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Pronouns in Laefêvëši: Adjectival pronouns Part II: Non-personal pronouns
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This public article was written by Ashucky, and last updated on 27 Jan 2019, 11:14.

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Menu 1. 1.2 Non-personal pronouns 2. 1.2.1 Interrogative pronouns 3. 1.2.2 Relative pronouns 4. 1.2.3 Unspecified pronouns 5. 1.2.4 Relative unspecified pronouns 6. 1.2.5 Indefinite pronouns 7. 1.2.6 Negative pronouns 8. 1.2.6 Total pronouns 9. 1.2.7 Summative pronouns 10. 1.2.8 Manifold pronouns 11. 1.2.9 Differential pronouns 12. 1.2.10 Equative pronouns 13. 1.2.1 Demonstrative pronouns There are two large classes of pronouns in Laefêvëši: substantival (or nominal) pronouns, and adjectival pronouns. As their name suggests, substantival pronouns replace nouns while adjectival pronouns replace adjectives. Each of these classes has further subdivisions.

This article covers non-personal adjectival pronouns. For personal adjectival pronouns, see here. For substantival pronouns, see here.

[edit] [top]1.2 Non-personal pronouns

Laefêvëši has a wide array of adjectival pronouns. All of the substantival pronouns have corresponding adjectival pronouns, and a few extra pronoun types. The non-personal adjectival pronouns come in three main classes that correspond to the three adjectival classes: qualitative, relational, and possessive pronouns. So each type (eg. interrogative, indefinite, etc.) comes in three classes. There is a fourth class, quantitative, but these are generally considered adverbs as they are non-declinable. Some types, however, do have quantitative adjectival pronouns.

Similar to the personal possessive pronouns, the non-personal pronouns have more than one variant used. Aside from the full form, they also have an oblique form, but unlike the personal pronouns, many non-personal pronouns have a suffixed variant.

TypeClass
QualitativeRelationalPossessiveQuantitative
Interrogativevreisi, vrei(s)-; -érvraili, vrae(l)-; -árluiri, luu(r)-þammisi, þammi(s)-
þammili, þamme(l)-
Relativereisi, rei(s)-raili, rae(l)-løiri, løy(r)-þëttisi, þëtti(s)-
á
Unspecifiedvreisi, vrei(s)-; -érvraili, vrae(l)-; -árluiri, luu(r)-þammisi, þammi(s)-
Relative unspecifiedpreisi, prei(s)-; -éppraili, prae(l)-; -áppluiri, pluu(r)-ƕëttisi, ƕëtti(s)-
Indefinitetreisi, trei(s)-noili, noe(l)-; -ónnoiri, nou(r)-tømmisi, tømmi(s)-
vroila, vroe(l)-
Negativeskeisi, skei(s)-saili, sae(l)-sairi, sau(r)-tohhisi, tohhi(s)-
Totalfreisi, frei(s)-; -ǿrfaili, fae(l)-; -ǿffairi, fau(r)-xōl; -óh
ēffili, ēffe(l)-
mjeili, mjee(l)-miiri, miu(r)-mi
Manifoldlaevreisi, laevrei(s)-laevraili, laevrae(l)-laeluiri, laeluu(r)-laeþammisi, laeþammi(s)-
Differentialljaisi, ljai(s)-; -íllaili, lae(l)-, -álljairi, ljau(r)--
Equativefaisi, fai(s)-; -áftaili, tae(l)-; -áttairi, tau(r)--
Demon-
strative
Proximalšaisi, šai(s)-; -ášpol; -ólpoljiri, polju(r)-tymmisi, tymmi(s)-
Medialčeisi, čei(s)-mol; -ómmoljiri, molju(r)-møttisi, møtti(s)-
Distalkjaisi, kjai(s)-kjal; -ákkjaljiri, kjalju(r)-kømmisi, kømmi(s)-


[edit] [top]1.2.1 Interrogative pronouns

The interrogative adjectival pronouns are used in questions and they enquire about characteristics, qualities, etc. of the head they modify.

The pronouns are:
  • qualitative: vreisi, vrei(s)-; -ér "what, what sort of"
  • relational: vraili, vrae(l)-; -ár "which, what", and þammili, þamme(l)- "how many (different)"
  • possessive: luiri, luu(r)- "whose"
  • quantitative: þammisi, þammi(s)- "how large"


Examples:
  • Reisi arkalj ás alën?
    What's the weather like today?

  • Hamnajérau fēról ás?
    What colour is the coat?

  • Vraelte siehnareu ullan?
    Which dictionary do you want?

