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Vodholk case
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The thirteen classical cases of spoken Vodholk
This public article was written by severy, and last updated on 17 Sep 2018, 06:07.

[comments] Menu 1. Nominative & accusative | NOM ACC 2. Genitive | GEN 3. Dative | D 4. Instrumental | INS 5. Locative | LOC 6. Adessive | ADE 7. Elative | ELA 8. Allative | ALL 9. Essive | ESS 10. Vialis | VIA 11. Stative | STAT 12. Comitative | COM [Slightly out-of-date: Spelling convention of <t> for /θ/ (old: <th> or <þ>) , use of <ɂ ʔ '> /ʔ/, absense of /i ʉ/]

Spoken Vodholk has 13 cases. Though cases are not fused with many other inflections (there is no gender in Vodholk, and number appears on the noun proper), five of the cases can be either antagonistic or protagonistic. This is called narrative animacy, and is used by the speaker to indicate whose side they're on, who they think is at fault, etc. The cases which can show narrative animacy are called the volitional cases.

Pronouns are often not marked for case, but they can be. This is a stylistic choice, and is more common in older speakers. Sometimes pronominal case is only used in instances where a speaker has been asked to clarify. Pronouns take the same case markers as nouns, with few exceptions. Nominal case is always used.

The case markings are shown here; further on, the meaning and usage of each case will be detailed.

Volitional casesGlossProtagonisticAntagonistic
NominativeNOMNominative (case)
TRANS subject, INTR argument
Ø-o
AccusativeACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
-'e-ok
GenitiveGENGenitive (case)
possessive
-(e)th-oth
DativeDUnknown code-pe-op
InstrumentalINSInstrumental (case)
'with', 'using'
-(e)s-os

Non-volitional casesGlossMorpheme
LocativeLOCLocative (case)
'in, on, at' etc
-(a)k
AdessiveADEAdessive (case)
near/by
-(a)p
ElativeELAElative (case)
'out of, from'
-(a)f
AllativeALLAllative (case)
'to, onto'
-'a
EssiveESSEssive (case)
'as, similar'
-(a)l
VialisVIAVialis (case)
route, manner [along]
-lak
StativeSTATStative (case)
attribute assignment
-kel
ComitativeCOMComitative (case)
'together with'
-sos

(The separation of 'volitional' and 'non-volitional' is something of a misnomer, as it is dubious at best whether or not a instrumental argument has any volition, and it is unlikely that a genitive's volition is actually important to the sentence. However, items marked with these cases do tend to be higher in the animacy hierarchy than others.)

[top]Nominative & accusative | NOM ACC

The protagonistic nominative is unmarked; the antagonistic takes a simple -(k)o suffix. The nominative argument is generally the one performing the key action in the clause: 'I hit him.' If there is a nominative argument, the verb must agree with it.

The protagonistic accusative takes the marking -'e, while the antagonistic has -(')ok. The accusative argument is generally the one being directly affected by the key action: 'I hit him.'

