhinɛ]
imin
[ˈiːmin]
iimśen
[ˈiːmɕæn]
śibayin [ɕeˈbajen][ʃiˈbajen][ʃeˈbajən]śiben [ˈʃiben]
Italicized words are borrowed from Nesyanian.

[edit] [top]Sample texts

The sentences used here were taken mostly from ToTDs (as well as texts added by other users).

Simple declarative clauses

#1: I speak [language].
Old Desani
De-sane-hi imihi ika.
[dɛsaˈnɛhi imiˈhi ˈika]
de-sane-hi
Desani
imihi
speak
ika
SUBSubject (argument).1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I


Kasewayan
Casyýu te tepaýəc.
[cæˈsɨju t̪e t̪eˈpæjəc]
casyýu
Kasewayan
te
of
tepaý-əc
speak-PRESPresent tense (tense)
current
.1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I


Rashintu
Raśiinṭuuy tipaśka.
[ɾɑɕiːɳˈʈuːj t̪iˈpɑɕkɑ]
raśiinṭu-uy
Rashintu-ADVZAdverbialiser (syntax)
turns word into adverb
tipaś-ka
speak-PRESPresent tense (tense)
current
.1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I


Keranian (Standard)
Keran’áni imiyek.
[k͡xəɾaɲɑˈɲi eˈmejɤk]
keran’-oni
Keranian-ADVZAdverbialiser (syntax)
turns word into adverb
imii-ke
speak-PRESPresent tense (tense)
current
.1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I


Saridzani
Salījańuń imīka.
[saliːd͡zaˈɲuɲ iˈmiːka]
salījań-uń
Saridzani-ADVZAdverbialiser (syntax)
turns word into adverb
imī-ka
speak-PRESPresent tense (tense)
current
.1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I

#2: They live in a big house.
Old Desani
Ane ta qoxa-hi reze bi giri ile.
[ˈanɛ ta qɔˈχahi ˈrɛzɛ bi ɡiˈri ˈilɛ]
ane
3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.HUMHuman (gender/class)
human or belonging to human
ta
PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
qoxa-hi
big
reze
house
bi
in
giri
live
ile
SUBSubject (argument).3PThird person plural (person)
neither speaker nor addressee, they/them
.HUMHuman (gender/class)
human or belonging to human


Kasewayan
Antə ireý ryd pi jeryl.
[ˈænt̪ə ˈiɾej ɾɨːd̪ pi ˈɟeɾɨɫ]
antə
3PThird person plural (person)
neither speaker nor addressee, they/them
.HUMHuman (gender/class)
human or belonging to human
ireý
big
ryd
house
pi
in
jer-yl
live-PRESPresent tense (tense)
current
.3PThird person plural (person)
neither speaker nor addressee, they/them
.HUMHuman (gender/class)
human or belonging to human


Rashintu
Anṭe ṭagzəy paam mye ziirəl.
[ɑɳˈʈæ ˈʈɑgzəj pɑːm mʲæ ˈziːɾəl]
anṭe
3PThird person plural (person)
neither speaker nor addressee, they/them
.HUMHuman (gender/class)
human or belonging to human
ṭagzəy
big
paam
house
mye
in
ziir-əl
live-PRESPresent tense (tense)
current
.3PThird person plural (person)
neither speaker nor addressee, they/them
.HUMHuman (gender/class)
human or belonging to human


Keranian (Standard)
Lite qohay reź bi zretayel.
[ˈletə ˈqoχɐj ɾəʑ be zɾəˈtajɤl]
lite
3PThird person plural (person)
neither speaker nor addressee, they/them
qohay
big
reź
house
bi
in
zretay-el
reside-PRESPresent tense (tense)
current
.3PThird person plural (person)
neither speaker nor addressee, they/them


Saridzani
Anta zante lez be iŋel.
[ˈanta ˈzante̞ le̞z be̞ ˈiŋe̞l]
anta
3PThird person plural (person)
neither speaker nor addressee, they/them
zante
big
lez
house
be
in
iŋ-el
reside-PRESPresent tense (tense)
current
.3PThird person plural (person)
neither speaker nor addressee, they/them

#3: The man sees the dog.
Old Desani
Râla zâqa zi tari ime.
[ˈrɑla ˈzɑqa zi taˈri ˈimɛ]
râla
man
zâqa
dog
zi
ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
.ANAnimate (gender/class)
alive, moving
tari
see
ime
SUBSubject (argument).3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.ANAnimate (gender/class)
alive, moving


