cws
Greetings Guest
Spiders!
If we make more than $500, a spider will eat @hashi on a live stream! But not really.
[donate]
home > library > journal > view_article
« Back to Articles » Journal
Amaian and Zwazwan grammar
8▲ 8 ▼ 0
way too many subordinate verb forms
This public article was written by dendana, and last updated on 22 May 2019, 17:26.

[comments]
6. tests
Menu 1. ---Introduction--- 2. ---Phonology---- 3. Phonemes 4. Front-back harmony 5. Word tone 6. Phonological processes 7. Morphophonology 8. ---Core morphology--- 9. Case and number 10. Pronouns 11. Numerals 12. Verbal conjugation 13. TAM and evidentiality 14. Negation 15. Subject marking 16. Subordinate forms 17. Reciprocal and reflexive suffixes 18. ---Peripheral morphology--- 19. Nominative enclitics 20. Postpositions 21. Evidential particles 22. Relative clauses 23. Quotatives 24. ---Syntax--- 25. Noun phrase word order 26. Clause word order 27. Dislocations 28. Questions 29. Predicative and attributive adjectives
[top]---Introduction---

This grammar describes the grammar of  Amaian and  Zwazwan. As the two languages are very close grammatically, it is possible to treat them in a single document. Where applicable, differences between the two are noted, but again, they are very similar and the vast majority of their grammar is the same.

[top]---Phonology----

[top]Phonemes

ConsonantsLabialCoronalDorsal
Nasal/m/ m/n/ n
Voiceless stop/p/ p/t/ t/k/ k
Voiced stop/b/ b/d/ d/g/ g
Voiceless affricate/t͡s/ c
Voiced affricate/d͡z/ j
Voiceless fricative/sᵝ/ sw/s/ s
Voiced fricative/zᵝ/ zw/z/ z
Flap/ⱱ/ v/ɺ/ r


The whistled sibilants are part of an Eastern Vaniuan areal trait shared with many dialects of  Balak and  Wamenan. These are believed to all be due to an underlying Amaian substratum.

VowelsFrontBack(Back rounded)
High/i/ i/ɯ/ y(/u/ u)
Mid/e/ e/ʌ/ o
Low/æ/ ä/ɑ/ a


Note that /u/ is only found in the Eastern dialect of Amaian and Zwazwan, and only contrasts with /ɯ/ when adjacent to another vowel or before a coda nasal. In the Western dialect, both /u/ and /ɯ/ are realized as [u] when adjacent to another vowel (and are merged before coda nasals), and in Gynnyn dialect /u/ is completely merged into /ɯ/.

[top]Front-back harmony

A prominent feature of Amaian and Zwazwan is total front-back harmony. Within a word, all vowels must agree in frontness or backness with the first vowel. Additionally, all the consonants in the word have differnt allophones depending on whether they lie before a front or back vowel, thus the name 'total' harmony, as all segments within the word align in frontness and backness. This harmony can be used as a diagnostic for wordhood, at least in Amaian, as a single word may never contain both front and back segments.

However, in Zwazwan, there are a great many words which do not obey harmony, largely due to Terminian influence and the large-scale adoption of loanwords which break harmony. Much recent morphology does not obey harmony either, which by the wordhood criteria would imply that Zwazwan is less synthetic than Amaian, despite both languages having very similar grammar otherwise. Linguists are divided into two camps, either insisting that Zwazwan is indeed less synthetic than Amaian, or else changing the wordhood criteria for Zwazwan so that an arbitrary amount of disharmony is licit per word.

Consonant back allophonesLabialCoronalDorsal
Nasal/m/ [m] m/n/ [n] n
Voiceless stop/p/ [p] p/t/ [t] t/k/ [q] k
Voiced stop/b/ [b] b/d/ [d] d/g/ [ʁ] g
Voiceless affricate/t͡s/ [t͡s] c
Voiced affricate/d͡z/ [d͡z] j
Voiceless fricative/sᵝ/ [sᵝ] sw/s/ [s] s
Voiced fricative/zᵝ/ [zᵝ] zw/z/ [z] z
Flap/ⱱ/ [ⱱ] v/ɺ/ [ɺ] r


Consonant front allophonesLabialCoronalDorsal
Nasal/m/ [mʲ] m/n/ [ɲ] n
Voiceless stop/p/ [pʲ] p/t/ [tʲ] t/k/ [c] k
Voiced stop/b/ [bʲ] b/d/ [dʲ] d/g/ [ɟ] g
Voiceless affricate/t͡s/ [t͡ɕ] c
Voiced affricate/d͡z/ [d͡ʑ] j
Voiceless fricative/sᵝ/ [sᵝʲ] sw/s/ [ɕ] s
Voiced fricative/zᵝ/ [zᵝʲ] zw/z/ [ʑ] z
Flap/ⱱ/ [ⱱʲ] v/ɺ/ [ɺʲ] r


[top]Word tone

Another notable phonological feature of Amaian and Zwazwan is a two-tone word tone system, where a single tone contour is assigned to each word. Tone 1 begins high on the first syllable, assigns low to the second syllable, high to the third, low to the fourth, and so on, alternating. Tone 2 begins low on the first syllable, assigns high to the second syllable, low to the third, high to the fourth, and so on, alternating in the reverse pattern. The initial syllable of a word receives greatest stress.

