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Jáhkarrá: Nouns
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Overview of the nouns
This public article was written by Hastrica, and last updated on 5 Dec 2018, 16:15. Editing of this article is shared with Conlanger.

[comments] [history] Menu 1. General Structure 2. Case 3. Possessive suffixes 4. Demonstratives 5. Postbases
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[top]General Structure


A Jáhkarrá noun inflects for case, number, possession and demonstrative location. Jáhkarrá also has a nominal category of postbases, suffixes which turn a noun into a verb and are comparable to light verbs of other languages.

The order of suffixes is as follows:

StemCaseNumberPossessorDemonstrativePostbase


As an example of a noun with all slots filled, consider eipinčanedai:

eipinčanedai
rabbitpluralnominativeyourthishave-1.SG
I have these rabbits of you.


[top]Case


Jáhkarrá has twenty-two cases. Of these, seventeen fulfill the role that adpositions take in other languages, while the other five are grammatical.

For more information, see here: Jáhkarrá noun cases.

[top]Possessive suffixes



Jáhkarrá has no possessive pronouns. Instead, suffixes on nouns are used. The equivalent of English mine, yours etc. are semantically empty nouns like álgu "thing" with the appropriate suffix.

The possessive suffixes are:

NumberSuffix
1SGčai
2SGčan
3SGča
4SGčas
1DUčii
1DU.EXčid
2DUčin
3DUči
4DUčis
1PLčái
1PL.EXčáid
2PLčáin
3PLčá
4PLčás


Their common element is -č-, with the individual endings mostly duplicating those of the present intransitive conjugation.

The third person singular possessive suffix is increasingly used to express a definite noun, akin to a postfixed article.

[top]Demonstratives

Demonstrative pronouns are noun suffixes in Jáhkarrá. There is a three-way distintion between -e (proximal, close to speaker), -o (medial, close to listener) and -u (distal, far from both). If the suffix follows a vowel, /j/ is inserted.

The anaphoric and cataphoric usage of the demonstratives, and also their local one, is determined at least as much by the speaker's cognitive distance to the noun phrase in question. NPs the speaker has a positive attitude to or that they consider easy to locate on their mental map are much more likely to receive proximal marking; conversely, distal marking often encodes dismissal, distancing or a shaky grasp on a concept.

[top]Postbases


Postbases are nominal suffixes that replace common verbs, turning a noun into a complete sentence. The noun to which they attach is the direct object (or, in the case of hea "to be", the predicate) and the phrase is treated as a verb, with all inflectional capabilites available to verbs.

Postbases inflect like transitive verbs, but their object reference is fixed to the third person singular. This effectively means that their person/number inflection is the same as with intransitive verbs (since the 3SG object ending is a null morpheme).

Some postbases realted to consumption (like raŋaid "eat", viemaid "drink) also occur as separate verbs. The main difference is that their postbase form always assumes an indefinite quantity, while the full verb can either be interpreted as referring to a clearly defined amount or take suffixes that specify this.

The following postbases are found in Jáhkarrá:

PostbaseMeaningExample
heaidbe Xálli "girl", állihai "I am a girl"
hoaidhave X, want Xnjeanná "cat", njeannáhoai "I have a cat", njeannáhoažái "I want [to have] a cat (desiderative)"
šaidbecome Xorgŋo "man", orgŋošavva "he became a man"
raŋaideat Xdeannja "fish", deannjaraŋavvá "they ate fish"
viemaiddrink Xáska "water", áskaviemade "someone will drink water"
eraidneed X, seek Xváhpa "boat", váhparravvirea "I did not need a boat"
čizzaidcause X, lead to Xurkŋos "death", urkŋohčinčizzadan "you will be the death of me [cause my death]"


A postbase is always the last element of an inflected noun. If a vowel precedes it, /j/ is inserted.

The postbase heaid is irregular: heaid ~ hai, han, hea, has ~ hii, hiid, hiin, heai, his ~ hái, háid, háin, há, hás. All tense/mood inflections and participles are based on the stem hi-, with the same suffixes as above.

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Edit history
on 05/12/18 16:15+4Hastricatitle change
on 07/11/18 17:26+6Hastricawip
on 24/09/18 13:30+23Hastricagrr
on 24/09/18 13:30+248Hastricaheaid
on 24/09/18 13:20-6Hastricasuffix reform
on 16/09/18 10:090HastricaFormatting messup
on 16/09/18 08:58-3HastricaFixed example
on 14/09/18 10:02+446Hastricaexample
on 14/09/18 09:51+554Hastricadetails
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