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Pre-Wibbayuric Nouns
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This public article was written by clawgrip, and last updated on 6 Jun 2018, 10:50.

[comments] Menu 1. Gender 2. Cases Pre-Wibbayuric nouns decline into eight cases, two numbers, and are distinguished by two types of gender or class.

[top]Gender

Primary gender is either masculine or feminine, while secondary class is either animate or inanimate. Primary gender is marked on verbs, nouns, and adjectives, while secondary class is marked on adjectives and demonstratives.

Feminine gender is generally marked with the suffix -om. This appears on nouns, as a verb ending, and on adjectives.

Compare the following sentences:

1a. Ōnor ǣthom lōto.
be-3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.MASCMasculine (gender)
masculine or male
man(.NOMNominative (case)
TRANS subject, INTR argument
) sad-MASCMasculine (gender)
masculine or male

"The man is sad."

1b. Ōnor ǣthom ṟīkoṟ.
be-3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.MASCMasculine (gender)
masculine or male
man(.NOMNominative (case)
TRANS subject, INTR argument
) old(.NOMNominative (case)
TRANS subject, INTR argument
)
"The man is old."

1c. Ōnom mōrothom lōtom.
be-3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.FEMFeminine (gender)
feminine or female
woman(.NOMNominative (case)
TRANS subject, INTR argument
) sad-FEMFeminine (gender)
feminine or female

"The woman is sad."

1d. Ōnom mōrothom ṟīkoṟom.
be-3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.FEMFeminine (gender)
feminine or female
woman(.NOMNominative (case)
TRANS subject, INTR argument
) old-FEMFeminine (gender)
feminine or female

"The woman is old."

1e. Ōnor lǣṅw ṯōḫwaṟo.
be-3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.MASCMasculine (gender)
masculine or male
fire(.NOMNominative (case)
TRANS subject, INTR argument
) hot-INANInanimate (gender/class)
inanimate, sessile
(.MASCMasculine (gender)
masculine or male
)
"The fire is hot."

1f. Ōnom īkwetom ṯōḫwaṟom.
be-3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.FEMFeminine (gender)
feminine or female
water-NOMNominative (case)
TRANS subject, INTR argument
.FEMFeminine (gender)
feminine or female
hot-INANInanimate (gender/class)
inanimate, sessile
-FEMFeminine (gender)
feminine or female

"The water is hot."

1g. Ōnor ṅōco khwǣkaṟo.
be-3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.MASCMasculine (gender)
masculine or male
bone-NOMNominative (case)
TRANS subject, INTR argument
.MASCMasculine (gender)
masculine or male
hot-INANInanimate (gender/class)
inanimate, sessile
-MASCMasculine (gender)
masculine or male
)
"The bone is white."

1h. Ōnom nōḡom ṯōḫwaṟom.
be-3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.FEMFeminine (gender)
feminine or female
surface-NOMNominative (case)
TRANS subject, INTR argument
.FEMFeminine (gender)
feminine or female
hot-INANInanimate (gender/class)
inanimate, sessile
-FEMFeminine (gender)
feminine or female

"The surface is hot."

The following may be noted:
  1. Gender is always marked on 3P verbs;
  2. Masculine gender is unmarked on nouns in the nominative and adjectives except for words ending in /p t c kw k/, which take the masculine suffix -o, as seen in sentences 1a and 1g;
  3. Feminine gender is marked consistently with the suffix -om on all parts of speech that take gender, as seen in sentences 1c, 1d, and 1f;
  4. An epenthetic is inserted to prevent vowel hiatus with the ending -om, as can be seen in sentence 1h;
  5. Some masculine words end with /om/, but this is part of the root rather than a suffix, as seen in sentence 1a and 1b;
  6. Inanimate class is marked on adjectives with the suffix -ṟo, as seen in sentences 1e, 1f, and 1g;
  7. The inanimate suffix and the feminine suffix combine into -ṟom, as seen in sentence 1f.


Plural is marked by the suffix -a(ḡ). This is appended directly to the root, with any other endings following it. The appears as above in order to prevent vowel hiatus.

1g. Ōnor ṅōco khwǣkaṟo.
be-3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.MASCMasculine (gender)
masculine or male
bone-NOMNominative (case)
TRANS subject, INTR argument
.MASCMasculine (gender)
masculine or male
hot-INANInanimate (gender/class)
inanimate, sessile
-MASCMasculine (gender)
masculine or male
)
"The bone is white."

1i. Ōnaḡor ṅōca khwǣkaḡaṟo.
be-PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
-3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.MASCMasculine (gender)
masculine or male
bone-PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
-NOMNominative (case)
TRANS subject, INTR argument
.MASCMasculine (gender)
masculine or male
hot-PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
-INANInanimate (gender/class)
inanimate, sessile
-MASCMasculine (gender)
masculine or male
)
"The bones are white."

As the noun itself lacks a nominative ending, the plural is the only suffix on the noun.

By the time of Proto-Wibbayuric, the masculine nominative ending spread to all nouns and disappeared from all adjectives.

"A man is sad."
 Proto-Wibbayuric-Ngoraic: Ōnor ǣthom lōt-o.
 Proto-Wibbayuric: Únur átum-u súd.

[top]Cases

Pre-Wibbayuric has eight cases: nominative, accusative, genitive, dative, locative, instrumental, ablative, and vocative. Examples of the declensions will be provided for six nouns: a regular consonant-final noun, an unaspirated, voiceless consonant-final noun, and a vowel-final noun, in both masculine and feminine genders. The words used are ǣthom- "man", ṅōc- "bone", and ǣta- "arrow" for masculine, and mōroth- "woman", cośōt- "word", and īgwa- "knee" for the feminine.