Word tone is used lexically (to contrast different words), and also extensively in the case system, which yields many minimal pairs, such as

1ba [bɑ́] water.DRDirect (case)
unmarked case, vs oblique or indirect

2ba [bɑ̀] water.LOCLocative (case)
'in, on, at' etc


[top]Phonological processes


Vowel-nasal realizations
Sequences of vowels plus coda nasals are realized as diphthongs or other vowel qualities, which vary between dialects, as follows:

Eastern dialect-/m/-/n/
/i/[ʉw][ɨj]
/e/[ew][ej]
/æ/[æw][æj]
/ɯ/[ɨw][ɨj]
/u/[ow][wej]
/ʌ/[ʌw][ʌj]
/ɑ/[ɑw][ɑj]


Western dialect-/m/-/n/
/i/[ɨw][iː]
/e/[ew][ej]
/æ/[æw][æj]
/ɯ/[ow][ej]
/u/[ow][ej]
/ʌ/[ow][ej]
/ɑ/[ɑw][ɑj]


Gynnyn dialect-/m/-/n/
/i/[ew][ej]
/e/[ew][ej]
/æ/[æw][æj]
/ɯ/[ow][ej]
/ʌ/[ow][ej]
/ɑ/[ɑw][æj]


In the rest of this section on phonology, we will use the Eastern dialect realizations for consistency.

/j/ insertion
Before a front vowel in a syllable with no consonant initial, a [j] is inserted. For example:

1itä [jítʲæ̀] 'three'

Vowel rounding
After a whistled sibilant, all vowels round. For example:

1swag [sᵝɒ́ʁ] 'friend'

High vowel elision
In the environment #C_CV or VC_CV, high vowels elide in fast speech. For example:

2amacykon [ɑ̀mɑ́t͡sɯ̀qʌ́j~ɑ̀mɑ́t͡sqʌ́j] Amaia-GENGenitive (case)
possessive


Regressive voicing assimilation
In a consonant cluster, obstruent voicing assimilates based on the voicing of the final consonant in the cluster. This process applies after high vowel elision:

2eciben [jèt͡ɕíbʲèj~jèd͡ʑbʲèj] be.cold-RELRelative.SUBSubject (argument).WITWitness (evidential)
speaker witnessed action


Front /g/ lenition
In Amaian, before a consonant or word-finally, /g/ is realized as [ʑ] in front words (in Zwazwan, this process applies to any /g/ after a front vowel that is not before a back vowel). For example, in Amaian:

1zinitä-näg [ʑíɲìtʲǽɲæ̀ʑ~ʑíɲtʲǽɲæ̀ʑ] bird.DRDirect (case)
unmarked case, vs oblique or indirect
=INDEFIndefinite
a nonspecific referent
.PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
.NOMNominative (case)
TRANS subject, INTR argument


/ɺ/ changes at word periphery
/ɺ/ is realized as [l] in back words or [lʲ] in front words in word-initial position. In Amaian, these changes also apply word-finally, while in Zwazwan, word-final /ɺ/ is always realized as [r]. The phoneme is found in these positions mainly in loanwords. For example, in Amaian:

1tovor [tʌ́ⱱʌ̀l] walnut.DRDirect (case)
unmarked case, vs oblique or indirect
(a loan from  Balak)

[top]Morphophonology

Morphophonology primarily comes into play in Amaian and Zwazwan in the core morphology of nouns and verbs due to historical morphological patterns which were further complicated by millennia of sound change. However, since in Amaian, total front-back harmony is obligatory at the word level, many affixes can be said to have indeterminate frontness which is only specified by the carrier root, and many of these affixes are of relatively recent origin, as opposed to deeper morphophonology.

Vowel
The symbol Y is used throughout for a high unrounded vowel unspecified for frontness/backness.
Likewise, O signifies a mid unrounded vowel, and A a low unrounded vowel. These vowels agree in frontness/backness with any preceding vowels. They also override stem-final vowels in verb forms.

On a deeper level, V0 signifies an irregular, lexically specified vowel found in the direct plural, accusative, and dative-genitive forms of nouns. V1 is another irregular, lexically specified vowel found in the locative form of nouns. Typically V0 and V1 are the same and descend from earlier epenthetic vowels in case forms at the level of  Proto-Amaian.

V in verbal suffixes signifies another irregular, lexically specified vowel which is typically high. The citation form of verbs in the dictionary ends in this vowel, which is the direct descendant of the final stem vowel in Proto-Amaian, which is changed through vowel overriding in many other verb forms.

Finally, note that -u in suffixes is realized as /ɯ/ except in Eastern Amaian and Eastern Zwazwan next to another vowel or before a coda nasal.

Consonant
S signifies a lexically specified irregular consonant, either s, z, g, v, or b, which is consistent across non-singular direct and non-accusative case forms for a single noun. These generally reflect final stem consonants in Proto-Amaian which were elided in certain case forms.

G signifies a morphophoneme which is realized as /g/ in back words and /n/ in front words.

Z (and Zw) signifies a morphophoneme which is realized as /s/ (/sᵝ/) after a voiceless obstruent, and /z/ (/zᵝ/) otherwise.

[top]---Core morphology---

[top]Case and number


Amaian and Zwazwan have four cases in nouns, but five in pronouns. However, one of these cases, the accusative, is almost never used for human nouns, which consequently have just three cases. The direct and accusative cases have different forms for singular and plural in nouns, while the dative-genitive and locative do not inflect for number.

