cws
Greetings Guest
home > library > journal > view_article
« Back to Articles » Journal
Lesson 2e
0▲ 0 ▼ 0
Basic Sentences and Word Order
This public article was written by Cirton Historian, and last updated on 29 Nov 2020, 10:37.

[comments]
10. Lesson 2d
11. Lesson 2e
12. Lesson 2f
13. Lesson 3a
14. Lesson 3b
15. Lesson 3c
16. Lesson 3d
17. Lesson 3d
18. Lesson 3e
19. Lesson x
20. Lesson x2
21. Lesson x3
?FYI...
This article is a work in progress! Check back later in case any changes have occurred.


Now that we've seen many words and some grammar in Cirtunese, let's check how we can make some basic sentences!

Example Sentences

EnglishCirtonCirton (I`PA)
I have a book.dymN hjke./jan̩ χakɛ/
My name is Haisen.dymN hjc bqbchja1jijse9./jan̩ χasa zɐ̆ 'χaiʃɛ̃/
I like you.hjfmr bqbcdye./χafaɾɐ̆ zɐ̆ jɛ/
I don't like you.hjfmrw bqbcdye./χafaɾʷɐ̆ zɐ̆ jɛ/
I dislike you.hjfwmr bqbcdye./χafʷaɾɐ̆ zɐ̆ jɛ/
I don't dislike you.hjfwmrw bqbcdye./χafʷaɾʷɐ̆ zɐ̆ jɛ/
There is water.cmN np./san̩ pʰa/
I tell you the name.he2mr bqbchjc bHdye./χa'ɛɾɐ̆ zɐ̆ χasa ʔɛχtɐ̆ jɛ/
The girl gives the fish to a flower.sjtqmN bqbcnjpjs bHnjqjpjkoa2./ʃadʌn̩ zɐ̆ pʰaʃa ʔɛχtɐ̆ pakɔ'a/


Analysis

So, there's a bunch of things happening here...
Let's take a closer look and see how this works.

Starting with the phrase "I have a book": dymN hjke. /jan̩ χakɛ/
Word for word, it's:
dymN hjke.
ja ha'kɛ
I have book
We use mn- or mN- /n̩/ after a noun to show possession, similar to the "'s" in English, or the Genitive Case in many languages.
This literally translates to "My book", however, since there is no additional information, it can be interpreted as "I have a book".


Next, the phrase "My name is Haisen": dymN hjc bqbchja1jijse9. /jan̩ χasa zɐ̆ 'χaiʃɛ̃/
dymN hjc bqbchja1jijse9.
jan̩ χaˈsa zɐ̆'χaiʃɛ̃.
My name is Haisen

Actually, there is no verb in this sentence, though cmr- /ˈsaːɾɐ̆/ (to be) is implied.
Then, even without a explicit verb, we can use a noun followed by the direct object prefix bqbc- /zɐ̆/.


Next, let's examine the phrase "I like you": hjfmr bqbcdye. /χafaɾɐ̆ zɐ̆ jɛ/
hjfmr bqbcdye.
hafaːɾɐ̆ zɐ̆
I like you.

In this phrase, there is no subject, but dy- /ja/ is implied.
The rest is simple: A verb + direct object marker + pronoun.


Let's skip to the phrase "There is water": cmN np. /san̩ pʰa/
cmN np.
san̩ pʰa
There is water.

cmN- literally means "existence's", and could be translated to "there is".
There is no need for a direct object marker this time because the phrase is very simple, but it could be used before the noun.


Next up is our first example of a sentence with an indirect object: "I tell you the name": he2mr bqbchjc bHdye. /χa'ɛɾɐ̆ zɐ̆ χasa ʔɛχtɐ̆ jɛ/
I tell you the name.
χa'ɛɾɐ̆ zɐ̆ χasa ʔɛχtɐ̆
he2mr bqbchjc bHdye.

In Cirtunese, the prefix bHd- /ʔɛχtɐ̆/ is our indirect object marker.


Onto the final example, which is a reference to a certain video... sjtqmN bqbcnjpjs bHnjqjpjkoa2. /ʃadʌn̩ zɐ̆ pʰaʃa ʔɛχtɐ̆ pakɔ'a/
sjtqmN bqbcnjpjs bHnjqjpjkoa2.
ʃadʌn̩ zɐ̆ pʰaʃa ʔɛχtɐ̆ pakɔ'a
The girl gives the fish to a flower.

In this... mindbendingly interesting sentence, we see that the idea of "giving" something can be expressed a little bit differently in Cirtunese.
The structure is:
<Subject> + mN- /n̩/ OR <Subject> + nmqmr- /narːɐ̆/
bqbc-/zɐ̆/ + <Given object>
bH-/ʔɛχtɐ̆/ + <Receptor>

Extra Notes

It should also be noted that articles are not mandatory in Cirtunese, and if one really needs to specify the quantity of an object, for example, they can use numbers instead.
lo2 njqjpjkoa2. /la'ɔ pakɔ'a/ One flower.
le2 njqjpjkoa2. /la'ɛ pakɔ'a/ Three flowers.

Definiteness can also be specified by using adverbs + mN-.
tamN njqjpjkoa2. /tan̩ pakɔ'a/ This flower.
temN njqjpjkoa2. /tɛn̩ pakɔ'a/ That flower.

Last but not least, the word order is actually quite flexible, provided one uses affixes like "mN-"/n̩/ ,"bqbc-"/zɐ̆/ or "bH"/ʔɛχtɐ̆/.
Hence we can also have sentences like: "np cmN " and "hjke dymN " (Inverting the word order).


Phew...
We're finally going into the complex sentences!
Explaining them in detail is a bit more difficult than I'd expected... But it's still quite fun~
Thanks for reading!

bGcijto9m

< Lesson 2d |Exercise | Lesson 3 >

< Lesson 1e |
Comments (0)
privacy | FAQs | rules | statistics | graphs | donate | api (indev)
Viewing CWS in: English | Time now is 04-Dec-20 01:20 | Δt: 1310.9429ms