  • Ftîstárau sjemmiw ás?
    What breed is your cat?

  • Luiri naról ás?
    Whose book is this?

  • Þammelve iarises ennas?
    How many different (kinds of) pets do you have?

  • Þammisi hanjast dymøhtau lás?
    What is the value of the purchase? (lit. How large is the value of the purchase?)


[edit] [top]1.2.2 Relative pronouns

The relative adjectival pronouns are used to introduce relative clauses with animate and inanimate antecedents.

The pronouns are:
  • qualitative: reisi, rei(s)- "such (as), the like(s) of which, the kind that"
  • relational: raili, vrae(l)-; á "who, which, that"
  • possessive: løiri, løy(r)- "whose"
  • quantitative: þëttisi, þëtti(s)- "(of) such a size"


Examples of the qualitative pronoun:
  • Poli lâl ás, reista xej lallanaike.
    This is a flower the like of which I have never seen before.

  • Bannais ʒylogeu, reiste øllanais.
    He got the answer he wanted. (lit. He got the answer such as he wished.)


The relative qualitative pronoun often collocates with the relative demonstrative pronoun šaisi "such" in the main clause:
  • Hjattaiksi šaista ʒylogau, reiste bannais.
    She didn't expect such an answer as she got.


There are two relative relational pronouns; the declinable raili and the indeclinable á. The declinable pronoun can replace the indeclinable one at any time but the latter is very common and is usually replaced by the declinable pronoun to avoid ambiguity only.

The declinable pronoun is used with all subcases and additional cases, whereas the indeclinable pronoun is used with the basic cases:
  • Miettai sienteu riksedna, raemu tilvallai neontahu.
    I received a letter from the lady with whom I stayed during my studies.

  • Nar, á lânur ás, šijen ás.
    The book which is on the table is a gift.


When a non-nominative basic case is required, the indeclinable á must be used with the short form of a personal pronoun, and the two are linked by a hyphen:
  • Gitto rikeu, á-te jøčitittoi.
    We sold the house which we built.

  • Pol nara ós, á-je skiennalais Iskârin.
    These are the book which Iskârin wrote.

  • Pol vajy ás, á-ti vettais nareu.
    This is the woman to whom she gave the book.


However, that last example can be ambiguous in the spoken language where it would sound identical to:
  • Pol vajy ás, á ti vettais nareu.
    This is the woman who gave the book to her.


To resolve the ambiguity, the declinable form can be used:
  • Pol vajy ás, á-ti vettais nareu.Pol vajy ás, raelti vettais nareu.
    This is the woman to whom she gave the book.

  • Pol vajy ás, á ti vettais nareu.Pol vajy ás, raili ti vettais nareu.
    This is the woman who gave the book to her.


If the obviative pronoun is used, however, there is no ambiguity because the obviative pronoun is incompatible with the hyphenated use:
  • Pol vajy ás, á leu vettais nareu.
    This is the woman who gave the book to her.


Examples of the possessive pronoun:
  • Hant, løiri rik jøtiuttais, sjoglîah ás.
    The man whose house burnt down is by uncle.

  • Lallai littive, løiri vaiv ve jynnais.
    I saw mountains whose beauty dazzled me.

  • Aisont, løyrot nyþot follai nentelu, rannais.
    Aisont, with whose sister I went to school, has died.


Examples of the quantitative pronoun:
  • Vettau si geizde, þëttiste jøðettatanno.
    I will give you the salary that you deserve. (lit. I will give you the salary of such as a size as you deserve.)


Like the qualitative pronoun, the quantitative pronoun also tends to coöccur with a demonstrative pronoun:
  • Þëttisi šatelt seirráus, tymmisi âta soirráus.
    Whatever size your share will be, mine will be just as much.


[edit] [top]1.2.3 Unspecified pronouns

The unspecified pronouns are identical in form to the interrogative pronouns but they are used in declarative sentences rather than being used to introduce a question (although they can appear in questions but they are not part of what is being asked for).

The qualitative pronoun vreisi "any sort of" is used to refer to someone or something arbitrarily indefinite:
  • Šettej viettaisse vreisi doia.
    Probably some sort of an accident has happened.

  • Ennanas vreisve sades.
    He always has some difficulties or other.


The relational pronoun vraili "which" is used to refer to an unspecified or unknown person or thing in a group:
  • Sellake, vraelte htineu lallais.
    I don't know which car he saw.


The possessive pronouns luiri "whose" refers to someone or something owned by someone unspecified:
  • Sella, luurte nareu nionnan!
    I know whose book you're reading!