Direct
The direct singular form is the citation form of the noun and can take either tone 1 or tone 2.

The direct plural form is created with the suffix -(S)(V0)k (S and V0 are lexically specified segments). It takes the opposite tone from the direct singular form.

These forms are used for the subject of a clause, for indefinite objects, with certain postpositions such as 1tag 'like', and as a vocative. Examples follow:

1zinitä
1zinitä-Ø
bird-DRDirect (case)
unmarked case, vs oblique or indirect
.SGSingular (number)
one countable entity

=nA
SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
.DEFDefinite
"the"
.NOMNominative (case)
TRANS subject, INTR argument
1kajyn
1kajo-Y-n
fly-PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action
.NWITNonwitness (evidential)
speaker did not witness action
-3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee


'The bird flew.'

1zinitä
1zinitä-Ø
bird-DRDirect (case)
unmarked case, vs oblique or indirect
.SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
2nenäm
2neni-A-m
see-PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action
.WITWitness (evidential)
speaker witnessed action
-1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I


'I saw a bird.'

2zinitäk
1zinitä-2SVk
bird-DRDirect (case)
unmarked case, vs oblique or indirect
.PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
1tag
1tag
like
1kaja
1kajo-A-Ø
fly-PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action
.WITWitness (evidential)
speaker witnessed action
-3PThird person plural (person)
neither speaker nor addressee, they/them


'They flew like birds.'

1nama!
1nama-Ø
mother-DRDirect (case)
unmarked case, vs oblique or indirect
.SGSingular (number)
one countable entity


'Mother!'

Accusative
The accusative singular is formed with the suffix -ZA on consonant-final nouns, and -zA on vowel-final nouns.

The accusative plural is formed with the suffix -ZwA on consonant-final nouns, and -zwA on vowel-final nouns.

On a very small set of nouns, irregular stem-final consonant lenition accompanies the addition of these suffixes. The tone on both suffixes is the same as that of the direct singular (the citation form).

These forms are only used for nonhuman definite objects of a clause. For example:

1zinitäzä
1zinitä-zA
bird-ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
.SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
2nenäm
2neni-A-m
see-PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action
.WITWitness (evidential)
speaker witnessed action
-1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I


'I saw the bird.'

1zinitäzwä
1zinitä-zwA
bird-ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
.PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
2nenäm
2neni-A-m
see-PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action
.WITWitness (evidential)
speaker witnessed action
-1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I


'I saw the birds.'

Dative-genitive (oblique)
(Note: we use the glossing code OBL for this case.)

This case takes the same form for both singular and plural numbers. It is formed by -(S)(V0)n (S and V0 are lexically specified segments). The tone it takes is always tone 2. On a very small set of nouns, irregular stem-final consonant lenition accompanies the addition of these suffixes (the same set that lenite for the accusative).

This case is used for the dative and the genitive, as the name suggests. However, it is also used for definite human objects, the partitive (any), and with certain postpositions such as 2bese 'behind'. For example:

2bijän
2bijä-2n
man-OBLOblique (argument)
indirect or demoted object
1nezäm
1neze-A-m
say-PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action
.WITWitness (evidential)
speaker witnessed action
-1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I


'I said (it) to (the) man.'

2kasakon
2kasak-2V0n
city-OBLOblique (argument)
indirect or demoted object
1san
1san-Ø
heart-SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
.DRDirect (case)
unmarked case, vs oblique or indirect
2cävekivinen
2cäveki-vYGO-n
be.nearby-IPFVImperfective (aspect)
'interrupted or incomplete'
.IDREIndirect evidential (evidentiality)
speaker has indirect knowledge
-3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee


'The heart of the city is nearby.'

2bijän
2bijä-2n
man-OBLOblique (argument)
indirect or demoted object
2nenäm
2neni-A-m
see-PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action
.WITWitness (evidential)
speaker witnessed action
-1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I


'I saw the man.'

2tyzwyn
1tyzwy-2n
rock-OBLOblique (argument)
indirect or demoted object
2nenemä
2neni-O-m-A
see-NEGNegative (polarity)
not
.DIREDirect evidential (evidentiality)
speaker has direct knowledge
-1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
-NEGNegative (polarity)
not
.DIREDirect evidential (evidentiality)
speaker has direct knowledge


'I do not see any rocks.'

1zinitä
1zinitä-Ø
bird.DRDirect (case)
unmarked case, vs oblique or indirect
.SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
nim
=nYm
SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
.INDEFIndefinite
a nonspecific referent
.NOMNominative (case)
TRANS subject, INTR argument
2tyzwyn
1tyzwy-2n
rock-OBLOblique (argument)
indirect or demoted object
2bese
2bese
behind
1kajyn
1kajo-Y-n
fly-PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action
.NWITNonwitness (evidential)
speaker did not witness action
-3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee


'The bird flew behind a rock.'

Locative
This case takes one form for both singular and plural numbers. It is formed by the suffix -(S)(V1), where both S and V1 are lexically specified segments, and puts the word into tone 2. A small number of words, which lenite the final stem consonant in other case forms, also lenite it in this form.

