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This public article was written by [Deactivated User], and last updated on 1 Oct 2020, 09:55.

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Menu 1. Introduction 2. Prefix classes 3. Suffix classes 4. Subject, Object 5. Tense-aspect-mood
[edit] [top]Introduction


[edit] [top]Prefix classes


In Classical-botiq there are 7 classes of verb prefixation.

Class 0.: simple prefix
The original root word stays intact. For example bizdag - to dance

sabizdag - I dance
mebizdag - You dance
ebizdag - He/she dances

Class I.: s and z to d prefix
The word initial s and z turns into d in the root word. For example süd - to speak

sadüd - I speak
medüd - You speak
edüd - He/she speaks

Class II. C disappearing
The word initial consonant disappears. For example yuxhää - to occupy

uxhää - I occupy
mouxhää - You occupy
ouxhää - He/she occupies

Class III.: Irregular
Hard to predict. For example funr - to jump

säbr - I jump
mobr - You jump
obr - He/she jumps

Class IV.: x infixing
We infix an "x" between the root word and the prefix. For example uudog - to explain

xuudog - I explain
moxuudog - You explain
oxuudog - He/she explains

Class V.: g infixing
Same as x infixing, but with "g". For example iby - to feel

giby - I feel
mogiby - You feel
ogiby - He/she feels

Class VI.: f to b prefix
Word initial f turns into b. For example füüfan - to try

sabüüfan - I try
mebüüfan - You try
ebüüfan - He/she tries

[edit] [top]Suffix classes


Class I.: No change

Class II.: Loss of last consonant between vowels

Class III.: Ends with nasal consonant

Class IV.: Unpacking nasal vowel

[edit] [top]Subject, Object


[edit] [top]Tense-aspect-mood


Tense, aspect and mood are complicated topics in Classical-botiq. There are more auxiliary words, that mark a different thing in different environments.

Present tense, indicative mood
The present indicative sentence is very simple. The verb is unmarked, and needs no auxiliary.

Soodišl ee bod.
Soodišl ee bod.

[zo:diɬ e: bod]
1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
.SUBSubject (argument).3SHThird person singular human (person)
neither speaker nor addressee (he/she)
.OBJObject (argument)-see.INDIndicative mood (mood)
a common form of realis
ARTArticle
indicate the type of reference being made by the noun
man.ABSAbsolutive (case)
TRANS object, INTR argument

I see a man.

Present tense, optative mood
Optative mood marks wishes, desires. The auxiliary here is tisi - to want.

Soodišl tisi ee bod.
Soodišl tisi ee bod.

[zo:diɬ tiri e: bod]
1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
.SUBSubject (argument).3SHThird person singular human (person)
neither speaker nor addressee (he/she)
.OBJObject (argument)-see OPTOptative (mood)
'wish, hope'
ARTArticle
indicate the type of reference being made by the noun
man.ABSAbsolutive (case)
TRANS object, INTR argument

I want/would like to see a man.

Present tense, necessitative mood
Necessitative sentence is used to express the need. The šuuz - to need auxiliary is used here.

Soodišl šuuz ee bod.
Soodišl šuuz ee bod.

[zo:diɬ ʃu:z e: bod]
1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
.SUBSubject (argument).3SHThird person singular human (person)
neither speaker nor addressee (he/she)
.OBJObject (argument)-see NECNecessitative mood (mood)
must, have to
ARTArticle
indicate the type of reference being made by the noun
man.ABSAbsolutive (case)
TRANS object, INTR argument

I need to see a man.

Past tense, necessitative mood
Past tense works the same way. The only difference is, the backing of the main verb.

Soodïšl šuuz ee bod.
Soodïšl šuuz ee bod.

[zo:dɯɬ ʃu:z e: bod]
1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
.SUBSubject (argument).3SHThird person singular human (person)
neither speaker nor addressee (he/she)
.OBJObject (argument)-see.PASTPast tense (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
NECNecessitative mood (mood)
must, have to
ARTArticle
indicate the type of reference being made by the noun
man.ABSAbsolutive (case)
TRANS object, INTR argument

I needed to see a man.

Habitual
Habitual aspect is marked with the suffix -ür/ur. It can be combined with either past or present tense. In CSB there is no future habitual.

Sasirür sig divnii.
Sasirür sig divnii.

[zɑrinyr sig divnij]
1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
.SUBSubject (argument).3SHThird person singular human (person)
neither speaker nor addressee (he/she)
.OBJObject (argument)-go-HABHabitual (aspect)
done often or out of habit
DEFDefinite
"the"
.ARTArticle
indicate the type of reference being made by the noun
city.LATLative (case)
movement, towards

I go (regularly) to the city.

Säsïrur sig divnii.
Säsïrur sig divnii.

[sæsɯrur sig divnij]
1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
.SUBSubject (argument).3SHThird person singular human (person)
neither speaker nor addressee (he/she)
.OBJObject (argument)-go-HABHabitual (aspect)
done often or out of habit
.PASTPast tense (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
DEFDefinite
"the"
.ARTArticle
indicate the type of reference being made by the noun
city.LATLative (case)
movement, towards

I went (regularly) to the city.

Present subjunctive
Subjunctive in CSB is used to mark possible, and desired events. It is marked with the suffix -uuz/üüz.

Sasirüüz sig divnii.
Sasirüüz sig divnii.

[zɑriny:z sig divnij]
1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
.SUBSubject (argument).3SHThird person singular human (person)
neither speaker nor addressee (he/she)
.OBJObject (argument)-go-SBJVSubjunctive mood (mood)
desired or possible events
DEFDefinite
"the"
.ARTArticle
indicate the type of reference being made by the noun
city.LATLative (case)
movement, towards

I may go to the city.

