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Proto-Suvonic -› Etinsa
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Sound Changes for Etinsan Words
This public article was written by miles, and last updated on 18 Apr 2016, 07:27.

[comments] Menu 1. Current Sound Change Draft 2. Phomo Code 3. Suvonic Names
?FYI...
This article is a work in progress! Check back later in case any changes have occurred.


When I decided to attach Otonsa to Proto-Suvonic, it had only 11 words in its dictionary and one unique name. It already possessed massive allophony fairly well-suited to a daughter language of Proto-Suvonic. My job here is simply to hammer out any remaining inconsistencies.

Cognates between Otonsa and Suvoon:
*etalt "land, country" > Pso. ðál and Oto. ite
*pessobentetalt "Suvoonthal" > Pso. Psovńðál (due to leveling; would have been *Psovndðál) and Oto. Ventite, shortened from Pisoventite.
*ga'ne "food" > Pso. gán and Oto. yane
*ga'neetu "feed" > Pso. gániáðu and Oto. yanitu
*ti'angot "beautiful" > Pso. cánggót and Oto. tianke

[top]Current Sound Change Draft

  • /ɴ/ <ñ> is realized as /ɲ/.
  • nasalization of vowels before /n, m, ɲ/
  • loss of /n, m/ before another consonant in the coda. (e.g. /ãmbba/ > /ãbba/, but /ãmba/ has no change).
  • Lenition of /gʷ/: it becomes /w/ before a vowel.
  • Rewrite /kʷ gʷ/ as ⟨kʷ gʷ⟩ for upcoming distinction.
  • Lenition of /ŋg/: The cluster /ŋg/ becomes /ŋ/ and /ŋgg/ becomes /ŋŋ/.
  • Lenition of g: ungeminate /g/ > /w/ if preceding /o u/, /g/ > /j/ if preceding /i e a/.
  • Lenition of remaining voiced stops: ungeminate /b, d/ > /w, z/ between two vowels or between a resonant and a vowel.
  • L-Vocalization: /l/ becomes /u/ after a vowel, and /w/ between a consonant and a vowel. (e.g. *kalt > *kaut and *kla > *kwa). /l/ is preserved when geminate /ll/.
  • Geminate voiced stops become plain
  • Initial /sp, st, sk/ gain an epenthetic /ə/ in front of them
  • If any member of a consonant cluster is voiceless (incl. /s, h, '/), any stops involved devoice.
  • /uu, ee, oo, aa, u, e, o, a, ə/ > /y:, i:, ø:, ɛ:, y:, i, ø, ɛ, ɛ/ before /t d s z l n/
  • Word-final voiced consonants are all deleted or vocalized: /m b gʷ/ = /ũ u u/, /ɲ g/ = /ĩ i/, and for /n d/, they are simply deleted.
  • When not preceded by any consonant, short vowels at the beginning of three or more syllable words (i.e. where they are unstressed) are deleted.
  • HIGHLAND SUVONIC
  • Loss of /kʷ gʷ/: Before /u/, /kʷ gʷ/ become /k g/. Elsewhere, /kʷ gʷ/ become /p b/. This results in e.g. *sukʷa > *supa, and a lack of any words ending in *-uk.
  • Lenition of remaining intervocalic /b d/ and some /n/: after a vowel (in coda or intervocalic), /b d/ > /w r/. Between two vowels, /n/ > /r/
  • Word-final unvoiced consonants /p t k s h/ in unstressed syllables are deleted.
  • Loss of word-final /ə/ in two or more syllable words (i.e. where it is unstressed).
  • Reduction of final /a:, i:, o:, u:, e:, ɛ:, ü:, ö:/ in two or more syllable words (i.e. where it is unstressed); diphthongs are left alone.