The locative is used not only for general location but also to mark a dislocated topic such as a possessor in a predicative possessive construction, or to indicate a causee in a causative construction. The locative is also assigned by most postpositions. Examples include:

2amacyko
1amacyk-2V1
Amaia-LOCLocative (case)
'in, on, at' etc
2tykok
1tyk-2V0k
person-DRDirect (case)
unmarked case, vs oblique or indirect
.PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
nag
=nAg
PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
.INDEFIndefinite
a nonspecific referent
.NOMNominative (case)
TRANS subject, INTR argument
2kagdapok
1kagdap-2V0k
mountain-DRDirect (case)
unmarked case, vs oblique or indirect
.PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
1kajo
1kajo-O-Ø
climb.IPFVImperfective (aspect)
'interrupted or incomplete'
.DIREDirect evidential (evidentiality)
speaker has direct knowledge
-3PThird person plural (person)
neither speaker nor addressee, they/them


'In Amaia, people often climb mountains.'

2bijä
2bijä-2Ø
man-LOCLocative (case)
'in, on, at' etc
1sak
1sak-Ø
house-DRDirect (case)
unmarked case, vs oblique or indirect
.SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
nym
=nYm
SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
.INDEFIndefinite
a nonspecific referent
.NOMNominative (case)
TRANS subject, INTR argument
1ton
1ty-O-n
be-IPFVImperfective (aspect)
'interrupted or incomplete'
.DIREDirect evidential (evidentiality)
speaker has direct knowledge
-3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee


'The man has a house.'

1bava
1bava-Ø
dog-DRDirect (case)
unmarked case, vs oblique or indirect
.SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
na
=nA
SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
.DEFDefinite
"the"
.NOMNominative (case)
TRANS subject, INTR argument
2bijä
2bijä-2Ø
man-LOCLocative (case)
'in, on, at' etc
1togoso
1togo-sO
fall-SBRCSubordinate clause (syntax)
marks a subordinate clause
1ynyn
1yna-Y-n
do-PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action
.NWITNonwitness (evidential)
speaker did not witness action
-3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee


'The dog made the man fall.'

1zinitä
1zinitä-Ø
bird.DRDirect (case)
unmarked case, vs oblique or indirect
.SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
nim
=nYm
SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
.INDEFIndefinite
a nonspecific referent
.NOMNominative (case)
TRANS subject, INTR argument
2tyzwy
1tyzwy-2Ø
rock-LOCLocative (case)
'in, on, at' etc
1koc
1koc
to
1kajyn
1kajo-Y-n
fly-PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action
.NWITNonwitness (evidential)
speaker did not witness action
-3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee


'The bird flew to a rock.'

Instrumental
The instrumental case is only marked on pronouns and may also indicate the comitative 'with'. It is used to mark causees which are pronouns (recall that the locative marks nominal causees).

[top]Pronouns

Amaian and Zwazwan pronouns distinguish three numbers: singular, dual, and plural. While nominative, accusative, oblique, locative, and instrumental are all distinguished, the locative forms are the same as oblique for singular and dual pronouns, and the same as the instrumental for plural pronouns.
1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
1DFirst person dual (person)
we two (inclusive or exclusive)
1PFirst person plural (person)
we (inclusive or exclusive)
2SSecond person singular (person)
addressee (you)
2DSecond person dual (person)
addressee (you two)
2PSecond person plural (person)
addressee (plural)
3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
3DThird person dual (person)
neither speaker nor addressee (they two)
3PThird person plural (person)
neither speaker nor addressee, they/them
NOMNominative (case)
TRANS subject, INTR argument
2mona2menäne2mevä2dona2denäne2devä1na1näne2evä
ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
2moza2mezäzi2mozwa2za1zäzi1zwa2noza2nezäzi2nozwa
OBLOblique (argument)
indirect or demoted object
2mezin2mezizi1men2dezin2dezizi1den1in1izi1en
LOCLocative (case)
'in, on, at' etc
2mezin2mezizi2meven2dezin2dezizi2deven1in1izi2even
INSTRInstrumental (case)
'with' 'using'
2menäven2menänen2meven2denäven2denänen2deven2näven2nänen2even


[top]Numerals

Amaian and Zwazwan numerals are base-10. The numerals used to decline for case, but they no longer do so.
1. 1im
2. 2miim
3. 1itä
4. 1bäzi
5. 1sezä
6. 1kam
7. 2äzi
8. 2tovon
9. 2etä
10. 1imkä
11. 1imkä 1im
20. 2miimkä
21. 2miimkä 1im
30. 1itäkä
60. 1kamka
(100 and over use Terminian numerals in Zwazwan, but in Amaian they are:)
100. 1im 2benim
101. 1im 2benim 1im
110. 1im 2benim 1imkä
111. 1im 2benim 1imkä 1im
200. 2miim 2benim
1000. 1im 2marok
10000. 1imkä 2marok
100000. 1im 2benim 2marok
1000000. 1im 2totagycym

[top]Verbal conjugation

[top]TAM and evidentiality

Amaian verbs primarily conjugate for aspect, realis/irrealis, and evidentiality. However, the evidential categories differ by aspect and realis/irrealis status. Additionally, aspect and evidentiality are not differentiated in the irrealis.

In the perfective, the evidentiality split is witnessed/nonwitnessed, with a preference towards visual or auditory experience of the event as 'witnessed' while all other categories are treated as 'nonwitnessed'. (In Zwazwan, these forms are actually treated as direct/indirect as with the other TAM series.)

