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Joining sentences in Deinau
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This public article was written by xroooox, and last updated on 31 May 2019, 00:03.

[comments] Menu 1. Adverbial clauses 2. Temporal 3. Conditionals 4. Purpose clauses 5. Reason clauses 6. Adversative clauses 7. Clause linking
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This article is a work in progress! Check back later in case any changes have occurred.

[top]Adverbial clauses

[top]Temporal

The prefix s- is used to mark simultaneity with the main clause.

·Ámaaku ·sdasmu Sedge ·gòdan mampù.
·ámaaku
Amaku
·s-das-m-u
SIMSimilative (case)
similarity
-dance-PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
-PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action
Sedge
Sedge
·gòdan
song.OBLOblique (argument)
indirect or demoted object
map-m-ù
do-PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
-PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action

Amaku danced while Sedge was singing.

When joining phrases, if two verbs share the same subject the first one is nominalised.

·Ámaaku ·sdàsag ·gòdan mampù.
·ámaaku
Amaku
·s-dàs-ag
SIMSimilative (case)
similarity
-dance-NMZNominaliser
makes other word a noun
.OBLOblique (argument)
indirect or demoted object
·gòdan
song.OBLOblique (argument)
indirect or demoted object
map-m-ù
do-PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
-PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action

Amaku sang while dancing.

[top]Conditionals

Both parts of the conditional use the same sufix -ga(t) in the verb. The form -gat is only used for singular non-past.

·MlàMogi kaánusgaal ìt mézgat.
If we fly to Mogi we'll call you.

The prefix s- may be added for a temporal reading.

·MlàMogi skaánusgaal ìt mézgat.
When we fly to Mogi we'll call you.

Counterfactuals are made with the suffix -gam.

·MlàMogi kaánusgamal ìt mézgat.
If we had flown to Mogi we'd call you.

[top]Purpose clauses

The nominalized verb of a purpose clause is marked with allative case.

Bàt ·bèbbekpaa ·klàabaŋ bál ŋàblap ·úmpu.
ERGErgative (case)
TRANS subject; agent
-2Second person (person)
addressee (you)
CLClassifier
quantifies and/or replaces nouns
-tomato.OBLOblique (argument)
indirect or demoted object
-DEFDefinite
"the"
.PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
<LOCLocative (case)
'in, on, at' etc
>buy.ALLAllative (case)
'to, onto'
-NMZNominaliser
makes other word a noun
ERGErgative (case)
TRANS subject; agent
-1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
CLClassifier
quantifies and/or replaces nouns
-money.OBLOblique (argument)
indirect or demoted object
-DEFDefinite
"the"
1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
.give-PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
-PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action

I gave you the money to buy tomatoes.

[top]Reason clauses

This are formed with the simple locative case of the nominalized verb of the clause.

·Sínap ·skiìri glaasaŋ gaśśà óta.
CLClassifier
quantifies and/or replaces nouns
-cat.ERGErgative (case)
TRANS subject; agent
-DEFDefinite
"the"
CLClassifier
quantifies and/or replaces nouns
-bird.ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
-INDFIndefinite
a nonspecific referent
LOCLocative (case)
'in, on, at' etc
-eat-NMZNominaliser
makes other word a noun
be.hungry-NMZNominaliser
makes other word a noun
3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
-NEGNegative (polarity)
not
-IPFVImperfective (aspect)
'interrupted or incomplete'

The cat is not hungry because it ate a bird.

·Sínap ·gaasam luug gaśśàta.
CLClassifier
quantifies and/or replaces nouns
-cat.ERGErgative (case)
TRANS subject; agent
-DEFDefinite
"the"
eat-NMZNominaliser
makes other word a noun
LOCLocative (case)
'in, on, at' etc
-NEGNegative (polarity)
not
-NMZNominaliser
makes other word a noun
3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
-be.hungry-IPFVImperfective (aspect)
'interrupted or incomplete'

The cat is hungry because it didn't eat.

[top]Adversative clauses

Adversative clauses are formed as reason clauses, but also add a suffix -m to the verb.

·Sínap ·skiìri glaasaŋam gaśśàta.
CLClassifier
quantifies and/or replaces nouns
-cat.ERGErgative (case)
TRANS subject; agent
-DEFDefinite
"the"
CLClassifier
quantifies and/or replaces nouns
-bird.ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
-INDFIndefinite
a nonspecific referent
LOCLocative (case)
'in, on, at' etc
-eat-NMZNominaliser
makes other word a noun
-ADVERSUnknown code 3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
-be.hungry-IPFVImperfective (aspect)
'interrupted or incomplete'

The cat is hungry although it ate a bird.

