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Mesyar Grammar
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The article that contains EVERYTHING
This public article was written by YɔhLlɔmɔ, and last updated on 24 Jul 2019, 20:43.

[comments]
12. Numbers
13. Pronouns
21. Yuantju
Menu 1. Noun-Noun Possesion 2. Adjectives 3. Genders 4. Stress on Words 5. Numbers 6. Object-Including Affix 7. Naergåo Någizel 8. Adpositions 9. 'Li' Omission 10. 'Iå' Inclusion 11. Åamer Tåiyel 12. Suffixes and prefixes 13. Åduçå 14. Få structures 15. Rey compound This article will have most of the grammar from Mesyar. WIP

[top]Noun-Noun Possesion

Noun-Noun Possession

In Mesyar, noun to noun possession is usually made simple by changing "The girl's house" to "The house of the girl," but this also means that "li" must be included in the sentence because of the usage of an adposition, in this case "of."
Mesyar uses a possessive pronoun to make a sentence with noun to noun possession, the possessive pronoun has to match with the noun who is possessing the other noun, and this possessive pronoun MUST go directly after the noun who is possessing. Also, since it would look kind of wrong and sound even worst, "nis" is added RIGHT AFTER the noun being possessed. It should look something like this:
The girl's house
The girl her house nis
Le nisa çu bae nis

Sometimes, using the "nis" instead of changing the sentence into a different order, can make it much shorter, or even longer. There is nothing wrong with using "The house of the girl" instead of "The girl's house," but in both cases, keep in mind that you must add "nis" or "li" where they belong! And, be careful, because "li" can be a little tricky to place, so if you are not feeling secure, just go with "nis." An example of "The house of the girl" compared to "The girl's house" would be:
Le bae te le nisa li
Le nisa çu bae nis

Noun to noun possession is pretty easy in Mesyar, it kind of sounds right to, otherwise, a literal translation of that same phrase, "The girl's house," with out "nis" would be something like "The girl her house."
Adjectival use of "nis"

"Nis" can also be used as a word connector, for example, with the word "sand castle," you would normally say "castle of sand," but, that means that you MUST add a "li" somewhere, but, with "nis," you can easily relate both words by changing "sand castle" into "castle sandnis."
Sand castle
Castle sandnis
Muyå terinenis

This doesn't need to be used exclusively for two "simple" nouns like "sand" and "castle," but it can be used for "rice farming," in this case "rice" is the descriptive word, so it is placed last, making it "farming ricenis," as you can see, with out the "nis," in English, it would become confusing since it would become "farming rice." This is how "rice farming" would look:
Rice farming
Farming ricenis
Seiyå ruzeonis

"Nis" can be used to relate two words to each other, almost making one of those words an adjective. By using "nis," you are able to skip transforming the sentence even more into using adpositions and "li."



[top]Adjectives

Adjectives - Basic Forms


In  Mesyar, adjectives are conjugated depending on the class and number of the noun that it is refering to. The different classes involved in the conjugation of adjectives are the animacy (person, animal or inanimate), the number (singular and plural), and the visibility (visible or not visible) of the noun. The 'unknown' class is used when the noun that the adjective is referring to is not know by the speaker (number or animacy). Adjective conjugation in Mesyar, follows a set of rules, but really often, adjectives are irregular and follow no rule, that is why some adjectives need to be memorized. In this case (see the table below), the adjective 'galo' (weak) is irregular in only one case, its singular animal invisible form, in this case, instead of eliminating the -o and adding -ås, 'galo' is conjugated into gåma.
Note: The infinitive form of an adjective in Mesyar is always ending in -o, the same as the singular person visible form.
Note: The adjectival form of a verb also needs to be conjugated.
Note: Adjectives ALWAYS go after the noun, there is no exception to the rule.