efelo olk'e eskathethoea human-NOM.ANTGAntagonistic (class, narrative alignment)
opposed to speaker
orc-ACC PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
-raid-3PL-3PL
'the humans raided the orcs'
[top]Genitive | GEN
PROTGProtagonistic (class, narrative alignment)
aligned with speaker
-(e)th ANTGAntagonistic (class, narrative alignment)
opposed to speaker
-oth
The genitive is the possessive case. It is suffixed to the noun which owns another argument, which will also have a case of its own. Unlike in English, the possessor usually follows its possession.
ékeo theketh pepeth baby.SG 3SG-GEN cute-3SG 'his baby is cute' paopo ákelth keth thlakath dog-NOM.ANTG parent.SG-GEN 1SG-GEN misbehave-3SG.NOM 'my parent's dog misbehaves'
[top]Dative | D
PROTG -pe ANTG -op The dative is an infrequently-used case and is nearly-extinct, being pushed out by the allative case. It is mainly used by older speakers. Where it is used it mainly refers to the recipient or destination of an object, or occasionally of speech.
epsé'e ákelpe ekoslokea flower.PL-ACC parent.SG-DAT PL-send-1SG.NOM-3PL 'I sent flowers to my parent' opkol e'elalthosal eathópe seal-PL PST-speak-3PL-4PL god.PL-DAT 'the seals spoke to the gods'
[top]Instrumental | INS
PROTG -(a)s ANTG -(s)os Instrumentals are tools; something used by the agent to achieve the action. Besides physical tools or weapons this can also refer to mental concepts such as advice or intellect.
po'aps lolka'e 'ek'ekath hammer-INS nail-ACC hit-1SG.NOM-3SG 'I hit the nail with the hammer' sel safe'e koláthes poth e'esfeskas OBVObviative (person, proximity)
not near/visible/important
house-ACC
plan-NMZNominaliser
makes other word a noun
.PL-INS
2SG-GEN PST-build-1SG.NOM-4Fourth person (person)
obviative, not present
SG
'I used your plans to build a house'
[top]Locative | LOC
-(a)k The locative case is put on location nouns to indicate that an action takes place in, at, on, or overtop of said place. It can also be used to specify the time at which something takes place.
lekak áeako ethekthas hill-LOC bear.SG there-3SG-4SG 'the bear is on the hill' thelés thal'okak 'asofolethoas cloud.PL village-LOC fly-DIMDiminutive
a smaller, lesser, weaker etc. version
-3PL-4SG
'the clouds float over the village' 'oaskop eos kalthosak see-1SG-2SG FUT tomorrow-LOC 'I'll see you tomorrow'
[top]Adessive | ADE
-(a)p The adessive is used to indicate something the action takes place near or underneath.
aésa elo'ethas 'osk'ap thopoth child.SG PST-run-3SG-4SG edge-ADE cliff-GEN 'the child ran near the edge of the cliff' kolsep eposthas kála table-ADE PST-hide-3SG-4SG cat.SG 'the cat hid under the table'
[top]Elative | ELA
-(a)f The elative case indicates the beginning point of an action, the source of a quality, or the topic of a book/ idea/ etc.
e'althokas thál'okaf PST-come-1SG-4SG village-ELA 'I came from the village' pleka'e Pelpef kaefeath story-ACC Belbe-ELA know-12First person inclusive (person)
speaker and addressee; you and me/us
PL-3SG
'We all know the story of Belbe.'
[top]Allative | ALL
-'a The allative marks action towards a place, or the end point of the action, or the recipient of a quality. It is also beginning to mark the recipient of an object, thus usurping the dative's purpose.
[top]Essive | ESS
-(a)l Essive indicates similarity between two nouns. It can also be used to specify the duration for how long an action occurs.
kaesa thafel poth thathal fé'kath fe'ethoalth neck jewellery-ESS 2SG-GEN teeth-ESS shark.SG-GEN look.like-3PL-REFL 'your necklace looks like a shark tooth' e'ethekas thelel PST-be.there-1SG-4SG year-ESS 'I was there for a year'


[top]Vialis | VIA
-lak

Vialis marks the route an action takes, or sometimes the method of transportation, or an action through another object or location.

[top]Stative | STAT
-kel

The stative marks attributed states and is used in conjunction with adjectival copular verbs. It is also used to indicate arguments which relate to one another as a sort of 'formal genitive.'

[top]Comitative | COM
-sos

The comitative indicates accompaniment or interpersonal social actions.
Comments (2)
[link] [quote] 19-Mar-15 03:04
ФMaakpauean
Ángialuma !
 severy [ADMIN] [CWSP STAFF]
@Sai22 thanks :)
[link] [quote] 18-Mar-15 21:52
Conlanger
CWS Conlanger
 Sai22 
This is really cool
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