[edit] [top]1.2.4 Relative unspecified pronouns

Similar to the corresponding substantival pronouns, they indicate an optional or arbitrary choice. Unlike the substantival ones, the adjectival pronouns are formed with a prefix rather than a suffix.

The pronouns are:
  • qualitative: preisi, prei(s)-; -ép "of any kind whatever"
  • relational: praili, prae(l)-; -áp "any whatever, whichever"
  • possessive: pluiri, pluu(r)- "whosever, whoever's, of whomever"
  • quantitative: ƕëttisi, ƕëtti(s)- "whatever the size, however large"


Examples:
  • Marrana preiste noidde.
    I'm looking for any kind of job.

  • Riŋalallén preiste hamnaðeu.
    You can use any kind of colour.

  • Riŋalallén praelte hamnaðeu.
    You can use whichever colour.

  • Pluurte nareu šillain, noattar te léj.
    Whosever book you took, return it now.

  • Ƕëttiste ðēneu vi vettan, te šillau.
    However large a piece you give me, I'll take it.


[edit] [top]1.2.5 Indefinite pronouns


The pronouns are:
  • qualitative: treisi, trei(s)- "some sort of, some kind of"
  • relational: noili, noe(l)-; -ón "some, a certain", and vroila, vroe(l)- "some, certain"
  • possessive: noiri, nou(r)- "someone's"
  • quantitative: tømmisi, tømmi(s)- "some(what)"


The qualitative pronoun refers to someone or something indefinite or one of an unspecified number still to be decided or selected:
  • Nor treisi mønd áis.
    The place was some kind of a shop.

  • Høstusu kaullais treiste synses.
    He was drawing symbols of some kind in the sand.


There are two relational pronouns: noili denotes an unknown person or thing, or a person or thing that the speaker does not wish to name, and it can be be used in any number; whereas vroila can be used in plural only, and it denotes (a small) and indefinite number of persons or things of a certain type, and it is selective rather than quantitative.

Examples of noili:
  • Hjannais harjēssainón.
    Some young man came.

  • Fouttai noela vajy.
    I met some woman.

  • Noelu skyylu pol nalj ás.
    In a certain sense that is true.

  • Toþóneru seksennas.
    In some way he's right.

  • Ʒajahkulu lallai kâlónes.
    I saw some trees in the distance.


Examples of vroila:
  • Vroila hitjaf hittos liehëisaj.
    Some/certain drivers drive too fast.

  • Vroila kâla ƕejskâissós.
    Some/certain trees are evergreen.

  • Vroellu emlallu losej ennoksi vassannada.
    In some/certain villages they still don't have electricity.

  • Vroila linnos, í poli ljen viettaiksi.
    Some/certain people say that it didn't even happen.


The possessive pronoun indicates possession by an unknown or unidentified person:
  • Ljēllarka, pol noiri rik ás!
    Don't go in, this is someone's house!

  • Šillais ewnentau nouta nîhta.
    He took the wallet from someone's handbag.

  • Neirodo kvēj rettais noule øxle.
    He slowly reached into someone's pocket with his hand.


The quantitative pronoun indicates a small and indefinite amount:
  • Ukkan hjannais tømmisot sjōnozot.
    The train arrived with some (small) delay.

  • Ennois tømmisau hléansau.
    They had some (small) advantage.


[edit] [top]1.2.6 Negative pronouns

The pronouns are:
  • qualitative: skeisi, skei(s)- "no, of no kind, not of any kind"
  • relational: saili, sae(l)- "no, none, no-one"
  • possessive: sairi, sau(r)- "no-one's"
  • quantitative: tohhisi, tohhi(s)- "no, not any"


The negative pronouns are somewhat confusing. With the exception of the possessive pronoun, all other pronouns have effectively been supplanted by the negative partitive in the modern language, with the actual pronouns used occasionally only for emphasis, and when stand-alone or in nominalised usage. In addition, skeisi and saili have nearly the same meaning, so most of the time either can be used (or the negative partitive case).

Examples:
  • Saelva koitas ennake. / Skeisva koitas ennake. / Koitēnksi ennake.
    I have no news. / I have no news (whatsoever/of any kind). / I have no news.

  • Saelva icyva ennaksi. / Skeisva icyva ennaksi. / Icynnei ennaksi.
    She has no worries. / She has no worries (whatsoever/of any kind). / She has no worries.


However, sometimes the difference can be maintained:
  • Vraelva wiskas ullon? - Saelve.
    Which cakes do you want? - None.

  • Vreisva wiskas ullon? - Skeisve.
    What kind of cakes do you want? - None (of any sort).


