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Grammar: Old & Modern Chawuku
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esp affixes
This public article was written by miles, and last updated on 25 Mar 2017, 17:31.

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Menu 1. Pronouns 2. Verbal Morphology 3. Nouns 4. Sandbox
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[top]Pronouns

Proto-Hapruic Forms of Chauku Pronouns
1s2s3sIN3sAN1p2p3p
(x)aw(q)mīneqūisāħisuhdayŋīkyivibawt
(x)awqqemīnqeqūiasāħiasuhdayanŋīkyianvibawtan


Fully Irregular Modern Pronouns
1s2s3sIN3sAN1p2p3p
ominkitaa*nu'enicheipo
okmikkuchittahet*nu'echenichitipot

*I dunno! It wasn't a regular sound change. Maybe they came into contact with a language where the 1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
pronoun began with /n/? Don't ask me.

Levelled Modern Pronouns
1s2s3sIN3sAN1p2p3p
ominkitaanu'enichipo
okmikkuchittahetnu'echenichitipot
o-mi-ki-taa-nu'e-nichi-ipo-

Shown: nominative, accusative, & the bases used for oblique suffixes

(Note: ‹q› sometimes represents a glottal stop in the modern language but always means /q/ in the proto-language; additionally, the modern Chaukic glottal stop is not actually derived from /q/, although Poshumo-Suvonic branches of the this family derive glottal stops from historic /q/. Because of this confusion, I am currently reforming the spelling of the modern language, but it is slow going).

[top]Verbal Morphology

Order of Affixes:
person | tense | applicative | misc | noun | root | mood | voice | negation

Verbs: Old Forms
voicevalency increasestense & mood
-puqpassive nuqu-for (benefactive) xyu-past tense
REDUPreflexive & reciprocal lasu-at, to, on, along -nawidubitative
sut-in, inside, into -kithapurposive
-tɨqacausative deontic

Note: Verbs marked for the reciprocal do not also need to be marked for verbal number.

Modern Person Markers
1s2s3s3sAN1p2p3p
a-na-o-ni-po-
=ka=ni=ku=ke=nu=chi=po


Old Independent Pronouns (Nom / Acc)
1s2s3s AN3s inAN1p2p3p
xo / xaqena / miqetho / thaqeki / kiqeko / maho un / umqethasi / thasiqe


Regular historic sound changes caused irregularities with everything, although some irregularities have been leveled.

Modern language examples:
(Ki) shuia.
It was open.

(Taa) shutokekeipu.
(3PThird person plural (person)
neither speaker nor addressee, they/them
) PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
-3PThird person plural (person)
neither speaker nor addressee, they/them
-PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
-bring-PASSPassive voice (valency)
be verb-ed

They were brought.

To add:

he-
IMP.2S
hana-
IMP.2P
ce-
IMP.1P

remaining hortatives don't exist; make an optative if u want em

[top]Nouns


[top]Sandbox

Ashuhala alaeq! Ashusuqalaekeike kapaaq ohiikata.
a-shu-hala
1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
-PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
-find
alae-q
cat-ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
a-shu-suq-alae-kei-ke
1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
-PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
-APPLApplicative voice (valency)
promotes an oblique argument
-cat-bring-3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
ka-paa-q
1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
-house-ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
ohii-kata
sleep-PURPurposive
in order to, for the purpose of

I found a cat! I brought him into my house so he can sleep.

Neshutakweweeke!
ne-shu-tak-we-wee-ke
2SSecond person singular (person)
addressee (you)
-PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
-sword-PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
-swing-3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee

You swung a sword at them! (Multiple! Times!)

Tomeimei.
They love each other.

Ii shuinuinu.
She didn't banish herself.

Neshuhalawe kepaaq?
ne-shu-hala-we
2SSecond person singular (person)
addressee (you)
-PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
-find-QInterrogative
question
ke-paa-q
3s-dog-ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient

Have you found their dog?

OR

Neshuhala kepaaq pa?
ne-shu-hala
2SSecond person singular (person)
addressee (you)
-PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
-find
ke-paa-q
3s-dog-ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
pa
QInterrogative
question

Have you found their dog?

Toshukanepacunawine kuptookita.
to-shu-kan-e-pacu-nawi-ne
3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
-PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
-hat-EEpenthetic
something 'meaningless' inserted for structural reasons
-take-DUBDubitative mood (mood)
expresses doubt
-2SSecond person singular (person)
addressee (you)
kup-too-kita
toss-play-PURPurposive
in order to, for the purpose of

Maybe they took your hat to play catch.

OR

Toshukanepacunawine kaneq kuptookita.
to-shu-pacu-nawi-ne
3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
-PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
-take-DUBDubitative mood (mood)
expresses doubt
-2SSecond person singular (person)
addressee (you)
kan-e-q
hat-EEpenthetic
something 'meaningless' inserted for structural reasons
-ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
kup-too-kita
catch-play-PURPurposive
in order to, for the purpose of

Maybe they took your hat to play catch.

Hewahe poa nesiqukita.
he-wahe
IMPImperative (mood)
command
.2SSecond person singular (person)
addressee (you)
-be.slow
poa
dance
he-siqu-kita
2SSecond person singular (person)
addressee (you)
-learn-PURPurposive
in order to, for the purpose of

Dance slowly so you can learn.

Hewahe poa siqukita.
he-wahe
IMPImperative (mood)
command
-be.slow
poa
dance
siqu-kita
learn-PURPurposive
in order to, for the purpose of

Dance slowly so he can learn.
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