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Uyendur Nouns
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A description of Uyendur noun declension
This public article was written by clawgrip, and last updated on 21 Oct 2017, 10:18.

[comments] Menu 1. Class I: consonant stems 2. Class II: a-stems 3. Class III: u-stems 4. Class IV: i-stems 5. Class V: alternate vowel stems Uyendur nouns can be either masculine or feminine, and they decline into four cases: nominative, accusative, genitive, and locative. Nouns also inflect for plurality, and for definiteness. There are five different noun classes based on the specific form of endings that a particular noun takes.

Class I includes all nouns that end in consonants
Class II includes all nouns that end in /a/
Class III includes all nouns that end in /u/
Class IV includes all nouns that end in /i/
Class V includes all nouns that end in any other vowel

The basic endings for masculine nouns are as follows:
 
singular

plural

indefinite

definite

indefinite

definite

NOM
u
-u
ut
-ut
o
-o
ot
-ot

ACC
il
-il
ilut
-ilut
ol
-ol
oloxt
-olŏt

GEN
dur
-dur
durut
-durut
dor
-dor
doroxt
-dorŏt

LOC/DAT
mun
-mun
muntu
-muntu
muno
-muno
munto
-munto


The basic feminine endings are characterized by a final m that appears in most suffixes. Following is a chart of the basic feminine endings:

singular

plural

indefinite

definite

indefinite

definite

NOM
um
-um
ut
-ut
om
-om
oxt
-ŏt

ACC
umul
-umul
umut
-umut
umol
-umol
umoxt
-umŏt

GEN
udom
-udom
uduxt
-udĭt
udwm
-udĕm
udaxt
-udăt

LOC/DAT
ubom
-ubom
ubuxt
-ubĭt
ummo
-ummo
ubaxt
-ubăt


Both the masculine and feminine endings undergo some amount of alteration based on noun class.

[top]Class I: consonant stems

Class I comprises all noun stems that end with a consonant. To these nouns, the vowel suffixes in the above chart are applied unchanged. However, suffixes beginning with a consonant trigger mutation of the final consonant of the stem, resulting in either a geminate or a nasal. Additionally, the suffix -muntu becomes -mmutu.

Below is a chart of the standard masculine endings:

singular

plural

indefinite

definite

indefinite

definite
NOM
u
-u
ut
-ut
o
-o
ot
-ot
ACC
il
-il
ilut
-ilut
ol
-ol
oloxt
-olŏt
GEN
ndur / ddur
-ndur/-ddur
ndurut / ddurut
-ndurut/-ddurut
ndor / ddor
-ndor/-ddor
ndoroxt / ddoroxt
-ndorŏt/-ddorŏt
LOC/DAT
mmun
-mmun
mmutu
-mmutu
mmuno
-mmuno
mmunto
-mmunto

Stems ending in slack-voiced consonants retain slack voice in the geminated consonant if it is a stop:

xuD xuḍ- xuDDur xuḍḍur, xuDDoroxt xuḍḍorŏt, but xummun xummun.

Class I consonants have alternate, shorter forms for some of the genitive and locative forms. These forms are more common in speech.

The colloquial genitive form lacks the d in the -dur suffix:
xuD xuḍ- "sand" xuDDur xuḍḍur vs. xuDur xuḍur
atum atum- "man" atundur atundur vs. atumur atumur

The colloquial locative replaces the mu suffix with ux ĭ.
xuD xuḍ- "sand" xummun xummun vs. xuDuxn xuḍĭn
atum atum- "man" atummun atummun vs. atumuxn atumĭn

The nasalization of the stop can remain even without the /m/ to trigger it, though this is considered nonstandard and highly colloquial.

xummun xummun: xuDuxn xuḍĭn vs. xumuxn xumĭn

The feminine endings for class I nouns are identical to the feminine endings in the feminine ending chart above.

murut murut- "woman" murutum murutum, murutuduxt murutudĭt, murutubaxt murutubăt, etc.

[top]Class II: a-stems

Class II nouns all have stems that end in a. This vowel is recognizable in all consonant suffixes. Other suffixes of class II are identifiable by the presence of many different vowels, such as a, o, e, ĕ, and ă.


masculine

feminine

singular

plural

singular

plural

indefinite

definite

indefinite

definite

indefinite

definite

indefinite

definite

NOM
oto
-oto
ot
-ot
w

axt
-ăt
onto
-onto
ot
-ot
wm
-ĕm
axt
-ăt

ACC
el
-el
elut
-elut
wl
-ĕl
oxloxt
-ŏlŏt
omul
-omul
omut
-omut
omol
-omol
omoxt
-omŏt

GEN
adur
-adur
adurut
-adurut
ador
-ador
adoroxt
-adorŏt
odom
-odom
oduxt
-odĭt
odwm
-odĕm
odaxt
-odăt

LOC/DAT
amun
-amun
amuntu
-amuntu
amuno
-amuno
amunto
-amunto
obom
-obom
obuxt
-obĭt
ommo
-ommo
obaxt
-obăt


Class II nouns are notable for the singular indefinite nominative suffixes -oto and -onto.