However, in the imperfective and irrealis, the evidentiality split is direct/indirect, where 'direct' includes any direct experience of an event, including one's own mental states and feelings, as well as (in Amaian) common knowledge and (in Zwazwan) religious belief and scripture. 'Indirect' includes hearsay and deduction, but can also be used with one's own mental states, feelings, or common knowledge to indicate distrust in the veracity of what one experiences.

Realis perfective witnessed
This affix is -A. For example:

2nenä
2neni-A-Ø
see-PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action
.WITWitness (evidential)
speaker witnessed action
-3PThird person plural (person)
neither speaker nor addressee, they/them


'They saw it / They have seen it.' [I know because I saw them seeing it.]

Realis perfective nonwitnessed
This affix is -Y. For example:

2neni
2neni-Y-Ø
see-PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action
.NWITNonwitness (evidential)
speaker did not witness action
-3PThird person plural (person)
neither speaker nor addressee, they/them


'They saw it / They have seen it.' [I heard/assumed/felt them seeing it.]

Realis imperfective direct
This affix takes the form -O (which replaces the stem-final vowel). Historically, a small closed class of verbs took -kO instead, but this is considered bookish nowadays. For example:

2nene
2neni-O-Ø
see-IPFVImperfective (aspect)
'interrupted or incomplete'
.DIREDirect evidential (evidentiality)
speaker has direct knowledge
-3PThird person plural (person)
neither speaker nor addressee, they/them


'They see it / They are seeing it / They have been seeing it.' [I know because I saw/felt strongly/assumed as usual that they were seeing it.]

Realis imperfective indirect
This affix is -vYGO. For example:

2nenivine
2neni-vYGO-Ø
see-IPFVImperfective (aspect)
'interrupted or incomplete'
.IDREIndirect evidential (evidentiality)
speaker has indirect knowledge
-3PThird person plural (person)
neither speaker nor addressee, they/them


'They see it / They are seeing it / They have been seeing it.' [I know because I heard/deduced/had a hunch that they were seeing it it.]

Irrealis
The irrealis is used for conditionals, subjunctives, imperatives, hortatives, admonitives, and the optative when accompanied by various other clausal elements. Alone, its core meaning is a frustrative: 'try to but be unable to finish doing'.

This affix is -vy in back words and -vi in front words. For example:

2nenivim
2neni-vi-m
see-IRRIrrealis
mood
-1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I


'I tried to see it but couldn't.'

2nenivisin
2neni-vi-m-sYn
see-IRRIrrealis
mood
-1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
-CONDConditional (mood)
[if X,] then I would...
1togovym
1togo-vy-m
fall-IRRIrrealis
mood
-1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I


'If I look, I'll fall'

2nenivipi
2neni-vi-pY
see-IRRIrrealis
mood
-HORTHortative (mood)
'let's...'


'Let's look!'

2neniviti
2neni-vi-tY
see-IRRIrrealis
mood
-IMPImperative (mood)
command


'Look!'

2nenivik
2neni-vi-k
see-IRRIrrealis
mood
-2SSecond person singular (person)
addressee (you)
1nezem
1neze-O-m
say-IPFVImperfective (aspect)
'interrupted or incomplete'
.DIREDirect evidential (evidentiality)
speaker has direct knowledge
-1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I


'If only you looked!'

2nenivicip
2neni-vi-cYp
see-IRRIrrealis
mood
-ADMAdmonitive (mood)
warning


'You'll get in trouble if you look!'

[top]Negation

The negative does not inflect for TAM but does inflect for evidentiality, with a direct/indirect system akin to the imperfective verbs.

Negative direct
With the form -O- -A, this suffix adds a subject marker as an infix between its two components. For example:

2nenetä
2neni-O-t-A
see-NEGNegative (polarity)
not
.DIREDirect evidential (evidentiality)
speaker has direct knowledge
-2PSecond person plural (person)
addressee (plural)
-NEGNegative (polarity)
not
.DIREDirect evidential (evidentiality)
speaker has direct knowledge

'You all didn't see it.' [I know because I was there.]

Negative indirect
With the form -vY- -A, this suffix also adds a subject marker as an infix between its two components. For example:

2nenivitä
2neni-vY-t-A
see-NEGNegative (polarity)
not
.IDREIndirect evidential (evidentiality)
speaker has indirect knowledge
-2PSecond person plural (person)
addressee (plural)
-NEGNegative (polarity)
not
.IDREIndirect evidential (evidentiality)
speaker has indirect knowledge

'You all didn't see it.' [I know because I heard about it or figured it out.]

[top]Subject marking

Most of the time, subject is indicated with the following morphemes after the TAM suffixes:
1S1P2S2P3S3P
-m-p-k-t-n

Note that dual subjects take plural agreement.

However, there are a few exceptions, as listed below:
-In the perfective nonwitnessed, 1P is realized as -zen in front verbs, and -gon in back verbs.
-In the perfective nonwitnessed, 2P is realized as -zet in front verbs, and -got in back verbs.
-The irrealis is realized as -vO for the 3P subject only.
-In the negative direct, the 3P morpheme is -v-.
-In the negative indirect, the 3P morpheme is -z- in front verbs, and -r- in back verbs.
-In Zwazwan only, the 1P morpheme in the negative indirect is -n-, the same as 3S.