Future indicative
The subjunctive and the optative sometimes overlaps. When a verb is marked for subjunctive and optative at the same time, it works as a future tense

Sasirüüz tisi sig divnii.
Sasirüüz tisi sig divnii.

[zɑriny:z tiri sig divnij]
1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
.SUBSubject (argument).3SHThird person singular human (person)
neither speaker nor addressee (he/she)
.OBJObject (argument)-go-INDIndicative mood (mood)
a common form of realis
FUTFuture (tense)
action occurring after the moment of speech
DEFDefinite
"the"
.ARTArticle
indicate the type of reference being made by the noun
city.LATLative (case)
movement, towards

I will go to the city.

Conditional
Conditional sentence comes from the habitual plus the optative auxiliary. It works in every tenses, but tense is only marked in the "first" verb, in this case šlür - to be.

Se siidž uzodov šlürüüz, sasirür tisi sig divnii.
Se siidž uzodov šlürüüz, sasirür tisi sig divnii.

[se si:d͡ʒ uzodov ɬyny:z zɑrinyr tiri sig divnij]
if 1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
.DATDative (case)
indirect object; recipient, beneficiary, location
money.ABSAbsolutive (case)
TRANS object, INTR argument
be-SBJVSubjunctive mood (mood)
desired or possible events
| 1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
.SUBSubject (argument).3SHThird person singular human (person)
neither speaker nor addressee (he/she)
.OBJObject (argument)-go-HABHabitual (aspect)
done often or out of habit
CONDConditional (mood)
would
DEFDefinite
"the"
.ARTArticle
indicate the type of reference being made by the noun
city.LATLative (case)
movement, towards

If I have money, I go to the city.

Se siidž uzodov šluruuz, sasirür tisi sig divnii.
Se siidž uzodov šluruuz, sasirür tisi sig divnii.

[se si:d͡ʒ uzodov ɬuru:z zɑrinyr tiri sig divnij]
if 1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
.DATDative (case)
indirect object; recipient, beneficiary, location
money.ABSAbsolutive (case)
TRANS object, INTR argument
be.PASTPast tense (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
-SBJVSubjunctive mood (mood)
desired or possible events
| 1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
.SUBSubject (argument).3SHThird person singular human (person)
neither speaker nor addressee (he/she)
.OBJObject (argument)-go-HABHabitual (aspect)
done often or out of habit
CONDConditional (mood)
would
DEFDefinite
"the"
.ARTArticle
indicate the type of reference being made by the noun
city.LATLative (case)
movement, towards

If I would have money, I would go to the city.

Se siidž uzodov šlürüüz tisi, sasirür tisi sig divnii.
Se siidž uzodov šlürüüz tisi, sasirür tisi sig divnii.

[se si:d͡ʒ uzodov ɬyny:z tiri zɑrinyr tiri sig divnij]
if 1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
.DATDative (case)
indirect object; recipient, beneficiary, location
money.ABSAbsolutive (case)
TRANS object, INTR argument
be-SBJVSubjunctive mood (mood)
desired or possible events
FUTFuture (tense)
action occurring after the moment of speech
| 1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
.SUBSubject (argument).3SHThird person singular human (person)
neither speaker nor addressee (he/she)
.OBJObject (argument)-go-HABHabitual (aspect)
done often or out of habit
CONDConditional (mood)
would
DEFDefinite
"the"
.ARTArticle
indicate the type of reference being made by the noun
city.LATLative (case)
movement, towards

If I will have money, I will go to the city.

Imperative
Imperative also comes from the habitual root, but it is combined with the necesitative auxiliary. It can be applied only in the present tense.

Mesirür šuuz sig divnii.
Mesirür šuuz sig divnii.

[merinyr ʃu:z sig divnij]
2SSecond person singular (person)
addressee (you)
.SUBSubject (argument)-go-HABHabitual (aspect)
done often or out of habit
IMPImperative (mood)
command
DEFDefinite
"the"
.ARTArticle
indicate the type of reference being made by the noun
city.LATLative (case)
movement, towards

Go to the city!

Here is a table, to summarize, the interactions between tense, aspect and mood.

No auxtisi (tisi)šuuz (šuuz)
unmarked PREPresent.INDIndicative mood (mood)
a common form of realis
verbPREPresent.OPTOptative (mood)
'wish, hope'
wants to verbPREPresent.NECNecessitative mood (mood)
must, have to
need to verb
backing PASTPast tense (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
.INDIndicative mood (mood)
a common form of realis
was verb-ed/-ingPASTPast tense (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
.OPTOptative (mood)
'wish, hope'
wanted to verbPASTPast tense (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
.NECNecessitative mood (mood)
must, have to
needed to verb
-ür/ur HABHabitual (aspect)
done often or out of habit
verb-ingCONDConditional (mood)
would
would be verb-ingIMPImperative (mood)
command
verb!
-ib PLUPPluperfect (tense)
anterior action
had verb-ed
-eb/ob PERFPerfect (aspect/tense)
have verb-ed
have verb-edFUTFuture (tense)
action occurring after the moment of speech
.PERFPerfect (aspect/tense)
have verb-ed
will have verb-ed
-uuz/üüz PREPresent.SBJVSubjunctive mood (mood)
desired or possible events
may verbFUTFuture (tense)
action occurring after the moment of speech
.INDIndicative mood (mood)
a common form of realis
will verbFUTFuture (tense)
action occurring after the moment of speech
.SBJVSubjunctive mood (mood)
desired or possible events


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