Class II nouns have colloquial short forms for the masculine genitive. Like class I nouns, this involves replacing mu. The colloquial ending is -or:

darixadarixa- "ladle": darixadur darixadur vs. darixor darixor
kaka- "mouth": kadur kadur vs. korkor

There are no simplifications for the genitive.

[top]Class III: u-stems

Class II nouns all have stems that end in u. This vowel is recognizable in all consonant suffixes. Other suffixes of class II are identifiable by the presence of u, ĭ, and ŏ. In the native script suffixes containing ĭ spell it with the sequence ux ‹ux›.


masculine

feminine

singular

plural

singular

plural

indefinite

definite

indefinite

definite

indefinite

definite

indefinite

definite

NOM
ux

uxt
-ĭt
ox

oxt
-ŏt
uxm
-ĭm
uxt
-ĭt
oxm
-ŏm
oxt
-ŏt

ACC
uxl
-ĭl
uxlut
-ĭlut
oxl
-ŏl
oxloxt
-ŏlŏt
uxmul
-ĭmul
uxmut
-ĭmut
oxmol
-ŏmol
umoxt
-umŏt

GEN
udur
-udur
udurut
-udurut
udor
-udor
udoroxt
-udorŏt
uxdom
-ĭdom
uxduxt
-ĭdĭt
udwm
-udĕm
udaxt
-udăt

LOC/DAT
umun
-umun
umuntu
-umuntu
umuno
-umuno
oxnto
-ŏnto
uxbom
-ĭbom
uxbuxt
-ĭbĭt
ummo
-ummo
ubaxt
-ubăt


Alternate, colloquial forms of the genitive and locative exist for the masculine. The colloquial genitive replaces dur with ĭr and -dorŏt with -ŏrŏt:

turu turu- "method": turudur turudur vs. turuxr turĭr, turudoroxt turudorŏt vs. turoxroxt turŏrŏt

The masculine locative also has alternative forms, but only for the singular definite and plural indefinite:

turumuntu turumuntu vs. turuxntu turĭntu
turumuno turumuno vs. turoxno turŏno

[top]Class IV: i-stems

Class II nouns all have stems that end in i. This vowel is recognizable in all consonant suffixes. Other suffixes of class II are identifiable by the presence of u, ĭ, and ŏ. In the native script suffixes containing ĭ, this class becomes identical in pronunciation to the u-class above, but for i-class nouns, this vowel is spelled ‹ix› ‹ix›.


masculine

feminine

singular

plural

singular

plural

indefinite

definite

indefinite

definite

indefinite

definite

indefinite

definite

NOM
ix

ixt
-ĭt
ox

oxt
-ŏt
ixm
-ĭm
ixt
-ĭt
oxm
-ŏm
oxt
-ŏt

ACC
ixl
-ĭl
ixlut
-ĭlut
oxl
-ŏl
oxloxt
-ŏlŏt
ixmul
-ĭmul
ixmut
-ĭmut
oxmol
-ŏmol
imoxt
-imŏt

GEN
idur
-idur
idurut
-idurut
idor
-idor
idoroxt
-idorŏt
ixdom
-ĭdom
ixduxt
-ĭdĭt
idwm
-idĕm
idaxt
-idăt

LOC/DAT
imun
-imun
imuntu
-imuntu
imuno
-imuno
oxnto
-ŏnto
ixbom
-ĭbom
ixbuxt
-ĭbĭt
immo
-immo
ibaxt
-ibăt


Like Class III nouns, alternate, colloquial forms of the genitive and locative exist for the masculine. The colloquial genitive replaces dur with ĭr and -dorŏt with -ŏrŏt:

Bamiḅami- "root": Bamidur ḅamidur vs. Bamixr ḅamĭr, Bamidoroxt ḅamidorŏt vs. Bamoxroxt ḅamŏrŏt

The masculine locative also has alternative forms, but only for the singular definite and plural indefinite:

Bamimuntu ḅamimuntu vs. Bamixntu ḅamĭntu
Bamimunoḅamimuno vs. Bamoxno ḅamŏno

[top]Class V: alternate vowel stems

Class V noun stems end with the vowels other than a, u or i, as well as the majority of loanwords. Class V suffixes all begin with consonants and thus class V nouns are entirely regular.


masculine

feminine

singular

plural

singular

plural

indefinite

definite

indefinite

definite

indefinite

definite

indefinite

definite

NOM
ku
-ku
kut
-kut
ko
-ko
koxt
-kŏt
kum
-kum
kut
-kut
kom
-kom
koxt
-kŏt

ACC
kil
-kil
lut
-lut
kol
-kol
loxt
-lŏt
mul
-mul
mut
-mut
mol
-mol
moxt
-mŏt

GEN
dur
-dur
durut
-durut
dor
-dor
doroxt
-dorŏt
dom
-dom
duxt
-dĭt
dwm
-dĕm
daxt
-dăt

LOC/DAT
mun
-mun
muntu
-muntu
muno
-muno
nto
-nto
bom
-bom
buxt
-bĭt
kummo
-kummo
baxt
-băt


As there are no changes to the stem, and no alternate forms of any endings, this is a comparatively easy declension class to learn.
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