Nominative
The nominative case is unmarked on most masculine nouns. Those ending in unaspirated, unvoiced plosives take the ending -o. Feminine nouns take no specific nominative ending, but always take the feminine ending -om. Vowel hiatus is avoided with the insertion of -ḡ.
singularplural
mascǣthomǣthom-ǣthomaǣthom--a-Ø
ṅōcoṅōc--oṅōcaṅōc-
ǣtaǣta-ǣtaḡaǣta--ḡ-a-Ø
femmōrothommōroth--ommōrothaḡommōroth--aḡ-om
cośōtomcośōt-cośōtaḡomcośōt-
īgwaḡomīgwa--ḡ-omīgwaḡaḡomīgwa--ḡ-aḡ-om


Accusative
The accusative case is marked with the suffix -eṟ. As with the nominative case, -ḡ always appears between two vowels. In the feminine plural, the initial -o of the feminine suffix is elided, resulting in -a-m.
singularplural
mascǣthomeṟǣthom--eṟǣthomaḡeṟǣthom--aḡ-eṟ
ṅōceṟṅōc-ṅōcaḡeṟṅōc-
ǣtaḡeṟǣta--ḡ-eṟǣtaḡaḡeṟǣta--ḡ-aḡ-eṟ
femmōrothomeṟmōroth--om-eṟmōrothameṟmōroth--a-m-eṟ
cośōtomeṟcośōt-cośōtameṟcośōt-
īgwaḡomeṟīgwa--ḡ-om-eṟīgwaḡameṟīgwa--ḡ-a-m-eṟ


Genitive
The genitive case is marked with the suffix -tor for masculine nouns and -ta for feminine nouns. As the feminine ending always follows -ta, the feminine genitive ending can be regarded practically as -taḡom
singularplural
mascǣthomtorǣthom--torǣthomatorǣthom--a-tor
ṅōctorṅōc-ṅōcatorṅōc-
ǣtatorǣta-ǣtaḡatorǣta--ḡ-a-tor
femmōrothtaḡom*mōroth--taḡ-ommōrothataḡommōroth--a-taḡ-om
cośōttaḡomcośōt-cośōtataḡomcośōt-
īgwataḡomīgwa-īgwaḡataḡomīgwa--ḡ-a-taḡ-om

*usually pronounced with a schwa, i.e. [mo:.ɾɔ.tʰə.tɐ.ɰɔm], or with simple breathiness, i.e. [mo:.ɾɔ.t̩ʰ.tɐ.ɰɔm]

Dative
The dative case is marked with the suffix -mon for masculine nouns and -pa for feminine nouns. As the feminine ending always follows -pa, the feminine genitive ending can be regarded practically as -paḡom
singularplural
mascǣthommonǣthom--monǣthomamonǣthom--a-mon
ṅōcmonṅōc-ṅōcamonṅōc-
ǣtamonǣta-ǣtaḡamonǣta--ḡ-a-mon
femmōrothpaḡommōroth--paḡ-ommōrothapaḡommōroth--a-paḡ-om
cośōtpaḡomcośōt-cośōtapaḡomcośōt-
īgwapaḡomīgwa-īgwaḡapaḡomīgwa--ḡ-a-paḡ-om


Locative
The dative case is marked with the suffix -(e)sa for masculine nouns and -(e)sam for feminine nouns. The initial /e/ of the suffix is dropped except before unaspirated, voiceless plosives.

This case merged in use with the dative, and was eventually lost in Proto-Wibbayuric.
singularplural
mascǣthomsaǣthom--saǣthomasaǣthom--a-sa
ṅōcesaṅōc--esaṅōcasaṅōc-
ǣtasaǣta--saǣtaḡasaǣta--ḡ-a-sa
femmōrothsammōroth--sa-mmōrothasammōroth--a-sa-m
cośōtesamcośōt--esa-mcośōtasamcośōt-
īgwasamīgwa--sa-mīgwaḡasamīgwa--ḡa-sam


Instrumental
The instrumental case is marked with the suffix -caz for both masculine and feminine nouns. The standard feminine suffix -om is replaced with -o in the singular, where it appears before the case ending, and in the plural, the standard ending -om appears.
singularplural
mascǣthomcazǣthom--cazǣthomacazǣthom--a-caz
ṅōcocazṅōc--o-cazṅōcacazṅōc-
ǣtacazǣta--cazǣtaḡacazǣta--ḡ-a-caz
femmōrothocazmōroth--o-cazmōrothacazommōroth--a-caz-om
cośōtocazcośōt-cośōtacazomcośōt-
īgwaḡocazīgwa--ḡ-o-cazīgwaḡacazomīgwa--ḡ-a-caz-om


Vocative
The vocative case is marked with the suffix -ya in the singular and -yaḡo in the plural, for both masculine and feminine nouns. The standard feminine suffix -om is replaced with -o.
singularplural
mascǣthomyaǣthom--yaǣthomyaḡoǣthom--yaḡ-o
ṅōcoyaṅōc--o-yaṅōcacazṅōc--o-yaḡ-o
ǣtayaǣta--yaǣtaḡacazǣta--yaḡ-o
femmōrothoyamōroth--o-yamōrothoyaḡomōroth--o-yaḡ-o
cośōtoyacośōt-cośōtoyaḡocośōt-
īgwaḡoyaīgwa--ḡ-o-yaīgwaḡoyaḡoīgwa--ḡ-o-yaḡ-o


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