The qualitative pronoun is also rarely used with human referents, where only the relational pronoun or the negative partitive case are typically used:
  • Saelta fjøljada láksi. / Føljannei láksi.
    No doctor was there.


The relational pronoun can be used substantivally as well, a usage shared with the substantival negative pronoun tol (no-one). Very often the two can be used interchangeably:
  • Tol/saili ta ksynnaksi.
    No-one/nobody knows him.

  • Tol/saili jai ksynnaksi.
    No-one/nobody likes them.


Nonetheless, there is often a difference between these two pronouns. The substantival pronoun tol refers to an unlimited number of persons, whereas the adjectival pronoun saili refers to a more limited number of persons or things already mentioned. In terms of usage, this means that tol appears in general(ised) statements and saili appears in more specific contexts.

Examples:
  • Tol minólur ti hûn žonnalléksi.
    No-one in this world can help him any more.

  • Allais jai liala, či saili sellaiksi ʒylogde.
    There was thirty of them and no-one knew the answer.

  • Sel allais ƕênsur? - Tol.
    Who was at the party? - Nobody.

  • Vraili (čainna) allais ƕênsur? - Saili.
    Which of you was at the meeting? - No-one.


The relational pronoun is also often used with the egressive case to mean "none of" (in plural) or "neither of" (in dual):
  • Saili neonjasna tajataiksi.
    None of the students agreed.

  • Saili hrainna annauksi fokser.
    Neither of us will go on the trip.


The possessive pronoun indicates the lack of possession or that a person or thing belongs to no-one:
  • Alloi saeru tjēdru.
    We were in no man's land.

  • Jâ sairi taloks allanaiksi.
    She's never been anyone's enemy.

  • Nif sairráksi.
    The dog is no-one's.

  • Vanšinól sairi viellanši láksi.
    This language is no-one's mother tongue.


The quantitative pronoun indicates the total absence of an amount, or that the amount is equal to zero:
  • Estiaike tohhisot ewnot.
    I travelled with no money.

  • Tohhisve dygvanastas ennake.
    I've got no savings.

  • Ennoke hûn tohhisa daonozau.
    We have no hope any more.


In the modern language, this pronoun has started to fall out of use and is frequently replaced by the negative partitive case, the relational negative pronoun, or by the abessive case in some contexts:
  • Estiaike tohhisot ewnot.Estiai ewnazu. (replaced by the abessive case)
    I travelled with no money.I travelled without (any) money.

  • Tohhisva dygvanastas ennake.Saelva dygvanastas ennake. (relational pronoun) / Dygvanastēnksi ennake. (negative partitive)
    I've got no savings.


[edit] [top]1.2.6 Total pronouns

The pronouns are:
  • qualitative: freisi, frei(s)-; -ǿr "all sorts of, of all sorts"
  • relational: faili, fae(l)-; -ǿf "each ,every", ēffili, ēffe(l)- "each and every, every single (one)", and mjeili, mjee(l)- "both sorts of"
  • possessive: fairi, fau(r)- "everyone's, of every person", and miiri, miu(r)- "of both"
  • quantitative: xōl "all, entire, everything", and mi "both"


The qualitative pronoun is used to indicate arbitrary totality:
  • Nionna freisve nares.
    I read books of all sorts.

  • Caenturu freisa alta lóis.
    There were all sorts of things in the attic.

  • Kaljǿrese ksynnas.
    She knows all sorts of jokes.

  • Ʒylotvonsǿrau sasakkalasse.
    He avoids any kind of responsibility.


The most frequently used relational pronoun is faili, which is used to denote each individual person or thing in a group or class:
  • Sananǿfeu ðoitta.
    I exercise every morning.

  • Nevant hkynnais faelta neonjas.
    The teacher recognised every student.

  • Faendo hleŋendo ʒylogondo bannoun šala činas.
    With each of the following two answers you will get ten points.


The relational pronoun ēffili is used less frequently and it acts as a more emphasised version of faili:
  • Pol ʒylotvons ēffelta sainau.
    This is the responsibility of each and every human being.

  • Ēffelte alëteu te fouttai.
    I met her every single day.


The dual relational pronoun mjeili is used to indicate the closeness or commonness of two persons or things:
  • Mjeelta karsas vinnai.
    I've lost both pairs of my shoes.

  • Mjeila niora kēttois.
    The children of both families shouted.

  • Miannais ƕenseu li šianeu, mjeelte jattuj.
    He felt sadness and happiness, both at the same time. (or He felt both sadness and happiness at the same time.)

  • Gylottennéri mjeelost yskytost.
    We (two) need to talk to both families.