As for usage, Amaian tends to use 1P subject for a 2S or 2P meaning in the familiar register. Zwazwan uses 2P for a 2S meaning in the unfamiliar register.

[top]Subordinate forms

Amaian and Zwazwan have many subordinate forms of verbs.

Non-relative forms
General subordinate
The suffix -sO is only optionally conjugated for subject—when conjugated, it expresses a 'from having X' or 'since X' meaning. It is used unconjugated with the clitic =swA (from ‘want’), which takes no TAM morpheme, and only takes -subject-A for the negative, for future tense. It is also used unconjugated with 1yna ‘do’ for a causative construction, and with 2taswo 'begin' for the inchoative. Examples:

2sakat
2sakat-Ø
wine-DRDirect (case)
unmarked case, vs oblique or indirect
.SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
1imäsem
1imä-sO-m
drink-SBRCSubordinate clause (syntax)
marks a subordinate clause
-1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
1swakaram
1swakara-A-m
be.drunk-PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action
.WITWitness (evidential)
speaker witnessed action
-1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I

'Because I'd drunk wine, I got drunk.'

1ytamok
2ytam-1V0k
dumpling-DRDirect (case)
unmarked case, vs oblique or indirect
.PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
1cymoso
1cymo-sO
eat-SBRCSubordinate clause (syntax)
marks a subordinate clause
swam
=swA-m
FUTFuture (tense)
action occurring after the moment of speech
-1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I

'I will eat dumplings.'

2mezin
2mezin
1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
.OBLOblique (argument)
indirect or demoted object
2swago
1swag-2V1
friend-LOCLocative (case)
'in, on, at' etc
2zwaso
2zwa-sO
sing-SBRCSubordinate clause (syntax)
marks a subordinate clause
1ynam
1yna-A-m
do-PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action
.WITWitness (evidential)
speaker witnessed action
-1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I

'I made my friend sing.'

1cymoso
1cymo-sO
eat-SBRCSubordinate clause (syntax)
marks a subordinate clause
2taswam
2taswo-A-m
begin-PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action
.WITWitness (evidential)
speaker witnessed action
-1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I

'I started to eat.'

Realis subordinate
The realis subordinate is formed with the suffix -gzo on back verbs and -ze on front verbs. It lowers any high stem vowel to mid. It is used plain, with tone 2, for 'while' (this is equivalent to a locative case). Similarly, it is used with the suffix -n and tone 2 (equivalent to the oblique case) for a perfective participle which modifies nouns. It is also used with the suffix -nbO for 'after'. Examples include:

2kagzo
1ka-gzo-2Ø
walk-REALRealis mood (mood)
actual, real events
.SBRCSubordinate clause (syntax)
marks a subordinate clause
-LOCLocative (case)
'in, on, at' etc
2zwam
2zwa-A-m
sing-PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action
.WITWitness (evidential)
speaker witnessed action
-1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I

'I sung while I walked.'

2kagzon
1ka-gzo-2n
walk-REALRealis mood (mood)
actual, real events
.SBRCSubordinate clause (syntax)
marks a subordinate clause
-OBLOblique (argument)
indirect or demoted object
2bijä
2bijä-Ø
man-DRDirect (case)
unmarked case, vs oblique or indirect
.SGSingular (number)
one countable entity

=nA
SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
.DEFDefinite
"the"
.NOMNominative (case)
TRANS subject, INTR argument
1ba
1ba-Ø
water-DRDirect (case)
unmarked case, vs oblique or indirect
.SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
2swägin
2swägi-Y-n
want-PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action
.NWITNonwitness (evidential)
speaker did not witness action
-3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee

'The man who had walked wanted water.'

2zwagzonbo
2zwa-gzo-nbO
sing-REALRealis mood (mood)
actual, real events
.SBRCSubordinate clause (syntax)
marks a subordinate clause
-after
2goko
1gok-2V1
river-LOCLocative (case)
'in, on, at' etc
1koc
1koc
to
1kam
1ka-A-m
walk-PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action
.WITWitness (evidential)
speaker witnessed action
-1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I

'After singing, I walked to the river.'

Irrealis subordinate
The irrealis subordinate, -vYsO, has two main uses. One is with the oblique case, with tone 2 assigned and final -n, for a future participle that modifies nouns. The other use is with -tY 'without'. Examples:

2kajovyson
1kajo-vYsO-2n
fly-IRRIrrealis
mood
.SBRCSubordinate clause (syntax)
marks a subordinate clause
-OBLOblique (argument)
indirect or demoted object
1zinitä
1zinitä-Ø
bird-DRDirect (case)
unmarked case, vs oblique or indirect
.SGSingular (number)
one countable entity

=nA
SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
.DEFDefinite
"the"
.NOMNominative (case)
TRANS subject, INTR argument
1men
1men
1PFirst person plural (person)
we (inclusive or exclusive)
.OBLOblique (argument)
indirect or demoted object
2sako
1sak-2V1
house-LOCLocative (case)
'in, on, at' etc
1koc
1koc
to
1man
1ma-A-n
come-PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action
.WITWitness (evidential)
speaker witnessed action
-3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee

'The bird which was yet to fly came to our house.'