  • Rounding assimilation of vowels with following w at the end of a syllable: /i, e, ɛ, a/ > /ü, ö, œ, ɔ/ before /w/ in coda.
  • Lengthening of short vowels before fricatives /s, z, h/ in the coda
  • /ə/ becomes /ɛ/ before /t d s z l n i/ and after /i e/, /ɔ/ before /p b w m u/ and after /u o/, and /a/ elsewhere.
  • Clean-up of diphthongs and long vowels: /e:, ɛ:, o:, ɔ:, a:, i:, u:, ü:/ > / i, i, u, o, a, i, u, ü/ and /au, ai, aü/ > /ɛ, ɔ, œ/ and /ae, ao, oi, ou, ei/> /ɛ, ɔ, e, u, i/.
  • Remaining diphthongs become consonants: /ua, ue, ui, uo/ > /wa, we, wi, wo/ and /ia, ie, iu, io/ > /ja, je, ju, jo/ (i.e. all /i u/ > /j w/ before a vowel); additionally /oe ea eo eu/ > /we ja jo ju/
  • Lenition of /t, d, s/ > /t͡s, d͡z, h/ before /j/, orthographically <ṡ ż> for now.
  • Palatalization: /n, k, g/ become /ɲ, t͡ɕ, d͡ʑ/ before /j/, orthographically <ñ c j> for now.
  • /we, wɛ, wa, wi, wo, wɔ/ > /ø, œ, ɔ, y, o/ and /je, jɛ, ja, ju, jo, jɔ/ > /e, ɛ, ɛ, y, ø, œ/ after a consonant
  • Loss of ungeminate /ʔ/ intervocalically.
  • OLD ETINSA
  • Glottal replacement: ungeminate /k/ becomes /'/ intervocalically.
  • Loss of geminate consonants other than nasals /m n ɲ ŋ/.
  • Between two vowels, /d͡z/ > /z/. Elsewhere, /d͡z/ becomes /t͡s/. There is a chain shift /d͡z/ (>) /t͡s/ > /s/.
  • Between two vowels, /t͡s/ > /s/. Elsewhere, /t͡s/ deaffricates to /t/.
  • Assimilation of fricatives and stops in manner of articulation with the first consonant, e.g. *asta > *assa *apsa > *appa, or *akha > *akka. /h/ and /'/ are sort of exceptions to the ordering rule; when they come before a consonant, ignore them, and let the following rule involving their deletion handle it.
  • Assimilation of unlike stops and nasals to the place of the first consonant involved; e.g. *apta > *appa, *amna > *amma, *amga > *amba, *atma > *atna. /k g '/ do not cause assimilation of following nasals.
  • Stops followed by nasals are elided, e.g. *apma > *ama.
  • Deletion of coda fricatives /s, z, h/
  • Loss of any new geminated voiced stops.
  • Loss of front rounded vowels: /y ø œ/ become /wi we wɛ/
  • Loss of initial clusters involving /w/: Medial clusters permitted to remain, e.g. *atva but not *tva
  • Loss of close-mid vowels: /o/ -> /u/ before /m b p w/ and -> /ɔ/ elsewhere; /e/ -> /i/ before /ɲ t͡ɕ d͡ʑ/ and -> /ɛ/ elsewhere.
  • /z/ is elided between two vowels and at the beginning of a word it becomes /s/.
  • MIDDLE ETINSA
  • /k g/ become [t͡ɕ d͡ʑ] before /i/
  • Consonant Shenanigans: Coda /b d g/ become /p t k/
  • /p t k t͡ɕ/ become /b d g d͡ʑ/ after resonants /n m l/
  • /p t k t͡ɕ/ > [f θ x ɕ] between two vowels.
  • [v ð ɣ ʑ] devoice into [f θ x ɕ]
  • End of shenanigans: Initial /b d g/ become /p t k/, massive allophony of stops has begun
  • In syllable codas (when not before a vowel -- exception for [m] before /p/), /m ɲ/ become /n/. (e.g. sam -> *san, although the accusative would remain *samu or similar).
  • MODERN ETINSA
  • ACTIVE: Unstressed /a ɛ ɔ/ reduce to /ə/.