The possessive pronoun fairi indicates collective possession or that something or someone belongs to everyone:
  • Saōhól flia fairrás.
    This forest is everyone's property. (or This forest belongs to everyone.)

  • Fairi aks ás rivaj fjēlul.
    It's everoyne's wish to live in peace.


The dual possessive pronoun miiri indicates that someone or someone belongs to two people:
  • Naról miirrás.
    This book belongs to both of us.


However, this pronoun is very rarely used and the personal possessive pronouns are preferred:
  • Naról tairrás.
    This book is ours. (ie. of both of us)


Lastly, the quantitative pronouns are xōl and mi, which are also known as the summative pronouns. See the following section about their form, meaning, and use.

[edit] [top]1.2.7 Summative pronouns

These correspond to the total quantitative pronouns. They refer to persons or things in totality. The first summative pronoun is xōl, which means "all, the whole/entire", and when used as a nominal pronoun, it means "everyone, everything". Like the demonstrative pronoun, this summative pronoun also has a clitic form.

CaseSingularDualPlural
Nominativexōl(i)xēl(i)xal(i)
Genitivexaixiaixâs(i)
Dativexiuxyexît(i)
Accusativexeixieixet(i)
Locativexuixiuixût(i)
Instrumentalxoixioixos(i)
Clitic form-óh

Examples:
  • Mysóheu nøllais .
    He cried the whole way.

  • Þier zannais njynóhis.
    All the guests liked the food.

  • Xei þiuttain!
    You've eaten everything!

  • Xosot mōllaure, sialla!
    I'll play with everyone, I promise!


The pronoun can also be used to indicate the complete or total degree of some property or state:
  • Eidisóháis.
    He was completely pale.

  • Šianisóha kaillois.
    All happy they started to sing.

  • Alloi xal icyllu kej niorau.
    We were worried sick because of the child.


The pronoun can also carry the meaning of "the very":
  • Onotóhan sellai, í pei tēttauis.
    From the very beginning I knew she would do it.



The pronoun is also used in several set expressions:
  • niróhus(u) "at all costs, no matter what"
    • Niróhusu hjeattallús.
      He wants to succeed no matter what.

  • ahhisóh "all sort of" (usually in plural: ahhisóha "all sorts of")
    • Hjonnois ahhisóha saina.
      All sorts of people were coming.

  • mânóhost(o) "with all one's might; very much so"
    • Mânóhosto tvyddalasse fjøjada.
      He resists taking the medicine with all his might.

  • mânóhesre/mânóhers "on all fours"
    • Annais mânóhesre.
      He went on all fours.

  • mânóhussu/mânóhujs "on all fours" (manner of movement)
    • Vattinteu marranais mânóhussu.
      She was looking for the glasses on all fours.


The dual summative pronoun
The dual summative pronoun can be used as a substantival pronoun or as an adjectival pronoun. It declines in dual only. The pronoun corresponds to English "both".

CaseForm
Nominativemi (mí)
Genitivemia (mía)
Dativemii (míi)
Accusativemie (míe)
Locativemiu (míu)
Instrumentalmio (mío)

Examples:
  • Pol Tîmō li Neatvent és, u mí neonjie lés.
    They are Tîmō and Neatvent, and both are students.

  • Miondo neiriodo trâttais čjøde.
    He grabbed the branch with both hands.

  • Mii hriu sexissás.
    It's difficult for both of us.


[edit] [top]1.2.8 Manifold pronouns

The pronouns are:
  • qualitative: laevreisi, laevrei(s)- "many a(n)"
  • relational: laevraili, laevrae(l)- "many a(n)", tuevraili, tuevrae(l)- "(very) few", and jaevraili, jaevrae(l)- "(very) few"
  • possessive: laeluiri, laeluu(r)- "of many a person"
  • quantitative: laeþammisi, laeþammi(s)- "of many different sizes", and tueþammisi, tueþammi(s)- "of few different sizes"


The only qualitative pronoun is of the lae-series. Its meaning has become identical to the lae-series relational pronoun and they can be used interchangeably. They both denote a large number of persons or things of a certain group.

Examples:
  • Laevreiste/laevraelte tuseu nøllais.
    She spent many a night crying.

  • Tēttais nja laevreiste/laevraelte kēkkoinseu.
    He's already done many a foolish thing.

  • Koitansumu nennanne laevreisva/laevraelva ftonas.
    Studying/doing journalism gives you many a (different) skill.


There are two other relational pronouns, tuevraili and jaevraili, with the latter being rarely used. Both pronouns denote a small number of persons or things of a certain group.