·Sínap ·gaasam luugum gaśśà óta.
CLClassifier
quantifies and/or replaces nouns
-cat.ERGErgative (case)
TRANS subject; agent
-DEFDefinite
"the"
eat-NMZNominaliser
makes other word a noun
LOCLocative (case)
'in, on, at' etc
-NEGNegative (polarity)
not
-NMZNominaliser
makes other word a noun
-ADVERSUnknown code be.hungry-NMZNominaliser
makes other word a noun
3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
-NEGNegative (polarity)
not
-IPFVImperfective (aspect)
'interrupted or incomplete'

The cat is not hungry although it didn't eat.

[top]Clause linking


·Áŧŧup alìip anag ŋubismu.
CLClassifier
quantifies and/or replaces nouns
-man-DEFDefinite
"the"
.ERGErgative (case)
TRANS subject; agent
CLClassifier
quantifies and/or replaces nouns
-woman-DEFDefinite
"the"
.ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.see-TRTransitive (valency)
has two arguments
-PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
-PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action
3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.run-go-PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
-PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action

The man saw the woman and she ran.

·Áŧŧup alìip anamu ŋubismu.
CLClassifier
quantifies and/or replaces nouns
-man-DEFDefinite
"the"
.ERGErgative (case)
TRANS subject; agent
CLClassifier
quantifies and/or replaces nouns
-woman-DEFDefinite
"the"
.ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.see-NMZNominaliser
makes other word a noun
.DSDifferent subject (switch-reference/ identity)
different subjects used between clauses
3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.run-go-PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
-PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action

The man saw the woman and he ran.

Aliip ŋubismu ·áŧŧup anamu.
CLClassifier
quantifies and/or replaces nouns
-woman-DEFDefinite
"the"
.ABSAbsolutive (case)
TRANS object, INTR argument
3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.run-go-PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
-PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action
CLClassifier
quantifies and/or replaces nouns
-man-DEFDefinite
"the"
.ERGErgative (case)
TRANS subject; agent
3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.see-TRTransitive (valency)
has two arguments
-PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
-PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action

The woman ran and the man saw her

Aliip ŋumŋu ·áŧŧup anamu.
CLClassifier
quantifies and/or replaces nouns
-woman-DEFDefinite
"the"
.ABSAbsolutive (case)
TRANS object, INTR argument
3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.run-NMZNominaliser
makes other word a noun
CLClassifier
quantifies and/or replaces nouns
-man-DEFDefinite
"the"
.ERGErgative (case)
TRANS subject; agent
3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.see-TRTransitive (valency)
has two arguments
-PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
-PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action

The woman ran and saw the man.

·Bàs alìip ánmu ŋubismu.
ERGErgative (case)
TRANS subject; agent
-2Second person (person)
addressee (you)
CLClassifier
quantifies and/or replaces nouns
-woman-DEFDefinite
"the"
.ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
2Second person (person)
addressee (you)
.see-TRTransitive (valency)
has two arguments
-PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
-PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action
3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.run-go-PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
-PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action

You saw the woman and she ran.

·Bàs alìip ánŋe ŋúbismu.
ERGErgative (case)
TRANS subject; agent
-2Second person (person)
addressee (you)
CLClassifier
quantifies and/or replaces nouns
-woman-DEFDefinite
"the"
.ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
2Second person (person)
addressee (you)
.see-NMZNominaliser
makes other word a noun
.DSDifferent subject (switch-reference/ identity)
different subjects used between clauses
3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.run-go-PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
-PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action

You saw the woman and you ran.

Áliip ìs ánmu ŋúbismu.
CLClassifier
quantifies and/or replaces nouns
-woman-DEFDefinite
"the"
.ERGErgative (case)
TRANS subject; agent
ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
-2Second person (person)
addressee (you)
2Second person (person)
addressee (you)
.see-TRTransitive (valency)
has two arguments
-PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
-PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action
3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.run-go-PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
-PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action

The woman saw you and you ran.

Áliip ìs ánŋe ŋubismu.
CLClassifier
quantifies and/or replaces nouns
-woman-DEFDefinite
"the"
.ERGErgative (case)
TRANS subject; agent
ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
-2Second person (person)
addressee (you)
2Second person (person)
addressee (you)
.see-NMZNominaliser
makes other word a noun
.DSDifferent subject (switch-reference/ identity)
different subjects used between clauses
3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.run-go-PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
-PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action

The woman saw you and she ran.

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