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Basgitian Grammar
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another utter mess written by yours truly
This public article was written by [Deactivated User], and last updated on 7 Jun 2020, 19:35.

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Menu 1. Verbs 2. Pronouns 3. Nouns 4. Relative clauses 5. Passive Voice 6. Example Sentences 7. The End...
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 Basgitian , an agglutinative lang made by uh, me.


In  Basgitian , verbs conjugate to show tense, aspect, mood, evidentiality and (depending on how you look at it) person.

NB: the example verb 'atá' to have is used to show conjugations.

Tenses

- Present
- Non-present

PresentNon-Present
atáatatá


Note that the present is unmarked.

Aspects

- Perfective
- Imperfective
- Inchoative

PerfectiveImperfectiveInchoative
atasátáatataxagataxág


Moods

- Subjunctive

atá > atabáxi

Evidentiality distinctions

- Witness
- Nonwitness

WitnessNon-Witness
atáxasatá


Note that the witness form is unmarked.

Negatives

Negatives are marked by the suffix -gi. For example:

atá (have) > atági (do not have)

[edit] [top]Pronouns

Basgitian uses 5 distinct forms of pronouns, shown below:

1Ssaxá
2S+PLgaá
3S+PLtiá
1PL (exclusive)gabi
1PL (inclusive)gitá


Singular and plural forms for 2nd person are identical. This is the same for the 3rd person.

Pronouns can also be used as suffixes to show a) possession and b) the person of a verb. For example:

Possession

bá (apple) > básaxá (my apple)
bá > bátiá (their apple)
bá > bágitá (our (incl.) apple)

Verbs and Person

atá (have) > atásaxá (I have)
atá > gibaxixa atatágabi (yesterday we (excl.) had)
atá > ataxágaá (you (will) start to have)


Declination for nouns is limited. Apart from those mentioned above, the only other time nouns decline is to show plural forms. Initial syllable reduplication is used to mark this:

bá (apple) > bá-bá (apples)

Noun incorporation

Noun incorporation is employed by Basgitian the majority of the time, creating pretty little things like:

báxatásaxá
بوأتوساءو
/bõʔat̺os̺aʔo/
bá - x - atá - saxá
apple - EEpenthetic
something 'meaningless' inserted for structural reasons
- have - 1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I

I have an apple.
literally: apple-have-I

Here you can also see the OVS word order in Basgitian. Fun.

[edit] [top]Relative clauses


Relative clauses always come after their respective noun, and the relative pronoun 'háx' is used at the start of the relative clause for everything 'wh-' and 'that' ('wh-' words in terms of questions have separate Basgitian equivalents). Some examples of relative clauses in use are shown below:

Bá, háx gibaxixa bixisaxá, bagisaxá.
بو هاءݢيبائأ بيئساءخو باݢيساءو
/bõ hoʔ gibãʔiʔa biʔis̺aʔo bãgis̺aʔo/
apple RELRelative yesterday buy.NPRSNon-present (tense)
time other than now
-1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
eat.PRESPresent tense (tense)
current
-1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I

I am eating an apple, which I bought yesterday.

Saxáxapágati, háx bágáatiá.
ساءوأڤوݢاتي هوءبوݢواتيو
/s̺aʔoʔapõgat̺i hoʔ bõgoat̺ʲo/
1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
-see.PRESPresent tense (tense)
current
-man RELRelative apple-sell.PRESPresent tense (tense)
current
-3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee

The man who sells apples sees me.

[edit] [top]Passive Voice

To form the passive voice in Basgitian, the construction is as follows:

- The agent is put in the standard S (subject) position in the sentence (normal word order is OVS)
- The verb 'gixá' (which is never conjugated in this case, roughly meaning 'to hit') is inserted before the patient

So the patient is said to get hit by the agent with the verb.

Examples:

Gibaxi, táx saxá gixá tiábagitágaá sigaxi.
It must have been eaten once yesterday by you for me.

[edit] [top]Example Sentences

WIP.

[edit] [top]The End...

And that's about it. More craziness. More apples. Thanks for reading.
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