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Alienable and Inalienable Nouns
This public article was written by [Deactivated User], and last updated on 30 Nov 2021, 13:04.

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Menu 1. Possessed Nouns 2. Inalienable Nouns 3. Differences in Semantics Edievian-Aligian Creole (also known as Doda in English, and henceforth in this article) carries many vestiges of Edievian grammar within, such as alienability. Doda nouns are split into two classes, alienable and inalienable. Alienability refers to a noun's requirement of being possessed - some nouns are required to be possessed, while others are not.

The majority of Doda nouns are alienable, meaning that they do not need to be possessed. A smaller number of nouns are inalienable, and require grammatical possession, even if there is no explicit possessor. Most inalienable nouns are family members, body parts, or things that ordinarily come in groups.

[edit] [top]Possessed Nouns

Grammatical possession in Doda is a mixed system inherited from both Aligian and Edievian. A possessed noun is preceded by se (descended from the Edievian definite articles, siáe and sié), then followed by its possessor, which is followed by o (another Edievian descendant, from inalienable genitive o and u, though its position after the noun is due to Aligian influence). To illustrate, the word afu, "letter":

    afu
    letter
    "letter"

    se afu be o
    POSSPossessive (case)
    owns, has
    letter woman GENGenitive (case)
    possessive

    "(the) woman's letter"


[edit] [top]Inalienable Nouns

As previously mentioned, nouns such as body parts, family members, and portions of groups are usually inalienable. These nouns require the possessive particle se, even if there is no explicit possessor:

    se doko
    POSSPossessive (case)
    owns, has
    father

    "(a/the) father"

    Se doko ose duná kane doda to i.
    POSSPossessive (case)
    owns, has
    father COPCopula
    used to link the subject of a sentence with a predicate
    -PRESPresent tense (tense)
    current
    .AFFAffirmative (polarity)
    positive, opposite of NEG
    here for speak 2SSecond person singular (person)
    addressee (you)
    DATDative (case)
    indirect object; recipient, beneficiary, location

    "A father is here to talk to you."


An interesting feature is that many inalienable nouns start with /n/ due to Edievian's epenthetic /n/ inserted at the end of the definite articles siáe/sié when the following noun began with a vowel:

    Edievian: es "arm"
    Doda: ne "arm"

    Edievian: eb (oc) "(my) eyes"
    Doda: nevo "eye"

    Edievian: omáirg "fingers"
    Doda: nomá "finger"

    Edievian: odiûirs "members"
    Doda: nozu "member"


[edit] [top]Differences in Semantics

A noun's alienability can determine meaning between homophones, such as emo "mother" (inalienable) and emo "empire" (alienable). Other words change in nuance when possessed: sutá is "land, soil" when not possessed, but is "territory" when possessed.

    Se emo wo osi fogamo.
    POSSPossessive (case)
    owns, has
    mother SBJVSubjunctive mood (mood)
    desired or possible events
    COPCopula
    used to link the subject of a sentence with a predicate
    -PRESPresent tense (tense)
    current
    .NEGNegative (polarity)
    not
    powerful

    "The mother may not be powerful."

    Emo wo osi fogamo.
    empire SBJVSubjunctive mood (mood)
    desired or possible events
    COPCopula
    used to link the subject of a sentence with a predicate
    -PRESPresent tense (tense)
    current
    .NEGNegative (polarity)
    not
    powerful

    "The empire may not be powerful."


Some words pick up vernacular or slang meanings when possessed:

    Dovame suká ni ogane?
    where berry PLPlural (number)
    more than one/few
    COPCopula
    used to link the subject of a sentence with a predicate
    .LOCLocative (case)
    'in, on, at' etc
    -PRESPresent tense (tense)
    current
    .AFFAffirmative (polarity)
    positive, opposite of NEG

    "Where are the berries?"

    Dovame se suká ni ogane?
    where POSSPossessive (case)
    owns, has
    berry PLPlural (number)
    more than one/few
    COPCopula
    used to link the subject of a sentence with a predicate
    .LOCLocative (case)
    'in, on, at' etc
    -PRESPresent tense (tense)
    current
    .AFFAffirmative (polarity)
    positive, opposite of NEG

    "Where are the testicles?"
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