Possession in Ythnandosian
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This public article was written by soup, and last updated on 3 Dec 2017, 06:19.
Pronoun-noun possession and noun-noun possession work the same way. The inalienable is simply marked by the genitive case but the alienable is marked by the dative case and the postposition e by, at.
Pikgöu ṭi zenanan jènzar.
heart_attack-ERG.SG 1S.GEN SPEC-grandpa kill-3<3-PFV.PST
My grandpa died of a heart attack.
Ṭe e zènza mouvoḍ ȍm.
1S.DAT by SPEC-car shitpile be-IPFV.NPST
My car is a pile of shit.
Predicate possession is simply expressed by the verb èz have for inalienable possession, but for alienable possession the locative copula et followed by the genitive form of the possessor is used.
Kö nö lot èzzalüm?
Q even_one sibling have-3<2-IPFV.NPST
Do you have any siblings?
Te kòẓo sen ṭi.
none friend NEG-be_at-IPFV.NPST 1S.GEN
I have no friends.
Most nouns are either alienable or inalienable, but some can be both with different meanings.
Ṭe e mho müɣzaṣüm.
1S.DAT by lover love-3<1-IPFV.NPST
I love my girlfriend.
Ṭi mho müɣzaṣüm.
1S.GEN lover love-3<1-IPFV.NPST
I love my wife.
This distinction is more developed in informal speech. Formal speech tends to use separate words instead of double meanings, but some double meanings are more informal than others. The above example is one of the few "acceptable" ones and is allowed in the standard language, but in formal language the word dato spouse would be used instead in the second sentence.
Some examples of informal double meanings are:
Ji ama kav ȍm.
2S.GEN mom crazy be-IPFV.NPST
Your mom is crazy.
Je e ama kav ȍm.
2S.DAT by mom crazy be-IPFV.NPST
Your stepmom is crazy. (informal)
Ji datama kav ȍm.
2S.GEN stepmom crazy be-IPFV.NPST
Your stepmom is crazy. (normal)
Nui ü ṭif en hi.
only one shoe be_at-IPFV.NPST 3S.GEN
He only has one shoe.
Nui ü ṭif èzzarüm.
only one shoe have-3<3-IPFV.NPST
He only has one foot. (very informal)
Nui ü tilat èzzarüm.
only one foot have-3<3-IPFV.NPST
He only has one foot. (normal)
In general, the double meanings accepted in the standard language are those that are perceived as less ambiguous. The distinction in mho (boy/girl)friend, spouse is considered less confusing on its own than in pat shoe, foot.
Ythnandosian makes a distinction between alienable and inalienable possession. Alienable possession is expressed more "indirectly" than inalienable possession.