Kasewayan
Rál dákəz ceməm.
[rɑːɫ ˈd̪ɑːkəz ˈceməm]
rál
man
dák-əz
dog-ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
.NHUMNon-human (gender/class)
cem-əm
see-PRESPresent tense (tense)
current
.3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.HUMHuman (gender/class)
human or belonging to human


Rashintu
Raal daagəd ṭarima.
[ɾɑːl ˈd̪ɑːgəd̪ ʈɑˈɾimɑ]
raal
/man
daag-əd
dog-ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
.NHUMNon-human (gender/class)
ṭar-ima
see-PRESPresent tense (tense)
current
.3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.HUMHuman (gender/class)
human or belonging to human


Keranian (Standard)
Rále záqaz vlayem.
[ˈɾɑlə ˈzɑqɐz ˈvlajɤm]
rále
man
záqa-z
dog-ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
vlay-em
see-PRESPresent tense (tense)
current
.3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee


Saridzani
Hum zakaź śmim.
[xum ˈzakaʃ ʃmim]
hum
man
zaka-ź
dog-ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
śm-im
see-PRESPresent tense (tense)
current
.3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee


Questions

#1: How many hats does that woman have?
Old Desani
Yaxâne pe-sane ze da tesa teyahi ime?
[jaχɑˈnɛ pɛˈsanɛ zɛ da ˈtɛsa tɛjaˈhi ˈimɛ]
yaxâne
how many
pe-sane
head covering
ze
ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
.INANInanimate (gender/class)
inanimate, sessile
da
PROXProximal (proximity)
close to speaker
tesa
woman
teyahi
own
ime
SUBSubject (argument).3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.ANAnimate (gender/class)
alive, moving


Kasewayan
Za sytə ýásni petanəs aýem?
[zæ ˈsɨt̪ə ˈjɑːsɲi ˈpet̪ænəs ˈæjem]
za
PROXProximal (proximity)
close to speaker
sytə
woman
ýásni
how many
petan-əs
hat-PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
.NHUMNon-human (gender/class)
aý-em
have-PRESPresent tense (tense)
current
.3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.HUMHuman (gender/class)
human or belonging to human


Rashintu
Ḍe caa yaanṭe petanha aśema?
[ɖæ t͡sɑː ˈjɑːɳʈæ pæˈt̪ɑnhɑ ɑɕæˈmɑ]
ḍe
PROXProximal (proximity)
close to speaker
caa
woman
yaanṭe
how many
petan-ha
hat-PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
.NHUMNon-human (gender/class)
aś-ema
have-PRESPresent tense (tense)
current
.3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.HUMHuman (gender/class)
human or belonging to human


Keranian (Standard)
Da teś yaho bzanet tiyem?
[da təɕ ˈjaχo ˈbzanət ˈtejɤm]
da
PROXProximal (proximity)
close to speaker
teś
woman
yaho
how many
bzan-et
hat-PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
tiy-em
own-PRESPresent tense (tense)
current
.3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee


Saridzani
Da ca ýatań bezan ym?
[da t͡sa ˈjataɲ ˈbe̞zan ɨm]
da
DEMDemonstrative
e.g. this/ that
ca
woman
ýatań
how many
bezan
hat
ym
have.PRESPresent tense (tense)
current
.3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee

#2: Where do the birds live?
Old Desani
Laqeye te ya-qâre giri ile?
[laˈqɛjɛ tɛ ˈjaqɑrɛ giˈri ˈilɛ]
laqeye
bird
te
PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
ya-qâre
where
giri
live
ile
SUBSubject (argument).3PThird person plural (person)
neither speaker nor addressee, they/them
.ANAnimate (gender/class)
alive, moving


Kasewayan
Laxyýəs kárze bil jery?
[ˈɫæʀɨjəs ˈkɑːɾze biɫ ˈɟeɾɨ]
laxyý-əs
bird-PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
.NHUMNon-human (gender/class)
kárze
where
b-il
AUXAuxilliary-PRESPresent tense (tense)
current
.3PThird person plural (person)
neither speaker nor addressee, they/them
.NHUMNon-human (gender/class)
jery
live


