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Adjectives and Adverbs
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The grammar of adjectives and adverbs in Tandi
This public article was written by [Deactivated User], and last updated on 4 Sep 2017, 19:42.

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3. Names ? ?
4. Nouns ? ?
5. Numerals ? ?
6. Pronouns ? ?
7. Verbs ? ?
Menu 1. Adjective Noun Agreement 2. Adjective Comparison 3. Adverb Comparison
[edit] [top]Adjective Noun Agreement


Adjectives decline to match their referent noun for class and number. The standard declension does not indicate case.

vloveta þraaðøs øjøddi
/vlovet̪ɑ θɾɑ:ðøs øjød̪:i/
vlov-et-a
see-INDIndicative mood (mood)
a common form of realis
.AORAorist (tense/aspect)
usually the simple past
.3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.PTVPartitive (number)
'some of' or for mass nouns
-1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
.ERGErgative (case)
TRANS subject; agent
þraa-ðøs
berry-DEFDefinite
"the"
.SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
.PTVPartitive (number)
'some of' or for mass nouns
øjød-di
red-INInanimate (gender/class)
for non-living things
.SGSingular (number)
one countable entity

I see the red berry

Adjectives can also stand in as a noun when the noun it modifies is already known. In this case, the adjective declines as a noun instead of an adjective. To show comparison, the singular animate comparative or superlative suffix can be added before the appropriate noun declension.

vloveta øjødðøs
/vlovet̪ɑ øjød̪ðøs/
vlov-et-a
see-INDIndicative mood (mood)
a common form of realis
.AORAorist (tense/aspect)
usually the simple past
.3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.PTVPartitive (number)
'some of' or for mass nouns
-1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
.ERGErgative (case)
TRANS subject; agent
øjød-ðøs
red-INInanimate (gender/class)
for non-living things
.DEFDefinite
"the"
.SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
.PTVPartitive (number)
'some of' or for mass nouns

I see the red [one]

vloveta øjødsuaðøs
/vlovet̪ɑ øjød̪suɑðøs/
vlov-et-a
see-INDIndicative mood (mood)
a common form of realis
.AORAorist (tense/aspect)
usually the simple past
.3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.PTVPartitive (number)
'some of' or for mass nouns
-1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
.ERGErgative (case)
TRANS subject; agent
øjød-sua-ðøs
red-SUPSuperlative (comparison)
English 'most', '-est'
-INInanimate (gender/class)
for non-living things
.DEFDefinite
"the"
.SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
.PTVPartitive (number)
'some of' or for mass nouns

I see the reddest [one]

An adjective can also stand in for and modify an incorporated noun. When this happens, it declines as a noun (as above) and negates the reduced valency of the verb.

þraavloveta øjødðøs
/θɾɑ:vlovet̪ɑ øjød̪ðøs/
þraa-vlov-et-a
berry-see-INDIndicative mood (mood)
a common form of realis
.AORAorist (tense/aspect)
usually the simple past
.3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.PTVPartitive (number)
'some of' or for mass nouns
-1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
.ERGErgative (case)
TRANS subject; agent
øjød-ðøs
red-INInanimate (gender/class)
for non-living things
.DEFDefinite
"the"
.SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
.PTVPartitive (number)
'some of' or for mass nouns

I berry-see the red [one]/I see the red (berry)

[edit] [top]Adjective Comparison


Adjectives can indicate comparison morphologically using different declensional endings. This is the standard way of adjective comparison.

Adjectives can also indicate comparison lexically.

  • The word osko means “much” or “many” or “very”, and can be added before an adjective to emphasize it. This word’s comparative and superlative forms are analogous to the English “more” and “most”. This is used less commonly than morphological comparison.
  • The word isti means “little” or “few” or “not very”, and can be added before an adjective to de-emphasize it. This word’s comparative and superlative forms are analogous to the English “less” and “least”.


When used in a sentence comparing one noun to another, there are three ways to handle the declension of the noun to which the comparison is made.

  1. When using the word ki (“than”), the compared noun declines to match the noun it is being compared with.

    Bete Troskoran gezøið provtupia ki Tolokoran
    /b̪et̪e t̪ɾoskoɾɑn gezøi̯ð p̪ɾovt̪up̪iɑ ki t̪olokoɾɑn/
    b-et-e
    is-INDIndicative mood (mood)
    a common form of realis
    .AORAorist (tense/aspect)
    usually the simple past
    .3SThird person singular (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .PTVPartitive (number)
    'some of' or for mass nouns
    -3SThird person singular (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ERGErgative (case)
    TRANS subject; agent
    Troskora-n
    Troskora-ERGErgative (case)
    TRANS subject; agent
    gezøi-ð
    child-INDEFIndefinite
    a nonspecific referent
    .SGSingular (number)
    one countable entity
    .PTVPartitive (number)
    'some of' or for mass nouns
    provtu-pia
    strong-ANAnimate (gender/class)
    alive, moving
    .SGSingular (number)
    one countable entity
    .COMPComparative (comparison)
    e.g. 'better'
    ki
    than
    Tolokora-n
    Tolokora-ERGErgative (case)
    TRANS subject; agent

    Troskora is a stronger child than Tolokora
  2. When making a direct comparison, the compared noun declines into the ablative.

    Bete Troskoran provtupia Tolokorale
    /b̪et̪e t̪ɾoskoɾɑn p̪ɾovt̪up̪iɑ t̪olokoɾɑle/
    b-et-e
    is-INDIndicative mood (mood)
    a common form of realis
    .AORAorist (tense/aspect)
    usually the simple past
    .3SThird person singular (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .PTVPartitive (number)
    'some of' or for mass nouns
    -3SThird person singular (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ERGErgative (case)
    TRANS subject; agent
    Troskora-n
    Troskora-ERGErgative (case)
    TRANS subject; agent
    provtu-pia
    strong-ANAnimate (gender/class)
    alive, moving
    .SGSingular (number)
    one countable entity
    .COMPComparative (comparison)
    e.g. 'better'
    Tolokora-le
    Tolokora-ABLAblative (case)
    away from

    Troskora is stronger than Tolokora
  3. When comparing a part to a whole, the compared noun declines into the genitive.

    Bete Troskoran provtupia gezøimään
    /b̪et̪e t̪ɾoskoɾɑn p̪ɾovt̪up̪iɑ gezøi̯mæ:n/
    b-et-e
    is-INDIndicative mood (mood)
    a common form of realis
    .AORAorist (tense/aspect)
    usually the simple past
    .3SThird person singular (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .PTVPartitive (number)
    'some of' or for mass nouns
    -3SThird person singular (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ERGErgative (case)
    TRANS subject; agent
    Troskora-n
    Troskora-ERGErgative (case)
    TRANS subject; agent
    provtu-pia
    strong-ANAnimate (gender/class)
    alive, moving
    .SGSingular (number)
    one countable entity
    .COMPComparative (comparison)
    e.g. 'better'
    gezøi-mään
    child-DEFDefinite
    "the"
    .PLPlural (number)
    more than one/few
    .GENGenitive (case)
    possessive

    Troskora is the stronger of the children


[edit] [top]Adverb Comparison


Adverbs can indicate comparison morphologically using different declensional endings. This is the standard way of adverb comparison.

Adverbs can also indicate comparison lexically in the exact same manner as adjectives.

When used in a sentence comparing one noun to another, there are three ways to handle the declension of the noun to which the comparison is made. These are identical to the three methods for adjectives.
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