weak adjective
 SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
PRSNPerson (gender/class)
person, sentient being
.VISVisible (proximity)
thing within sight
-o
galo
-on
galon
ANMLAnimal (class/gender)
nonhuman animal
.VISVisible (proximity)
thing within sight

galå
-ån
galån
INInanimate (gender/class)
for non-living things
.VISVisible (proximity)
thing within sight
-et
galet
-en
galen
PRSNPerson (gender/class)
person, sentient being
.NVISNon visible (proximity)
Thing out of sight
-os
galos
-ous
galous
ANMLAnimal (class/gender)
nonhuman animal
.NVISNon visible (proximity)
Thing out of sight
-ås
gåma
-åus
galåus
INInanimate (gender/class)
for non-living things
.NVISNon visible (proximity)
Thing out of sight
-el
galel
-eus
galeus
UKNWUnknown gender (gender)
large or unknown things
-l
galol
-es
galoes


Adjectives - Forms II

Articles also change depending on other factors, if it is negative, superlative, adverbial and conditional.
The conditional form of an adjective is used when an adjective is being in a conditional phrase, for example "You are nice if you hug me," in this case, 'nice' would be conjugated as conditional.
Note: When applying this extra forms, there is an order - CLASS, NUMBER & VISIBILITY(NEG(COND(SUP/ADV))

weak adjective
 NEGNegative (polarity)
not
SUPSuperlative
English 'most', '-est'
ADVAdverbial
e.g. English '-ly'
CONDConditional (mood)
'if'
Ønol-
nolgalo
fae-
faegalo
-enen
galenen
yi-
yigalo


[top]Genders


In Mesyar, gender is applied to every noun, there are three different types of gender, masculine, feminine and neutral/unknow. Masculine nouns end with e |e| or r |ɹ|, feminine nouns end with a |a| and neutral/unknown gender nouns end with o |o| or å |ɑ|. But every noun can change gender by adding a different letter to the end of the word, this is what we call le fasdur humgiel |le fasduɹ humgiel| and le fasdur mafeo |le fasduɹ mafeo|, meaning the original gender and the special gender.
For example, wafata |wafata|, which means apple, is feminine in it's fasdur humgiel, but wafatae |wafatae| is apple in it's masculine fasdur mafeo.
In Mesyar everything can be masculine, feminine and neutral/unknown, but for the sake of organization, each noun has an original gender which can then change into a different one.

[top]Stress on Words

In Mesyar, most nouns end in a, å, e, o or r. Those nouns that end in a vowel are always stressed on the second last syllable, except when the noun is monosyllabic. When a noun ends in "or", is the last syllable the one that is stressed. When a noun ends in "år", the third last syllable is stressed. Every other possible ending makes the noun stressed on its second last syllable. When a noun is plural, the stress is placed where it would have been when singular.
Verbs, unlike nouns, can end in any letter making it possible to have a lot of different combinations of words. Verbs in their infinitive form, with the affix "ka", are stressed on the second last syllable if there are at least two syllables after "ka", if there is only one syllable after "ka", it's the last syllable the one stressed. Once the verb is conjugated, the rules of stressing changes. If an already conjugated verb has more than two syllables, then, the third last syllable is stressed. Those conjugated verbs that are shorter than three syllables are always stressed on the syllable that is the farthest from the last one.
Adjective are stressed according to their conjugation, every adjective that is on its simplest form is stressed on the second last syllable. Every adjective conjugated in any form that describes the object while it not being visible is stressed on the last syllable. Every other conjugation of an adjective is stressed on the second last syllable.
Any other word that isn't a proper noun, a noun, an adjective, or a verb, is stressed on the second last syllable, or on the last syllable when monosyllabic.

Proper Nouns

Proper nouns don't have any specific rule for stressing, the can be stressed on any of their syllables, it is just a matter of memorization. Usually, the names of countries, rivers, oceans or any other geographical feature, is stressed on te second last syllable.

Irregularities

Stressing in Mesyar is pretty easy, and even if you don't stress the words on the right place, you will stil be understood, still, there are some irregularities that don't follow the rule of stress, but, since there is no rule for them, you just have to learn where to stress those irregular words.