Rashintu
Yaagər ziiriil lagiiha?
[ˈjɑːgəɾ ziːˈɾiːl lɑˈgiːhɑ]
yaagər
where
ziir-iil
live-PRESPresent tense (tense)
current
.3PThird person plural (person)
neither speaker nor addressee, they/them
.NHUMNon-human (gender/class)
lagii-ha
bird-PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
.NHUMNon-human (gender/class)


Keranian (Standard)
Nohmat yaqár jiril?
[ˈnoχmat ˈjaqɑɾ ˈd͡ʑeɾel]
nohm-at
bird-PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
yaqár
where
jir-il
live-PRESPresent tense (tense)
current
.3PThird person plural (person)
neither speaker nor addressee, they/them


Saridzani
Lakyt ýakal źilel?
[ˈlakɨt ˈjakal ˈʒile̞l]
laky-t
bird-PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
ýakal
where
źil-el
live-PRESPresent tense (tense)
current
.3PThird person plural (person)
neither speaker nor addressee, they/them


Relative clauses

#1: He is the one who found the sun.
Old Desani
Mani da ime ihi ga vozale zi pâha sâle-qaki ime-na.
[ˈmani da ˈimɛ ˈihi ga vɔˈzalɛ zi ˈpɑha sɑlɛqaˈki ˈimɛna]
mani
3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.HUMHuman (gender/class)
human or belonging to human
da
PROXProximal (proximity)
close to speaker
ime
COPCopula
used to link the subject of a sentence with a predicate
.3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.ANAnimate (gender/class)
alive, moving
ihi
who
ga
RELZRelativiser (derivation)
vozale
sun
zi
ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
.ANAnimate (gender/class)
alive, moving
pâha
PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action
sâle-qaki
find
ime-na
SUBSubject (argument).3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.ANAnimate (gender/class)
alive, moving
-PTPast tense (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech


Kasewayan
An eýi xy bodaləd bá tálcemən.
[æn ˈeji ʀɨ ˈbod̪æɫəd̪ bɑː ˈt̪ɑːɫcemən]
an
3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.HUMHuman (gender/class)
human or belonging to human
eýi
COPCopula
used to link the subject of a sentence with a predicate
xy
who.RELZRelativiser (derivation)
bodal-əd
sun-ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
.NHUMNon-human (gender/class)

PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action
tálc-emən
find-PTPast tense (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
.3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.HUMHuman (gender/class)
human or belonging to human


Rashintu
An ima kee budaləd baatalgacemən.
[ɑn ˈimɑ kæː buˈd̪ɑləd̪ ˈbɑːt̪ɑlgɑt͡sæmən]
an
3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.HUMHuman (gender/class)
human or belonging to human
i-ma
COPCopula
used to link the subject of a sentence with a predicate
-PRESPresent tense (tense)
current
.3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.HUMHuman (gender/class)
human or belonging to human
kee
who.RELZRelativiser (derivation)
budal-əd
sun-ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
.NHUMNon-human (gender/class)
baa-talgac-emən
PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action
-find-PTPast tense (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
.3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.HUMHuman (gender/class)
human or belonging to human


Keranian (Standard)
Mani yiga im vzalez sálqacimbán.
[ˈmaɲi ˈjega em ˈvzaləs sɑlqɐˈt͡ɕembɑn]
mani
3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
yi-ga
who-RELZRelativiser (derivation)
im
COPCopula
used to link the subject of a sentence with a predicate
.PRESPresent tense (tense)
current
.3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
vzal-ez
sun-ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
sálqac-imbán
find-PTPast tense (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
.PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action
.3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee


Saridzani
Mań ge ýem bzalez salkaśimban.
[maɲ ge̞ je̞m ˈbzale̞s salkaˈʃimban]
mań
3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
ge
who.RELZRelativiser (derivation)
ýem
COPCopula
used to link the subject of a sentence with a predicate
.PRESPresent tense (tense)
current
.3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
bzal-ez
sun-ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
salkaś-imban
find-PTPast tense (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
.PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action
.3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee


Conditionality

#1: If I see you, I will give you a gift.
Old Desani
Edi zi pâha tari ne ika, edi râ aze-ha ze zuhi azi ika.
[ɛˈdi zi ˈpɑha taˈri nɛ ˈika ɛˈdi rɑ ˈazɛha zɛ ˈzuhi aˈzi ˈika]
edi
2SSecond person singular (person)
addressee (you)
zi
ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
.HUMHuman (gender/class)
human or belonging to human
pâha
PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action
tari
see
ne
FTFuture tense (tense)
action occurring after the moment of speech
ika
SUBSubject (argument).1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
edi
2SSecond person singular (person)
addressee (you)

for
aze-ha
give-NMZNominaliser
makes other word a noun
ze
ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
.NHUMNon-human (gender/class)
zuhi
AUXAuxilliary.CONDConditional (mood)
would
azi
give
ika
SUBSubject (argument).1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I