Examples:
  • Tuevraelul narul esien rikkás.
    In very few books is the description so lively.

  • Tuevraila lēaf ennos tymjē váičitintas.
    Very few towns have so many beautiful buildings.


The possessive pronoun laeluiri indicates that someone or something belongs to many people:
  • Laeluiri ðast lânur ás.
    Many a person's glass is on the table. (ie. Many people's glasses are on the table.)

  • Ksinnais laeluulte nirykseu.
    He's stolen many a person's watch. (ie. He's stolen many people's watches.)

  • Naróla luirrós? - Ynnake, laeluira.
    Whose are these books? - I don't know, many people's.


The quantitative pronoun laeþammisi is used to indicate that something comes in many different sizes (or some other quantity), and the pronoun tueþammisi is used to indicate the opposite. The latter is rarely used.

Example:
  • Nifa laeþammissós, ûssaf i tueþammisa.
    Dogs can be of many different sizes while cows are of few different sizes.


[edit] [top]1.2.9 Differential pronouns

The pronouns are:
  • qualitative: ljaisi, ljai(s)-; -íl "different"
  • relational: laili, lae(l)-; -ál "other, another", and various combinations with substantival pronouns, see below
  • possessive: ljairi, ljau(r)- "other's, another's", and various combinations with substantival pronouns, see below
  • quantitative: non-existent


The qualitative pronoun ljaisi indicates that someone or something is different in their properties or characteristics from someone or something already mentioned or implied:
  • Hjattai ljaiste ʒylogde.
    I expected a different answer.

  • Emla kvillas ljaisi.
    The village looks different.

  • Ykkato hjelēntáleu.
    We need a different approach.

  • Faþþi sannas ljaista altadeu.
    He tells a different story each time.


The relational pronoun laili indicates that someone or something is not the same as someone or something already mentioned, the alternative of two persons or things, or it implies something additional. This pronoun can also be used substantivally.

Examples:
  • Laelta djēdda láksi.
    There's no other choice.

  • Jarralar vatáleu.
    Open your other eye.

  • Faþþi sannas laelta altadeu.
    He tells another story each time.

  • Laelta ulla.
    I want another one.


The possessive pronoun ljairi (it's unclear why it is derived from the qualitative rather than the relative pronoun) indicates the possession by someone other person:
  • Jōmjanól soirráksi, ljairrás.
    This mobile phone isn't mine, it's another person's.

  • Skorratas ljaurte rinteu.
    She saved another person's life.


Combinations with other pronouns
The relational pronoun can be combined with other substantival pronouns, where it means "else". These combined forms are usually written together but both parts inflect regularly in the basic cases, and only the second part inflects in other cases (the first part remains in the corresponding basic case). They are typically used substantivally only.

Substantival combinations with the relational pronoun laili:
TypeAnimateInanimate
Interrogativesellaili (who else)seilaili (what else)
Relativesollaili (who else)soslaili (what/which else)
Indefinitetellaili (someone else)teilaili (something else)
Negativetollaili (no-one else)tohlaili (nothing else)
Unspecifiedsēllaili (anyone else)siulaili (anything else)
Totalfellaili (everyone else)feilaili (everything else)
Relative unspecifiedsoleslairi (whoever else)soxeslaili (whatever else)
Manifoldlaessēllaili (many other persons)laessiulaili (many other things)
tuessēllaili (few other persons)laessiulaili (few other things)

Examples:
  • Vatrade durriais tellaili.
    Someone else broke the window.

  • Ulla teslaelte.
    I want something else.

  • Eillas timlaelot.
    He hit me with something else.

  • Pai sannake torlaelti.
    I didn't tell this to anyone else.

  • Møttaike toklaelta.
    I bought nothing else.

  • Sei sēllaili ynnas?
    Does anyone else know?

  • Fellaili lwōttois.
    Everyone else ran away.

  • Hys laessēllaili te ksynnas.
    Many other people know him too.


The relational pronoun can also be combined with other adjectival pronouns: namely with other relational pronouns. In these combinations it has the meaning of "other". Unlike the substantival combinations, the first part does not change, only the second part does. The form of the first component is the long oblique stem. These pronouns are generally used adjectivally, but can be used substantivally too.

Adjectival combinations with the relational pronoun laili:
TypeForm and meaning
Interrogativevraellaili (which other)
Relativeraellaili (which other)
Indefinitetraellaili (some other)
Negativesaellaili (no other)
Unspecifiedvraellaili (any other)
Totalfaellaili (every other)
xōllaili (all other)
Relative unspecifiedpraellaili (whichever other)
Manifoldlaevraellaili (many other)
tuevraellaili (few other)

Examples:
  • Vraellaelte wikveu ullan?
    Which other mattress do you want?

