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Deinau pronouns, prepositions and relational nouns
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Pronoun declension
This public article was written by xroooox, and last updated on 18 Mar 2019, 04:16.

[comments] Menu 1. Pronouns 2. Absolutive 3. Ergative and accusative 4. Obliques 5. Locatives
?FYI...
This article is a work in progress! Check back later in case any changes have occurred.

[top]Pronouns

The pronominal word is inflected with person, number, clusivity and case. Since the root is marked for case and not for person, they could be called conjugated prepositions instead. Only the absolutive pronoun has different root forms for person, and they are suppletive.
In a former state of the language absolutive pronouns were used for all cases. Other cases grammaticalized from relational nouns, and the absolutive became specialized.
Pronouns are mandatory. There is no person inflection in verbs apart from third-non third stress change, so first and second person pronouns cannot be omitted unless they're inferable. Third person is omitted if full noun phrases are present.
Here is the general pronoun inflection:



singpaucpl


exclinclexclincl
-l-l-ga-l-ga-l-l-k-l-k-l
2° formal-s-s-ga-s-k
2° informal-t-t-ga-t-k
·-/·-z·-ga/·-z-ga·-k/·-z-k


[top]Absolutive

These pronouns are used for the subject of intransitive verbs. There is a root for each person that also receives number suffixes.



singpaucpl


exclinclexclincl
palpélgapélgalpélikpélkil
2° formalkùskusgàkusùk
2° informaltàgatàk
·zi·zigá·zik


Pal puttà.
pal
1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
.ABSAbsolutive (case)
TRANS object, INTR argument
pud-t-a
tall-NPSTNon-past (tense)
present, continuous and future
-IPFVImperfective (aspect)
'interrupted or incomplete'

I'm tall

·Ṣi ṇlaàg oma
·Ṣi
3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.ABSAbsolutive (case)
TRANS object, INTR argument
ṇlaàg
sweet.NMZNominaliser
makes other word a noun
o-m-a
NEGNegative (polarity)
not
-PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
-IPFVImperfective (aspect)
'interrupted or incomplete'

It wasn't sweet

[top]Ergative and accusative


The root for the ergative is ba-. Ergative is used for the agent of a transitive verb.

PmufXmvokicZpLwXwpFXzbFj
·Baṣ pàḍdlap ·ŋki ẓommu.
ba-·ṣ
3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.ERGErgative (case)
TRANS subject; agent
pà-ḍdla-p
CLClassifier
quantifies and/or replaces nouns
-house-ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
.DEFDefinite
"the"
·-ŋ-ki
3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
-CORREFUnknown code-CLClassifier
quantifies and/or replaces nouns
ẓom-m-u
burn-PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
-PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action

He burned his own house

Accusative mark is i-. It is used for the object of a transitive verb.

PmXmvufXnhbXlafimoXbzulfELwijmXldEa
Édelma ·ḍlilesub mo il baanṭumma
Édelma
Edelma.ERGErgative (case)
TRANS subject; agent
·ḍ(l)i-lesub
CLClassifier
quantifies and/or replaces nouns
.LOCLocative (case)
'in, on, at' etc
-river
mo
in
i-l
ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
-1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
ba-an-ẓum-m-a
DISTDistal (proximity)
far from speaker (and addressee)
-see-INTENSUnknown code-PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
-IPFVImperfective (aspect)
'interrupted or incomplete'

Edelma was staring at me there, in the river.




singpaucpl


exclinclexclincl
balbálgabálgalbálikbálkil
2° formalbàsbasgàbasùk
2° informalbàtbàdgabàtuk
·ba/·baṣ·baga/·baṣga·bak/·baṣik

Accusative



singpaucpl


exclinclexclincl
ilílgaílgalílikílkil
2° formalìsisgàisùk
2° informalìtìdgaìtuk
·i/·iz·iga/·izga·ik/·izik


[top]Obliques

These two have two functions. When they are used as pronominals they work in the same way as the ones above, with person and number inflection. They can also be unmarked and used as postpositions. Nouns are usually marked with an ergative case, oblique in some dialects.

ŋi: Dative
Dative is used to mark the indirect object.

Sàbgii mlo Mánne ŋil palŋè lamù.
PmuFlJFXlpXlGfnEXnmfLmohgiXbsF
s-àpigi-:
CLClassifier
quantifies and/or replaces nouns
-orange-INDFIndefinite
a nonspecific referent
.ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
mlo
INDFIndefinite
a nonspecific referent
Mánne
Manne.ERGErgative (case)
TRANS subject; agent
ŋi-l
DATDative (case)
indirect object; recipient, beneficiary, location
-1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
pal-ŋè
carry-VENVenitive (case)
coming 'towards'
.NMZNominaliser
makes other word a noun
la-m-ù
some-PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
-PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action

Manne brought some oranges for me.

ken: Instrumental/comitative

[top]Locatives

These work similar to the oblique pronominals within noun phrases. The noun modified must be locative (has prefix l-) and have the right case marking. If they are to be used as pronouns, the noun ·mab, 'body' is used to receive case, and the locative gets person marking. ·Mab is never definite, though.

U(ŋ) On
On (+loc)

·Mlab ul órrigankas!
Put it (the hat) on me!

·Zlazot uŋ órrigankas!
Put it on the dog!

mag
over
Saŋmásam đlúźmup mlab mágal kaánusmuu.
the bats flew away over me.

·Ene
near

Ra Through
Saŋmásam đlúźmup sdaŋ ra kaánusmuu.
The bats flew away through this opening of the cave.

Mo
In

·amu
around, by

ẓu
out
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