Kasewayan
Ita zide bá cemince, zerə cehadad zoý adec.
[ˈit̪æ ˈzid̪e bɑː ceˈmince ˈzeɾə ceˈxæd̪æd̪ zoj bɑː ˈæd̪ec]
ita
if
zi-de
2SSecond person singular (person)
addressee (you)
-ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient

PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action
cem-ince
see-FTFuture tense (tense)
action occurring after the moment of speech
.1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
zerə
2SSecond person singular (person)
addressee (you)
.DATDative (case)
indirect object; recipient, beneficiary, location
cehada-d
gift-ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
.NHUMNon-human (gender/class)
zoý
CONDConditional (mood)
would
ad-ec
give-PRESPresent tense (tense)
current
.1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I


Rashintu
Ita eḍii baaṭarinkə, edyar kamjed zuy śebike.
[iˈt̪ɑ æˈɖiː ˈbɑːʈɑɾiŋkə æˈd̪ʲɑɾ kɑmˈd͡zæd̪ zuj ɕæˈbikæ]
ita
if
eḍii
2SSecond person singular (person)
addressee (you)
.ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
baa-ṭar-inkə
PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action
-see-FTFuture tense (tense)
action occurring after the moment of speech
.1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
edyar
2SSecond person singular (person)
addressee (you)
.DATDative (case)
indirect object; recipient, beneficiary, location
kamje-d
gift-ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
.NHUMNon-human (gender/class)
zuy
CONDConditional (mood)
would
śeb-ike
give-PRESPresent tense (tense)
current
.1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I


Keranian (Standard)
Isa ji vlaybák, d’ar azaz zwi aźik.
[ˈesa d͡ʑe ˈvlajbɑk dʲaɾ ˈazas zwe ˈaʑek]
isa
if
ji
2SSecond person singular (person)
addressee (you)
.ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
vlay-bák
see-FTFuture tense (tense)
action occurring after the moment of speech
.PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action
.1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
d’ar
2SSecond person singular (person)
addressee (you)
.DATDative (case)
indirect object; recipient, beneficiary, location
aza-z
gift-ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
zwi
CONDConditional (mood)
would
aź-ik
give-PRESPresent tense (tense)
current
.1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I


Saridzani
Isa je śmibak, cal cehazaź zwekammika.
[ˈisa d͡ze̞ ˈʃmibak t͡sal t͡se̞ˈxazaʃ zwe̞kaˈmːika]
isa
if
je
2SSecond person singular (person)
addressee (you)
.ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
śmi-bak
see-FTFuture tense (tense)
action occurring after the moment of speech
.PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action
.1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
cal
2SSecond person singular (person)
addressee (you)
.DATDative (case)
indirect object; recipient, beneficiary, location
cehaza-ź
gift-ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
zwe-kamm-ika
CONDConditional (mood)
would
-give-PRESPresent tense (tense)
current
.1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I


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Comments
[link] [quote] [move] [edit] [del] 19-Jul-22 10:28 [Deactivated User]
@[Deactivated User]
Aww, thanks for the appreciation, makes me want to add even more details (especially to the phonology chapter, it's still WIP) :D and ofc thanks for letting me know. The wrong IPA transcription must have been some copy-paste error, now it's fixed.

Out of curiosity I wanted to check the typology stats about the noun-adjective order in different conlangs in general, but it has resulted in a timeout. Whoops. Anyway, when it comes to my own conlangs, the proportion is almost 1:1, I think. I have a few strongly head-initial ones as well, they just haven't gotten their detailed grammar articles yet, lol
[link] [quote] [move] [edit] [del] 19-Jul-22 03:20 [Deactivated User]
pretty detailed!

Also, speaking of head directionality, Almost all of conlangs have adjectives precede the noun they modify(A major exception is  Egeriac) lol maybe it's time to change

Btw, there might be a mismatch in one part:

you said in the chart that the verb "to say" in Old Desani is sibahi-ne, but the IPA you give is [imiˈhinɛ], there might be a mismatch for this, please check.
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