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PEM Cases
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Nominal and pronominal cases
This public article was written by january, and last updated on 8 May 2018, 21:02.

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 Proto-Pemme nouns declined for ten cases. The cases were marked with suffixes that had to vowel-harmonise to the same backness as the stem. The stems remained mostly unchanged, but could sometimes undergo consonant gradations or metathesis.

There were likely three numbers: singular, paucal, and plural. Paucal and plural were mostly merged by later stages of the mainstream language (eg.  Proto-Kuoggvi), but the distinction was retained in earlier break-off dialects (eg.  Proto-Elipan).

Here're a few examples:
*ürä (person)*suutsı (reindeer)*kʷölön (fish)
CaseSGSingular (number)
one countable entity
PAUPaucal (number)
a few, some
PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
PAUPaucal (number)
a few, some
PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
PAUPaucal (number)
a few, some
PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
NOMNominative (case)
TRANS subject, INTR argument
*ürä*ürät*üräl*suutsı*suutsıt*suutsıl*kʷölön*kʷölnöt*kʷölnöl
ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
*ürdä*ürättä*üräldä*suuhda*suuhıtta*suuhılda*kʷölöndä / kʷölnäd*kʷölnöttä*kʷölnöldä
GENGenitive (case)
possessive
*ürün*ürätün*ürälün*suutsun*suutsıtun*suutsılun*kʷölönün / kʷölnün*kʷölnötün*kʷölnölün
DATDative (case)
indirect object; recipient, beneficiary, location
*ürëŋ*ürätëŋ*ürälëŋ*suutseŋ*suutsıteŋ*suutsıleŋ*kʷölönëŋ / kʷölnëŋ*kʷölnötëŋ*kʷölnölëŋ
INSTRInstrumental (case)
'with' 'using'
*ürdök*ürättök*üräldök*suuhdok*suuhıttok*suuhıldok*kʷölöndök*kʷölnöttök*kʷölnöldök
ESSEssive (case)
'as, similar'
*ürpis*ürätpis*ürälpis*suuhpıs*suuhıtpıs*suuhılpıs*kʷölönpis*kʷölnötpis*kʷölnölpis
ADEAdessive (case)
near/by
*ürës*ürätës*ürälës*suuhjes*suuhıtes*suuhıles*kʷölönës / kʷölnës*kʷölnötës*kʷölnölës
LATLative (case)
movement, towards
*ürälä*ürätäl*üräläl*suutsala*suutsıtal*suutsalal*kʷölönäl / kʷölnälä*kʷölnötäl*kʷölnöläl
ELAElative (case)
'out of, from'
*üränën*ürätnën*ürälnën*suuhnen*suuhıtnen*suuhılnen*kʷölönnën*kʷölnötnën*kʷölnölnën
PROSProsecutive (case)
'across, along'
*üräsëm*ürätsëm*ürälsëm*suuhsem*suuhıtsem*suuhılsem*kʷölönsëm*kʷölnötsëm*kʷölnölsëm


Pronouns had the same cases as regular nouns. There were also possessive suffixes for each pronoun which attached to possessed noun stems:
1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
1PAUFirst person paucal (person)
we (us few)
1PFirst person plural (person)
we (inclusive or exclusive)
2SSecond person singular (person)
addressee (you)
2PAUSecond person paucal (person)
you (you few)
2PSecond person plural (person)
addressee (plural)
3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
3PAUThird person paucal (person)
they (they few)
3PThird person plural (person)
neither speaker nor addressee, they/them
NOMNominative (case)
TRANS subject, INTR argument
*min*mit / mat*mil*gʷön*gʷöt*gʷöl*in*ittë*illë
ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
*midä*matta*malda*gʷödä*gʷöttä*gʷöldä*idä*ittä*ildä
GENGenitive (case)
possessive
+ ___ POSSPossessive (case)
owns, has
*minün ___man*matun ___mat*malun ___mat*gʷönün ___kan*gʷötün ___kat*gʷölün ___kat*inün ___nan*ittün ___lan*illün ___lan
DATDative (case)
indirect object; recipient, beneficiary, location
*minëŋ / mëŋ*mateŋ*maleŋ*gʷönëŋ*gʷötëŋ*gʷölëŋ*inëŋ / iŋ*ittëŋ*illëŋ
INSTRInstrumental (case)
'with' 'using'
*midök*mattok*maldok*gʷödök*gʷöttök*gʷöldök*idök*ittök*ildök
ESSEssive (case)
'as, similar'
*mipis*matpıs*malpıs*gʷöpis*gʷötpis*gʷölpis*ipis*itpis*ilpis
ADEAdessive (case)
near/by
*minës / mës*mates*males*gʷönës*gʷötës*gʷölës*inës / is*ittës*illës
LATLative (case)
movement, towards
*minäl*matal*malal*gʷönäl*gʷötäl*gʷöläl*inäl*ittäl*illäl
ELAElative (case)
'out of, from'
*minën*matnen*malnen*gʷönën*gʷötnën*gʷölnën*inën*itnën*ilnën
PROSProsecutive (case)
'across, along'
*misëm*matsem*malsem*gʷösëm*gʷötsëm*gʷölsëm*isëm*itsëm*ilsëm



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