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nouns and adjectives in Thuldian
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short summary of the case and gender system of thuldian nouns
This public article was written by [Deactivated User], and last updated on 21 May 2024, 21:25.

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Menu 1. introduction to nouns 2. grammatical number 3. nominal cases 4. Nominal declension tables 5. introduction to adjectives 6. indefinite declensions 7. definite declensions 8. degrees of comparison 9. personal pronouns 10. introduction to numerals 11. cardinal numbers 12. counting 13. ordinal numbers
[edit] [top]introduction to nouns

Thuldian has 7 nominal cases, 2 genders and 3 grammatical numbers. Gender is almost always very transparent depending on the endings of a noun. Nouns belonging to 9 declensions, 3 of which are almost always masculine, 3 almost always feminine and 2 which contain both genders. All nouns in Thuldian are declinable and almost all are regularly conjugated into one of 8 declension classes.

[edit] [top]grammatical number

Thuldian nouns can be either single, dual or plural, although across most of the speaker area the dual is rarely used. For example, a sentence like ба́ра́ пекѧн двай вíру - bārā peķan dvai vīru – "two men are fighting in a bar" would seem very stilted and formal to most. Although in some villages in the north, the dual is still used in everyday speech.

However, for body parts, and things that normally come in pairs, it is much more common to hear the dual forms of the noun in everyday speech. For example: каньжі, лаџі, на́ші, ѧ́му, осану, ыкэну – two hands, legs, nostrils, arms, ears, eyes. For most speakers, saying кайк ыкэнаму – kaik yķenamu – “look with your eyes”, would sound more natural than saying кайк ыкэнам – kaik yķenam – “look with your eyes”, even though both forms are grammtically correct. However, the dual is used far more freely in literature and in formal speech.

Also to note is that not all words have a singular and plural form. There are a number of plurale tantum nouns that only have plural forms. There are internal organs: гарнас - intestines, люрас - liver, ыді - tissue; elements: ѯівеніс - sky, луктѵс - air, міѯас - cloud; among other semantic fields whose words are often chiefly or exclusively pluralised.

[edit] [top]nominal cases


Nominative case
The nominative case represents the subject of a sentence, or the noun which carried out the action, as opposed to the object or any other verb arguments. It is the lemma, or reference form used to cite the word, and thus the form found in a dictionary. The nominative can only ever end in -с, -р, or a vowel. Some examples of the nominative and its role in the sentence include:
- вíрс сенѡ дранкт алу – vīrs senuo drankt alu – the old man drank beer
- ѣм авіс блака ѯуне – jėm avis blaka xunē – I am the black sheep of the family
- Рíга ір Латвеѧс галваспільса́та Rīga ir Latvejas galvaspiļsāta Rīga is the capital of Latvia

Vocative case
The vocative is used in direct address and imperatives:
- вíр!– vīr!– man!
- ватен!– vaten! – water!
- блѡжен аві! – bluožen avi! – stupid sheep!

Accusative case
The accusative case represents the object of a sentence, or the noun which an action was carried out upon. It is also used with a number of prepositions, normally indicating motion as opposed to location, which is indicated with the locative. For example: “ан трѵѧ́” means ‘on the tree’, whereas “ан трѵю” means ‘onto the tree’. Some examples of the accusative include:
- дрункам крíвѡ дегвíну – drunkam krīvuo degvīnu – we drank Russian vodka
- ну́тан мулкюс цѣдí чíна – nūtan muļķus cėdī čīna – they used bricks instead of stone
- шапсім наман клу́дан ри сіре – šapsim naman klūdan ŗi sire – we will make a celebrated name for ourselves

Genitive case
The genitive case represents a relation between two nouns, normally some sort of possession. The equivalent in English is either 'of' or -'s. It can also be used with a number of prepositions. It can also be used partitively, as in пілкс піѯѡ – fullof fishSome examples of the genitive include:
- пранс ѕеніс па́рѳунс ста́т э́ – prans dzenis pārțuns stāt jē – the foreign woman’s friend is over there
- дрункам крíвѡ дегвíну – drunkam krīvuo degvīnu – we drank Russian vodka
- Рíга ір галваспільса́та Латвеѧс – Rīga ir galvaspiļsāta Latvejas – Rīga is the capital of Latvia

Dative case
The dative case has a number of roles, covering both the indirect object, and for many prepositions, especially in the plural. It can also be used for the purpose, benefit, or manner of an action, or to denote possession. It is also used in possession, especially inalienable or temporary possession. Some examples of the Dative include:
- мíнам прандíбастені ста́т ѣва алкохолс – mīnam prandī basteni stāt jėva alkohols – my best friend has all the alcohol (literally “to my best friend is all the alcohol)
- ір ри падрí мíнам – ir ŗi padrī mīnam – It's for my father
- габу паден мíнан бе́рнам вѣте́гэнам – gabu paden mīnan bērnam vėtēģenam – I gave my food to the local children