[top]Numbers


Numbers start pretty simple but it can get really confusing, just remember, it is all based on adding numbers to the left to make it bigger, just like you would do it in Math.

Basic numbers 0-10


Zero - Nå
One - Ut
Two - Uin
Three - Dui
Four - Eid
Five - Mein
Six - Gae
Seven - Båe
Eight - Otae
Nine - Mue
Ten - Mien

More numbers 11-99



From the numbers 11 to 99, things change a little bit, in the case of 11 to 19, you add "mien" (ten) and "y" to the initial number,
for example: 11 - "mien" (ten) "y" "ut" (one), mienyut

if that number starts with a consonants, instead of "y," you add "ya,"
for example: 13 - "mien" (ten) "ya" "dui" (three), mienyadui

For numbers like 20, 30 ,40, etc... you add the initial number, and then "baçu,"
for example: 30 - "dui" (three) "baçu," duibaçu

And if you want a number like 23, you follow the same rule as for 11 to 19, but using the word for 2 instead of 10 and using "ba" instead of "y" or "ya",
for example: 21 - "uin" (two) "ba" "ut" (one), uinbaut



Eleven - Mienyut
Twelve - Mienyuin
Thirteen - Mienyadui
Twenty - Uinbaçu
Twenty-one - Uinbaut
Thirty - Duibaçu
Thirty-one - Duibaut
Forty - Eidbaçu
Fifty - Meinbaçu
Sixty - Gaebaçu
Seventy - Båebaçu
Eighty - Otaebaçu
Ninety - Muebaçu

Bigger numbers 100-9999+


Let's make this easier, I will just write a big number and break each rule slowly, 63481 - gaebaduimaiye eidbå otaebaut - let's break it down.

"Gae" (six) + "ba" + "dui" (three) = 63 + "maiye" (one thousand) = 63000
63000 + "eid" (four) + "bå" (hundred) = 63400
63400 + "otae" (eight) "ba" + "ut" (one) = 63481 = Gaebaduimaiye eidbå otaebaut

So, this is basically all you need to know, if you want to say one million you just say how many thousands (maiye) has one million, in case that you run out of numbers, imagine "one billion," just say "999999 maiye + 999999 maiye + 999999 maiye + etc..." There are also specific names for "one million" and "one billion," but they are more informal.

[top]Object-Including Affix


When using a verb that directly refers to a pronoun, the object pronoun can be swapped into the verb. This is called "Teno nuekå," meaning "Hidden Object." It must be taken into account that this can only be used in verbs that directly address the object such as "I like you," "He eats it," "They open it," but obviously, in Mesyar. The affix is added in the beggining of the verb after it being conjugated, in case of there being some kind of auxiliary or word modifying the verb, the affix is added to what would be the root of the verb. It is also added after the negation of a verb AFF(NEG(VERB))

I would have eaten it.
Lå çibåtulrie


The affixes are as follow:

ha - First Person Singular
ta - First Person Plural
ma - Second Person Singular
la - Second Person Plural
çi -Third Person Singular
çå - Third Person Plural

[top]Naergåo Någizel


Naergåo någizel, or 'adhesive past,' is a special feature that can be used when conjugating verbs in the past tense. It involves the verb itself plus the subject's article. It must be taken into consideration that this rule can only be applied when the subject is visible, meaning that there is no pronoun substituting the real noun, and there must also be definite article along the subject of the sentence.
It is called 'adhesive past' because it 'adheres' to the subject, more specifically, to the article. It works the following way:

If you were to say 'The boy went to the park,' without the knowledge of this rule, you would say 'Le nuso moule ås yedjå li,' but if you apply the rule of naergåo någizel, in this case we can because the subject (boy) is followed by a definite article (the), it would become 'Len nuso mou ås yedjå li'

As you can see, 'n' is added to the article 'le,' and the verb, in this case 'kamou' becomes 'mou' which is first person singular, present.

