cws
Greetings Guest
home > library > journal > view_article
« Back to Articles ✎ Edit Article ✖ Delete Article » Journal
Ranyetzan Grammar
0▲ 0 ▼ 0
This public article was written by [Deactivated User], and last updated on 28 Apr 2020, 22:51.

[comments]
[Public] ? ?
?FYI...
This article is a work in progress! Check back later in case any changes have occurred.
Menu 1. Basics of Ranyetzan Grammar 2. Verb Morphology 3. Noun Morphology 4. Pronoun Morphology 5. Outro
Enjoy. I hope.
[edit] [top]Basics of Ranyetzan Grammar

Ranyetzan is an SOV language, with the word order changing to OSV in relative clauses and SVO in questions (together with the irrealis mood).

Ranyetzan dislikes the passive voice, but if it is used, a placeholder pronoun will be used as a subject, the 'true' subject will be put in the place of the object, and the verb put into the imperfect tense. For example:

Xulö thuebu żumhues.
3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.one 3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
.he see.IMFPImperfect past (tense/aspect)
literally: One (an unspecified party) was seeing him
He was seen.

Or:

Thue thuebu żumhues.
3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.he 3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
.he saw.IMFPImperfect past (tense/aspect)
literally: He was seeing him.
He was seen by him.

A specific marker used on the assigned stress location* in the direct object of the question.

There are no grammatical genders for nouns; however, nouns are grouped into two declensions/classes.

Verbs are inflected by tense and mood only, with suffixes for transitive verbs and suffixes for intransitive verbs.

Nouns are followed by adjectives in all cases.

When in the genitive case, the possessor comes first, then the possessee.

*This stress location is on the ultimate syllable if a consonant coda is present. If not, the penultimate syllable is the location of stress.

[edit] [top]Verb Morphology

Verbs have no true infinitive form; rather, all affixes are joined onto the verb itself directly, and whenever an infinitive is needed, the present tense form (which is free of all affixes) is used in that place. For example:

È żu.
1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
.i see.PRESPresent tense (tense)
current

I see.

È ñus żu.
1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
.i need.PRESPresent tense (tense)
current
see.INFInfinitive (TAM)
non-tensed verb

I need to see.

The negative is a suffix (-na) for both transitive and intransitive verbs

È thuebu żuna.
1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
.i it.3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
see.NEGNegative (polarity)
not

I do not see it.

The past tense is formed with the affix -da/da-.

È thuebu żuda.
1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
.i it.3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
see.PASTPast tense (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech

I saw it.

The future tense is formed with the affix -mhuer/mhuer-.

È thuebu żumhuer.
1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
.i it.3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
see.IMFPImperfect past (tense/aspect)
I was seeing it.

Modal Bases

There are 4 moods denoted by verb suffixes in Ranyetzan:

Epistemic: -chen (eg. one has the knowledge to X, one can X)
Deontic: -barömh (eg. one is permitted to X, one can X)
Obligatory: -ñus (eg. one must X - it is a duty)
Irrealis: -żlub (eg. if one were to X)

Further detail can also be added by adding prefixes denoting degrees of possibility and necessity:

rumh- = lower modal force, possibility (eg. should, could, may, ought)
thèč- = higher modal force, necessity (eg. can, must)

Although it is permitted to drop the use of these prefixes, the meaning of the sentence would be vaguer. If the prefixes are dropped, it is assumed that the modal force is higher. If a prefix is added, it puts emphasis specifically on the degree of possibility or necessity.

Examples:

Epistemic
È thuebu thèčżuchen.
I can see him/I am able to see him.

È thuebu rumhżuchen.
I should (be able to) see him.

Deontic
È thuebu thèčżubarömh.
I can see him/I am allowed to see him.

È thuebu rumhżubarömh.
I should (be allowed to) see him.

Obligatory

È thuebu thèčżuñus.
I must see him (as it is my duty).

È thuebu rumhżuñus.
I ought to see him.

Irrealis (meaning is changed depending on context)
È thuebu żużlub.
I might see him.

È thuebu żużlub, èbu thue ñusda.
I would see him if he wanted me.

The irrealis mood is also used in questions. For example:

Thue ñusżlub ènhbu?
3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.he need.IRRIrrealis
mood
1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
.i.ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient

Does he need me?

Desiderative mood

The desiderative mood is formed differently from the other moods listed above. The verb 'to want - mhäñč' is used in front of the verb, and prefixes denoting intensity can be added as well. For example:

È thuebu mhäñč żu.
I want to see him.

È thuebu thèčmhäñč żu.
I need to see him (it is my desire).

È thuebu rumhmhäñč żu.
I'd like to see him.

When desiring one noun, the word order changes from SOV to SVO. The construction is as follows:

È mhäñč thuebu.
I want him.

È thèčmhäñč thuebu.
I need him (it is my desire).

È rumhmhäñč thuebu.
I'd like him.

Forming Gerunds

A method of reduplication is employed to turn a verb into a gerund. The first syllable of the verb is reduplicated, then the suffix -çux is added. Of course, this means that all gerunds are Class 1 nouns (see below). For example:

żu (to see) = żużuçux (seeing - noun)
chrudzö (to believe) = chrudchrudzöçux (believing - noun)

[edit] [top]Noun Morphology

Ranyetzan nouns have no grammatical genders, though they are grouped into two declensions based on their endings:

Class 1 - nouns ending in -x, -b - these nouns are usually animate
Class 2 - nouns ending in -bl(e), š(e) - these nouns are usually inanimate

Class 1 Inflections

Nominative - fänx (man)
Accusative - fänxbu (man - object)
Plural - fänxuz (men)
Genitive - fänxöb (of the man)
Dative - fänčö (to/for the man - here, the grapheme <x> morphs into a <č>)

Class 2 Inflections

Nominative - mhäčubl (glass of water)
Accusative - mhäčublbu (water - object)
Plural - mhäčublan (glasses of water)
Genitive - mhäčublöx (of the water)
Dative - mhäčubut (to/for the water - here, the grapheme <l> is dropped)

[edit] [top]Pronoun Morphology

Pronouns are categorised as Class 1 'nouns', and so they take all the regular endings of Class 1 noun inflections. However, Ranyetzan makes the very clear distinction that pronouns are different from nouns.

In no cases can a pronoun be dropped, including a sentence with a copulative verb. Pronouns are only dropped when a command is given. For example:

Żu!
Look!/See!

As opposed to:

Jao thuebu żu.
You see him.


There's definitely some more I need to add here, but that's about it.
✎ Edit Article ✖ Delete Article
Comments
privacy | FAQs | rules | statistics | graphs | donate | api (indev)
Viewing CWS in: English | Time now is 05-Feb-23 15:03 | Δt: 234.4859ms