  • Durriais îta traellaelte vatrade.
    He broke some other window, too.

  • Pai sannake saellaelti jubijokiu.
    I didn't tell this to any other roommate.

  • Lallain vraellaelve gynyve?
    Have you seen any other rabbits?



The possessive differential pronoun lairi can also be combined with the substantival pronouns to form a class of possessive pronouns. Unlike the combinations with the relational pronoun, the possessive combinations do not change the first part (the substantival part) but only the second, adjectival part. In addition, only the animate variants are typically used (the inanimate variants are theoretically possible but virtually never used).

Substantival combinations with the possessive pronoun lairi:
TypeForm and meaning
Interrogativesellairi (who else's)
Relativesollairi (who else's)
Indefinitetellairi (someone else's)
Negativetollairi (no-one else's)
Unspecifiedsēllairi (anyone else's)
Totalfellairi (everyone else's)
xōllairi (all else's)
Relative unspecifiedsoleslairi (whoever else's)
Manifoldlaessēllairi (of many other persons)
tuessēllaili (of few other persons)

Examples:
  • Durriais tellaurte vatrade.
    He broke someone else's window.

  • Ulla tellaurte wiskeu.
    I want someone else's cake.

  • Eillas timlaelot.
    He hit me with someone .


[edit] [top]1.2.10 Equative pronouns

The pronouns are:
  • qualitative: faisi, fai(s)-; -áf "identical, equal"
  • relational: taili, tae(l)-; -át "(the) same"
  • possessive: tairi, tau(r)- "of the same"
  • quantitative: non-existent


The qualitative pronoun indicates that the persons or things talked about do not differ in their properties or characteristics:
  • Nyþie ennes čeikieu faiste hamnaðau.
    The two sisters have hats of the same colour.

  • Rika fyrij gokkanossa, alloksi či faisa.
    The houses are very similar (to each other) but they're not the same.

  • Sjonnarva seurti faissás.
    My notebook is the same as yours.

  • Kauillais liappēōnáfes.
    He drew identical triangles.


The pronoun can also have the meaning "to be the equal of, a match for, on a par with" or "equal in value or power":
  • Láksi ti faista.
    He has no equal. (lit. There isn't an equal to him.)

  • Láksi si faista.
    She's no match for you.

  • Njahjea mippēdi faissás.
    His success is equal to zero.


The relational pronoun is used to denote something identical, unvarying, allowing no exceptions:
  • Mí tilvallei faisul njyþirtul.
    We both stayed in the same hotel.

  • Alëtǿfeu ðallas hjaide jatáfuku.
    She has tea every day at the same time.

  • Junt xetenu faissás.
    The law is the same for everyone.


The pronoun is also used in the set expression sa li faisi "the same old, the very same", which is use to express the unchanged nature of or repetition of something:
  • Eronǿfeu annas sahtel u faisel þolle aŋetinteru.
    Every year he goes to the same old place for his holidays.


The possessive pronoun indicates that someone or something belongs to the same person or thing mentioned previously:
  • Naról tairrás.
    This book belongs to the same person. (lit. This book is the same person's.)


[edit] [top]1.2.1 Demonstrative pronouns

The demonstrative pronouns are divide into three categories based on the proximity to the speaker: proximal pronouns indicate that someone or something is close to the speaker, medial pronouns indicate that something or someone is further away and probably closer to the listener, and distal pronouns indicate someone or something far away from both the speaker and the listener.

The three categories are distinguished in all four classes:
TypeClass
QualitativeRelationalPossessiveQuantitative
Demon-
strative
Proximalšaisi, šai(s)-; -ášpol; -ólpoljiri, polju(r)-tymmisi, tymmi(s)-
Medialčeisi, čei(s)-mol; -ómmoljiri, molju(r)-møttisi, møtti(s)-
Distalkjaisi, kjai(s)-kjal; -ákkjaljiri, kjalju(r)-kømmisi, kømmi(s)-

In terms of form, the relational demonstrative pronouns are somewhat different from the other demonstrative pronouns because they follow different inflectional patterns. The qualitative, possessive, and quantitative pronouns decline like normal adjectives.

The qualitative demonstrative pronouns
These pronouns denote some kind of similarity to or a shared characteristic or feature with someone or something, or some kind of a comparison.