The crash happened here
Le leår laihele ahaya
Len leår laihe ahaya


The clocks were broken
Le ubeås eben diseus
Len ubeås lua diseus


This grammatical rule is optional and the normal past can be used instead, but it sounds more natural to use the naergåo någizel.

[top]Adpositions


Adpositions in Mesyar work the same as in a lot of other languages, the only exception is that they toggle a little but important grammatical rule. That grammatical rule is called "Li çu dåmar nis," meaning "Li's rule," it could also be called "Le dåmar te li li," but that would sound to repetitive because, again, of the usage of "Li çu dåmar nis."
Basically, what the rule does is obligate you to add "li" at the end of a sentence that contains a pre/adposition, it sounds easy, and you can see how it is used in the example below:

"Le mogor te le naåbå li"
The cave of the cave bear


In the sentence above, the adposition "of" is used, so, at the end of the sentence, "li" is placed. But the rule gets a bit more complicated since the adpositions can add up so that "li" doesn't have to be constantly added:

"Le amkan te le darbå uben bi le zuye li, le darbå ube tuhe le guaçå li"
The eggs of the chicken are in the box, the chicken is under the table


This rule is usually skipped in titles of works, like book or movie titles, or in songs because it doesn't sound as nice, it is also usually skipped in casual talking.

[top]'Li' Omission


The particle 'li' can be excluded on titles or short sentences, and is usually avoided on daily conversations, but there are actual grammatical rules to the omission of the particle. Even though this omissions happen because of actual grammatical rules, they don't have to be followed, and instead, the particle 'li' can still be used, but it is usually dropped to shorten the sentences.

1. 'Li' is ommited when the noun that the preposition is refering to is refering to/or will happen at a future scenario. This can be seen if the verb is conjugated in future tense.

I will be at the park
Erbe keo le yedjå


2. 'Li' is ommited when the sentence is imperative, includes a preposition that complements the imperative verb, and the adposition concludes on a plural noun.

Walk with the dogs!
Hatårite djån le hangures!


3. 'Li' is ommited when the adposition is targeting a possesive pronoun (mine, ours, yours, his, hers, theirs).

My papers are on top of yours
Mel yudjies ube maål mamei


[top]'Iå' Inclusion


'Iå' could be considered some kind of auxiliary word or even a different version of 'li.' It works a little different than 'li' but it is still essential in the structuring of many sentences. 'Iå' is used to mark position detailed by an adposition like 'on,' 'over,' 'after,' etc... It is placed before the adposition but only if the word directly related to the adposition is indefinite plural, in which case, the number is dropped to singular and the article is removed from the sentence. This rule doesn't exclude 'li' from appearing after the adposition-noun clause.

It was on a few boxes
Ebe maå lie zuyes li
Ebe iå maå zuye li


This rule can't be skipped, not even on casual conversations or movie/book titles like it can happen with 'li.'

[top]Åamer Tåiyel


Every single verb can become a negation of the action by adding 'nol' to the beginning of the conjugated verb. And that is true no matter what, but the imperative form (ridjå åamerel) has a second type of negation, it can either follow the addition of 'nol' or it can follow the Åamer Tåiyel, which means the Superior Imperative, rule.
Using 'nol,' an imperative-declined verb would look like this:

Don't talk with your mouth full!
Nolpåtjete!


But if you use the Åamer Tåiyel, it would look like this:

Don't talk with your mouth full!
Påtjeç!


The rule goes as follows:

1PFirst person plural (person)
we (inclusive or exclusive)
.IMPImperative (mood)
command
- Instead of nol-VERB-ten --> -eçe/çe
2SSecond person singular (person)
addressee (you)
.IMPImperative (mood)
command
- Instead of nol-VERB-te --> -eç/ç
2PSecond person plural (person)
addressee (plural)
.IMPImperative (mood)
command
- Instead of nol-VERB-tein --> -eçei/çei

In this case, most people pronounce the 'ç' as /ʃ/ rather than /ç/.