1togovysoty
1togo-vYsO-tY
fall-IRRIrrealis
mood
.SBRCSubordinate clause (syntax)
marks a subordinate clause
-ABEAbessive (case)
without
1binnä
1binnä-Ø
woman-DRDirect (case)
unmarked case, vs oblique or indirect
.SGSingular (number)
one countable entity

=nA
SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
.DEFDefinite
"the"
.NOMNominative (case)
TRANS subject, INTR argument
2kezin
2kezi-Y-n
run-PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action
.NWITNonwitness (evidential)
speaker did not witness action
-3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee

'The woman ran without falling.'

Relative forms
Relative subjects, witnessed (positive)
The form -bOn is used. For example:

1taza
1ta-zA
tree-ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
.SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
1kapabon
1kapa-bOn
chop-RELRelative.SUBSubject (argument).WITWitness (evidential)
speaker witnessed action
.AFFAffirmative (polarity)
positive, opposite of NEG
2binnän
1binnä-2n
woman-OBLOblique (argument)
indirect or demoted object
1jagmam
1jagmy-A-m
find-PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action
.WITWitness (evidential)
speaker witnessed action
-1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I


'I found the woman who chopped the tree.' (I saw her chopping the tree.)

Relative subjects, witnessed (negative)
The form -jApOn is used. For example:

1taza
1ta-zA
tree-ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
.SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
1kapajapon
1kapa-jApOn
chop-RELRelative.SUBSubject (argument).WITWitness (evidential)
speaker witnessed action
.NEGNegative (polarity)
not
2binnän
1binnä-2n
woman-OBLOblique (argument)
indirect or demoted object
1jagmam
1jagmy-A-m
find-PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action
.WITWitness (evidential)
speaker witnessed action
-1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I


'I found the woman who did not chop the tree.' (I saw her not chopping the tree.)

Relative subjects, nonwitnessed (positive)
The form -jOn is used. For example:

1taza
1ta-zA
tree-ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
.SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
1kapajon
1kapa-jOn
chop-RELRelative.SUBSubject (argument).NWITNonwitness (evidential)
speaker did not witness action
.AFFAffirmative (polarity)
positive, opposite of NEG
2binnän
1binnä-2n
woman-OBLOblique (argument)
indirect or demoted object
1jagmam
1jagmy-A-m
find-PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action
.WITWitness (evidential)
speaker witnessed action
-1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I


'I found the woman who chopped the tree.' (I assumed or heard she chopped the tree.)

Relative subjects, nonwitnessed (negative)
The form -jAn is used. For example:

1taza
1ta-zA
tree-ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
.SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
1kapajan
1kapa-jAn
chop-RELRelative.SUBSubject (argument).NWITNonwitness (evidential)
speaker did not witness action
.NEGNegative (polarity)
not
2binnän
1binnä-2n
woman-OBLOblique (argument)
indirect or demoted object
1jagmam
1jagmy-A-m
find-PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action
.WITWitness (evidential)
speaker witnessed action
-1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I


'I found the woman who didn't chop the tree.' (I assumed or heard she didn't chop the tree.)

Relative objects, witnessed
The form =pOn is used. For example:

1binnä
1binnä-Ø
woman-DRDirect (case)
unmarked case, vs oblique or indirect
.SGSingular (number)
one countable entity

=nA
SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
.DEFDefinite
"the"
.NOMNominative (case)
TRANS subject, INTR argument
1kapan
1kapa-A-n
chop-PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action
.WITWitness (evidential)
speaker witnessed action
-3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
pon
=pOn
RELRelative.OBJObject (argument).WITWitness (evidential)
speaker witnessed action
1taza
1ta-zA
tree-ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
.SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
1jagmam
1jagmy-A-m
find-PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action
.WITWitness (evidential)
speaker witnessed action
-1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I


'I found the tree that the woman chopped.' (I saw her chopping the tree.)

1binnä
1binnä-Ø
woman-DRDirect (case)
unmarked case, vs oblique or indirect
.SGSingular (number)
one countable entity

=nA
SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
.DEFDefinite
"the"
.NOMNominative (case)
TRANS subject, INTR argument
1kapona
1kapa-O-n-A
chop-NEGNegative (polarity)
not
.DIREDirect evidential (evidentiality)
speaker has direct knowledge
-3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
-NEGNegative (polarity)
not
.DIREDirect evidential (evidentiality)
speaker has direct knowledge
pon
=pOn
RELRelative.OBJObject (argument).WITWitness (evidential)
speaker witnessed action
1taza
1ta-zA
tree-ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
.SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
1jagmam
1jagmy-A-m
find-PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action
.WITWitness (evidential)
speaker witnessed action
-1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I


'I found the tree that the woman didn't chop.' (I saw her not chopping the tree.)

Relative objects, nonwitnessed singular (positive)
The form -sO--Yn is used. (Note that the 3P subject marker is realized as -v-.) For example:

1binnä
1binnä-Ø
woman-DRDirect (case)
unmarked case, vs oblique or indirect
.SGSingular (number)
one countable entity

=nA
SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
.DEFDefinite
"the"
.NOMNominative (case)
TRANS subject, INTR argument
1kapasonyn
1kapa-sO-n-Yn
chop-RELRelative.OBJObject (argument).SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
.NWITNonwitness (evidential)
speaker did not witness action
.AFFAffirmative (polarity)
positive, opposite of NEG
-3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
-RELRelative.OBJObject (argument).SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
.NWITNonwitness (evidential)
speaker did not witness action
.AFFAffirmative (polarity)
positive, opposite of NEG
1taza
1ta-zA
tree-ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
.SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
1jagmam
1jagmy-A-m
find-PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action
.WITWitness (evidential)
speaker witnessed action
-1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I


'I found the tree that the woman chopped.' (I assumed or heard she chopped the tree.)