The pronouns are:
  • proximal: šaisi, šai(s)-; -áš "such, like this"
  • medial: čeisi, čei(s)- "like that"
  • distal: kjaisi, kjai(s)- "like yonder, like that one over there"


Examples:
  • Šaisva siehtas hjattake.
    I didn't expect such words.

  • Hamnajér ullan? - Šaiste.
    What (kind of) colour do you want? - Like this one.

  • Ennake šaista nifa, enna čeiste.
    My dog isn't like this one, it's like that one.


The relational demonstrative pronouns
The pronouns are:
  • proximal: pol(i); -ól "this"
  • medial: mol(i); óm "that"
  • distal: kjal(i) -ák "yonder"


The relational pronouns are declined as follows:
CaseProximalMedialDistal
SingularDualPluralSingularDualPluralSingularDualPlural
Nominative pol(i)pel(i)pal(i)mol(i)mel(i)mal(i)kjal(i)kjan(i)kjân(i)
Genitive paipiaipâs(i)maimiaimâs(i)kjadakjandakjâva
Dative piupyepît(i)miumyemît(i)kjadikjandikjâvi
Accusative peipieipes(i)meimieimes(i)kjadekjandekjâve
Locative puipiuipûs(i)muimiuimûs(i)kjadukjandukjâvu
Instrumental poipioipos(i)moimoimos(i)kjadokjandokjâvo

Examples:
  • Pol sjorrik ás u mol jairrás.
    This is my house and that's his.

  • Pei nja niounnai, mei âta, kjada či xej kē.
    I've already read this one, that one too, but not that one over there yet.

  • Nja niounnain naróleu?
    Have you read this book yet?

  • Noh fettaha îdóleu?
    Where should I put this bag?

  • Kâlóm silis ás.
    That tree is a cherry tree.

  • Lâlóm rjyttais.Lâlóma rjyttois.
    That flower has withered.Those flowers have withered.

  • Ƕattotra kâlómusmu.
    Let's stop at those trees.

  • Lallanake sjennarólau.
    I've never seen this book of yours.


The possessive and quantitative demonstrative pronouns
These two classes are used less frequently, especially the possessive pronouns. The possessive pronouns are often used with non-human referents while the personal possessive pronouns tend to be used with human referents, but this is not an either-or rule and both types of pronouns can be used with any kind of referents given the right context.

The possessive pronouns are:
  • proximal: poljiri, polju(r)- "of this one"
  • medial: moljiri, molju(r)- "of that one"
  • distal: kjaljiri, kjalju(r)- "of yonder one"


Example:
  • Wášnar poljirrás, súšnar moljirrás, u sétnar kjaljirrás.
    The red book is this guy's, the blue is that guy's, and the yellow one is of that guy over there.


The quantitative pronouns are used to indicate a (large) quantity of something, or a comparative quantity to something or someone else in the given context. The quantitative pronouns, unlike the possessive pronouns, are still frequently used.

The quantitative pronouns are:
  • proximal: tymmisi, tymmi(s)- "this big, such a quantity"
  • medial: møttisi, møtti(s)- "that big, a quantity like that"
  • distal: kømmisi, kømmi(s)- "yonder big, a quantity like yonder"


Examples:
  • Wisk tymmissáis, í te wōrōj þuittoi.
    The cake was so big that we were barely able to eat it all.

  • Tymmisuh jatuh te mâij kjon lallai.
    After such a long time I finally saw him again.


The particles -la and jo-
The demonstratives pronouns are often used with the emphasising particle -le, which is attached to the inflected form of the full pronoun. The particle can be used with all but the possessive demonstrative pronouns.

Examples:
  • Paila narau xej niounnaike.
    I haven't read this book yet.

  • Pesla ulla.
    I want these.

  • Šaisila lás taj tuvilaltou lalaj giŋ.
    That's what a flea looks like under the microscope.


In very colloquial language, the particle can be used even when the clitic demonstrative pronouns are used:
  • Kâlómla silis ás.
    That tree is a cherry tree.


If non-nominative case endings are added, then the particle comes last:
  • Ƕattotra kâlómusmula.
    Let's stop at those trees.


The particle jo- can be used with the demonstrative pronouns as well, but this particle precedes the pronoun and it is always separated from the pronoun by a hyphen. Such forms have the meaning of "the latter" and refer back to the last noun of the previous sentence or clause:
  • Eamlind ennas nyleu lin inēnde. Jo-pel høs tuaissés.
    Eamlind has a son and two daughters. The latter (two) are still little.


The nominative singular form jo-pol has a shorter variant as well, namely j-ól:
  • Lalla nifeu li miveu. J-ól valissás.
    I see a dog and a cat. The latter is black.
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