[top]Suffixes and prefixes


Adjectiviser


When a word needs to be used as an adjective but there currently is no adjective for said noun, a special suffix is added to the word.
For example, in "Sado Kenowewo," meaning Dwarf Lord, the noun "Kenowe" is being written along with the adjectiviser "-wo," in this case, the now-adjective noun doesn't have to be conjugated according to the rule for adjective, instead, it can be left unconjugated. Both "Sian Kenowewo" and "Sian Kenowewon" would be right, I know that in this case, dwarfs are being categorized as human, but that is how it works, meaning that as long as "-wo" is added to adjectivise the noun, it will be alright.
Also, to avoid hard words to pronounce, "-wo" is added when the original noun ends in a vowel, and "-owo" when in a consonant.

[top]Åduçå


When structuring sentences in which the object is definite and plural while the verb tense is either present, past, or future perfect, and such tense is complemented with a time adverb that negates such event ever occuring such as "never," the integrity of the sentence along with the grammar changes. First and foremost, the object would lose its plural state and become singular, and in order to be understood when utilized, the adverb would fuse with the auxiliary verb present in the perfect tenses in the form of "har," "han," or "wohan," which would become "harår," "hanår," and "wohanår" respectively.

I have never heard my dogs bark
Erke han rupeåp mel hangures kawåu
Hanår rupeåp mel hangur kawåu


This rule can't be skipped as it is embedded in the proper grammar of the language and misusing it would destroy the meaning of the sentence. This rule is called "Åduçå."

[top]Få structures


Similarly to the English language, the word 'only' can lead to very distinct meanings of a sentence. In Mesyar, such word, named "toå," can mislead sentences as well, but due to its normally unchanged position within a sentence, there are different structures to emphasize what it is being meant by "toå." It must be said that these structures, also called "få structures" or "hisuda fånis," are not enforced, but rather, they are just a tool to help make the sentence comprehensible, although they don't necessarily need to be used.

She told him that she loved him
Çirokelelewån çimuzele


Only she told him that she loved him
Toå çirokelelewån çimuzele
Toå gane få çirokelelewån çimuzele


She only told him that she loved him
Toå çirokelelewån çimuzele
Toå rokelele få geke kawe çimuzele


She told only him that she loved him
Toå çirokelelewån çimuzele
Rokelele toå geke få kawe çimuzele


She told him only that she loved him
Toå çirokelelewån çimuzele
Toå çirokelele få kawe çimuzele


She told him that only she loved him
Çirokelelewån toå çimuzele
Çirokelelewån toå gane få çimuzele


She told him that she only loved him
Çirokelelewån toå çimuzele
Çirokelelewån toå çimuzele få


She told him that she loved only him
Çirokelelewån toå çimuzele
Çirokelelewån muzele toå geke få


Both "toå" and "få" create a compound in a parethesis-like way in which the portion within is what is being targeted by the word "only," that way, confusion is reduced when there is not enough context.

[top]Rey compound


Sometimes, when mixing two verbs consecutively in a sentence where both are preceded by an adposition such as "to" and the verbs are in their infinite form, such as "to survive and thrive," these two can join together into a simplified word thanks to the addition of "rey" and the depletion of "k."

I live to eat and sleep
Nuå ån kabåtul yå kabuçeå li
Nuå ån kabåtulreyabuçeå li


This compound allows for a reduction in the use of the word "yå," and a depletion of any possible prioritized concept such as that the verb coming first was meant to be more important than the following one. This rule however does not include the repetition of the same verb and those must be then followed by "yå." When uniting more than one verb, the compound behaves differently since only the last two verbs are combined with "rey" and the previous ones use a regular "r" instead.

I came here to sunbathe, eat and sleep
Madjaçana ahaya ån katoyob, kabåtul yå kabuçeå li
Madjaçana ahaya ån katoyobrabåtulreyabuçeå li
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