Relative objects, nonwitnessed singular (negative)
The form -sO--OrYn is used. (Note that the 3P subject marker is realized as -v-.) For example:

1binnä
1binnä-Ø
woman-DRDirect (case)
unmarked case, vs oblique or indirect
.SGSingular (number)
one countable entity

=nA
SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
.DEFDefinite
"the"
.NOMNominative (case)
TRANS subject, INTR argument
1kapasonoryn
1kapa-sO-n-OrYn
chop-RELRelative.OBJObject (argument).SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
.NWITNonwitness (evidential)
speaker did not witness action
.NEGNegative (polarity)
not
-3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
-RELRelative.OBJObject (argument).SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
.NWITNonwitness (evidential)
speaker did not witness action
.NEGNegative (polarity)
not
1taza
1ta-zA
tree-ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
.SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
1jagmam
1jagmy-A-m
find-PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action
.WITWitness (evidential)
speaker witnessed action
-1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I


'I found the tree that the woman didn't chop.' (I assumed or heard she didn't chop the tree.)

Relative objects, nonwitnessed plural (positive)
The form -sO--On is used. (Note that the 3P subject marker is realized as -v-.) For example:

1binnä
1binnä-Ø
woman-DRDirect (case)
unmarked case, vs oblique or indirect
.SGSingular (number)
one countable entity

=nA
SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
.DEFDefinite
"the"
.NOMNominative (case)
TRANS subject, INTR argument
1kapasonon
1kapa-sO-n-On
chop-RELRelative.OBJObject (argument).PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
.NWITNonwitness (evidential)
speaker did not witness action
.AFFAffirmative (polarity)
positive, opposite of NEG
-3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
-RELRelative.OBJObject (argument).PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
.NWITNonwitness (evidential)
speaker did not witness action
.AFFAffirmative (polarity)
positive, opposite of NEG
1tazwa
1ta-zwA
tree-ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
.PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
1jagmam
1jagmy-A-m
find-PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action
.WITWitness (evidential)
speaker witnessed action
-1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I


'I found the trees that the woman chopped.' (I assumed or heard she chopped the tree.)

Relative objects, nonwitnessed plural (negative)
The form -sO--OrOn is used. (Note that the 3P subject marker is realized as -v-.) For example:

1binnä
1binnä-Ø
woman-DRDirect (case)
unmarked case, vs oblique or indirect
.SGSingular (number)
one countable entity

=nA
SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
.DEFDefinite
"the"
.NOMNominative (case)
TRANS subject, INTR argument
1kapasonoron
1kapa-sO-n-OrOn
chop-RELRelative.OBJObject (argument).PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
.NWITNonwitness (evidential)
speaker did not witness action
.NEGNegative (polarity)
not
-3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
-RELRelative.OBJObject (argument).PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
.NWITNonwitness (evidential)
speaker did not witness action
.NEGNegative (polarity)
not
1tazwa
1ta-zwA
tree-ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
.PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
1jagmam
1jagmy-A-m
find-PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action
.WITWitness (evidential)
speaker witnessed action
-1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I


'I found the trees that the woman didn't chop.' (I assumed or heard she didn't chop the tree.)

[top]Reciprocal and reflexive suffixes

The reciprocal is formed with -tO, and the reflexive with -kY. These suffixes attach at the end of the verb but before any clitics. For example:

1jagmapto
1jagmy-A-p-tO
find-PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action
.WITWitness (evidential)
speaker witnessed action
-1PFirst person plural (person)
we (inclusive or exclusive)
-RECPReciprocal (valency)
arguments act on each other

'We found each other.'

1tovaramky
1tovary-A-m-kY
wash-PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action
.WITWitness (evidential)
speaker witnessed action
-1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
-REFLReflexive (valency)
argument acts on itself

'I washed myself.'

[top]---Peripheral morphology---


[top]Nominative enclitics

There are four enclitics which are used on noun subjects to mark the nominative, and also encode number and definiteness. They are optional when the verb is clearly intransitive, such as most verbs of motion, but serve to reduce ambiguity due to the direct case's double function as both nominative and indefinite inanimate accusative.

NOMNominative (case)
TRANS subject, INTR argument
SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
DEFDefinite
"the"
=nA=vA
INDEFIndefinite
a nonspecific referent
=nYm=nAg


[top]Postpositions


[top]Evidential particles


[top]Relative clauses


[top]Quotatives


[top]---Syntax---


[top]Noun phrase word order


[top]Clause word order


Main clauses

Copula clauses

Embedded clauses

Copula clauses

[top]Dislocations


Topic / possessor

Mirative focus

Contrastive focus

Selective focus

Additive and restrictive focus

[top]Questions


Polar questions

Wh-questions

[top]Predicative and attributive adjectives

Comments (0)
privacy | FAQs | rules | statistics | graphs | donate | api (indev)
Viewing CWS in: English | Time now is 14-Oct-19 09:04 | Δt: 135.6449ms