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Ancient-Mawic grammar I.
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Phonology, orthography, ect...
This public article was written by [Deactivated User], and last updated on 3 Jun 2020, 07:38.

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Menu 1. Phonetic inventory 2. Consonants 3. Vowels 4. Allophony 5. Vowel harmony 6. Syllable structure 7. Agglutination 8. Orthography
[edit] [top]Phonetic inventory

[edit] [top]Consonants

  • Nasal: m, n, ɲ (ñ), ŋ
  • Plosive: p, b, t, tʷ (tw), tʰ (th), d, k, kʷ (kw), g, gʷ (gw), q, qʰ (qh)

  • [edit] [top]Vowels

    close /i/ i /i:/ í /ĩ/ ĩ/y/ ü /y:/ ű/u/ u  /u:/ ú /ũ/ ũ
    close-mid /e:/ é/ø/ ö /ø:/ ő/o/ o /o:/ ó /õ/ õ
    mid /ə/ ë
    open-mid /ɛ/ e /ɛ̃/ ẽ
    open /a/ a /a:/ á /ã/ ã

    [edit] [top]Allophony

    [edit] [top]Vowel harmony

    AWM distinguishes three classes of vowels. Front, back and central/neutral. In one word front and back vowels can not occour together. Neutral vowels do not change. They can occour anywhere. Every vowel (except ë, because it is neutral) has at least a front and a back pair. In ancient-mawic the vowel harmony affects the whole word, not just the affixes. Even if it's a compound word, the vowels need to change.

    For example:

    dúgu (life) + -(ö)n (genitive affix) + gwüb (water) = dúguŋgwub (alcohol)

    Vowels may change multiple times when combining with other words. For example you have an /i/. The back pair of /i/ is /u/. /i/ turns into /u/. If /u/ needs to turn back into front vowel, it will never turn into /i/. /u/ always turns into /y/. The table bellow shows all the rules of second fronting.

    front >back >front

    [edit] [top]Syllable structure

    Syllable structure of AWM is complex. Words often begin and end with clusters of three consonants, like: mbrez, çklim, drtehq, pmfew, tjdeş, lekşrk.


    A syllable may begin with any consonants, but they can not end with labialised, like t͡ʃʷ, ʃʷ, kʷ, tʷ .

    [edit] [top]Agglutination

    AWM is an agglutinating language. To change the grammatical meaning of the word, you must put affixes and prefixes to the stem word.

    fát - fát = speak
    fát-ü - fát-ü = spoke
    fát-ü-lígü - fát-ü-lígü = poem (lígü=song)
    fát-ü-lígü-fárála - fát-ü-lígü-fárála = poetry (fárála=art)
    tügün-fát-ü-lígü-fárála - tügün-fát-ü-lígü-fárála = Their poetry
    tügün-fát-ü-lígü-fárála-gü - tügün-fát-ü-lígü-fárála-gü = Their poetries
    (this might sound weird in english, but in AWM the plural of poetry is completely understandable if we talk about styles of poetry or ect...)
    tügün-fát-ü-lígü-fárála-gi-zin - tügün-fát-ü-lígü-fárála-gi-zin = From their poetries

    It is an extreme, but still probable example of affixation.

    [edit] [top]Orthography

     Ancient-Mawic is written with a combination of writing systems, the sãgwá and the ḑgáwthál. Sãgwá is a logography with more than hundred symbols. Each symbol represents a whole word.

    sãçáw - sãçáw - book
    gjötr - gjötr - fruit
    meqz - meqz - cat

    In the earlier times several sãgwá symbols were used as alphabetic charactes, to express more accurate meanings.

    áç-ükwí sũ-kájü sinit-ükwí-turjo
    Áç-ü sũ-k sinit-ü-t.
    The king married the woman.
    áç-ükwí -kájü sinit-ükwí -turjo
    king-dog woman-house marry-dog-farm

    In some contexts this might be confusing, so later some symbols were simplified to mark only alphabetic characters. This was the ḑgáwthál system. It is used together with the sãgwá symbols.

    áç-ü sũ-k sinit-üt
    Áç-ü sũ-k sinit-üt.
    Áç-ü sũ-k sinit-üt.
    The king married the woman.

    In romanisation sometimes we use "-" to separate symbols, and to mark borders. For example the word: Ümẽt - I get/understand could be written as ümẽt, but we used the symbol üm (üm - beard) which might be misleading altough the pronounciation is the same. The right way to write is ü-mẽt - ü-mẽt.

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