[top]Phomo Code

a/ã/_M
o/õ/_M
e/ẽ/_M
i/ĩ/_M
u/ũ/_M
M//_C#
M//_CCA
l/u/_C
l/w/C_A
g/w/_O
g/y/_J
g/y/_a
b/w/A_A
d/z/A_A
bb/b
dd/d
gg/g
uu/ii/_T
ee/ii/_T
oo/ee/_T
aa/ee/_T
u/i/_T
e/i/_T
o/e/_T
a/e/_T
C//_#
e//AC_#
aa/a/AC_#
aa/a/ACC_#
ee/e/AC_#
ee/e/ACC_#
ii/i/AC_#
ii/i/ACC_#
oo/o/AC_#
oo/o/ACC_#
uu/u/AC_#
uu/u/ACC_#
pp/p/_#
tt/t/_#
kk/k/_#
ss/s/_#
nn/n/_#
mm/m/_#
e/ee/_I#
e/ee/_IC
o/oo/_I#
o/oo/_IC
a/aa/_I#
a/aa/_IC
i/ii/_I#
i/ii/_IC
u/uu/_I#
u/uu/_IC
I//_#
I//_C
ee/i
oo/u
ii/i
uu/u
aa/a
au/o
ai/e
ae/e
oi/e
ou/u
ei/i
aw/o//_A
ay/e//_A
u/w/_A
i/y/_A
oe/we
ea/ya
eo/yo
eu/yu
t/s/_y
d/z/_y
we/o/C_
wa/o/C_
wi/u/C_
wo/o/C_
ye/e/C_
ya/e/C_
yu/i/C_
yo/e/C_
i/u/_w
e/o/_w
a/o/_w
'//A_A
k/'/A_A
ss/s
zz/z
pp/p
tt/t
kk/k
bb/b
dd/d
gg/g
''/'
st/est/#_
sk/esk/#_
sp/esp/#_
st/ss/A_A
ts/tt/A_A
ps/pp/A_A
sp/ss/A_A
ks/kk/A_A
sk/ss/A_A
pt/pp/A_A
tp/tt/A_A
kp/kk/A_A
pk/pp/A_A
kt/kk/A_A
tk/tt/A_A
bd/b
db/d
gd/g
dg/d
bg/b
gb/g
mn/mm
nm/nn
mg/mb
mk/mp
mt/mp
md/mb
np/nt
nb/nd
z//A_A
z/s/#_
ã/a/_M
õ/o/_M
ẽ/e/_M
ĩ/i/_M
ũ/u/_M
d/t
g/k
b/p
ee/e
aa/a
oo/o
uu/u
ii/i
w/v


[top]Suvonic Names

Suvoon and Otonsa share a base of names from Proto-Suvonic. In both cultures, these names are traditionally changed throughout their bearer's lifetime, encouraging each language to develop a rich selection of altered name forms -- so while many of the languages' root names are shared, there are a number of alternates which may not be.

Additionally, while the languages' name pools overlap, they are not the same, and different names may be more significant in one language than the other. Suvoon's greater prevalence of loan words plays a part here as well, although "root" names in both languages are a small class of words and do not take in many loans.

Some names that were kept by both languages,
*Pasi, *Pesida', *Ageskant, *Bisaabe, *Pasbee, *Hettopa, *Deetip, *Suhabe, *Hedois
became:
Pso. Pári, Priðú, Oskán, Bírov, Párbia, Hácóv, Jáðíp, Súhav, Ðóis
Oto. Pesi, Pisia, Ayissã, Piso, Pipe, Hitop, Titi, Suho, Hie

Note: The Pso. form of *Pesida' is more typically Priðú, which has experienced word-specific pronunciation changes.

The Suvoon name Párot, from *Pasod, does not have a surviving cognate in Otonsa. Similarly, *Pesida' actually had two forms, *Pesida' and *Pesidu' -- the *-a' form is much more common in Otonsa and does commonly survive in Suvoon Pðá, the nickname-proper for all *PesidV'-root names. However, the *-u' form is the more common ending for all other Suvoon versions of the name.

Ayissatop, a form of Ayissã whose cognate in Suvoon is Oskántóv, has been borrowed into Suvoon as Áisátop, which is treated as a form of Oskán, their cognate to Ayissã.
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