Instrumental case
The instrumental case is used to indicate the means with which the subject achieves an action, as well as the subject of a passive verb. It can be used with the preposition me 'with', but this is optional and is often omitted, especially when the instrumental form is distinct from other cases. It's also used in passive constructions to signify the doer of the passive verb. Some examples of the instrumental include:
- вíрс ба́рды лагэне двала ѳаѧ́ разна́– vīrs bārdy laģene dvala ţajā raznā – the man with the long beard lives in that house
- сінт апевелтíді ражуне – sint apeveltídi ražune – they’re endowed with reason
- пільса́та васт етíріда ѳíнан праньже – piļsāta vast etīrida ţīnan praņže – the city was built by your friend

Locative case
The locative case is used to indicate the location of a noun. Like the instrumental, it may be used with prepositions or may occur by itself. It is not native to Thuldian but was developed under the influence of Latvian. Some examples of the locative include:
- вíрс ба́рды лагэне двала ѳаѧ́ разна́– vīrs bārdy laģene dvala ţajā raznā – the man with the long beard lives in that house
- да́лю ужпундан ланда́ Шінеѧ́ра – dāļu užpundan landā Šinejāra – they discovered a valley in the land of Shinar
- О паде уѱінѧ́ – o pade upsiņā – our father in heaven

[edit] [top]Nominal declension tables

Nouns can be divided into a number of different “stems” that dictate how they are declined. The way to decide in what way a noun is declines depends purely on the last letter of the noun and its gender.

1st declension nouns
Nouns in the first declension are always masculine, and end in -s. . Foreign nouns ending in a consonant are almost always borrowed into this class. However, there are a subclass of nouns, often relating to young people or animals, that have an -р- added before other case endings other than the nominative.
вíрс ‘man’ (M)кѵдс ‘baby’ (M)
SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
DUDual (number)
two
PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
DUDual (number)
two
PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
NOMNominative (case)
TRANS subject, INTR argument
вíрсвíрувíрікѵдскѵдрукѵдрі
VOCVocative (case)
'O [addressee]'
вíр
ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
вíрувíрускѵдрукѵдрус
GENGenitive (case)
possessive
вíравíрісвíрѡкѵдракѵдріскѵдрѡ
DATDative (case)
indirect object; recipient, beneficiary, location
вíревíрамувíрамкѵдрекѵдрамукѵдрам
INSInstrumental (case)
'with', 'using'
вíрывíремкѵдрыкѵдрем
LOCLocative (case)
'in, on, at' etc
вíра́вíрíсвíроскѵдра́кѵдрíскѵдрос


2nd declension nouns
The i-stems are a much larger class than they were in Proto-Germanic, as the Proto-Germanic nouns ending in -(i)jaz have collapsed into this class, as well as a number of borrowings from Latvian. Nouns can be both masculine and feminine in this class, but masculine nouns make up the vast majority, with feminine nouns being almost all abstract nouns, largely ending in -діс or -ѳіс.
ыбіс ‘fairy’ (M)ѯодіс ‘wrongdoing’ (F)
SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
DUDual (number)
two
PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
DUDual (number)
two
PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
NOMNominative (case)
TRANS subject, INTR argument
ыбісыбюыбиѯодісѯожіѯожі
VOCVocative (case)
'O [addressee]'
ыбіѯоді
ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
ыбюс
GENGenitive (case)
possessive
ыбѧыбисыбѫѯожасѯожісѯожѡ
DATDative (case)
indirect object; recipient, beneficiary, location
ыбэыбѧмуыбѧмѯожайѯожа́муѯожа́м
INSInstrumental (case)
'with', 'using'
ыбюыбэмѯожу
LOCLocative (case)
'in, on, at' etc
ыбíыби́сыбѫсѯодíѯожíсѯодíс

As shown above, there are certain consonantal alterations in some declensions, that occur before the j- vowels. ц- becomes ч-, д- and з- become ж-, ѕ- becomes џ-, с- and т- become ш-, and ст- becomes щ-. Note that in the genitive plural, -ѫ is used after palatalised consonants and -ѡ is used elsewhere.

3rd declension nouns
Similarly to i-stem nouns, u-stem nouns are slightly larger than in Proto-Germanic, as the Proto-Germanic nouns ending in -(u)waz, which were a subclass of a-stem nouns, have largely collapsed into this class, as well as borrowings from Latvian. Nouns in this class are almost entirely masculine.
сунус ‘son’ (M)
SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
DUDual (number)
two
PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
NOMNominative (case)
TRANS subject, INTR argument
сунуссунусунѵс
VOCVocative (case)
'O [addressee]'
суну
ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
сунус
GENGenitive (case)
possessive
суноссунѡссунѫ
DATDative (case)
indirect object; recipient, beneficiary, location
сунесунумусунум
INSInstrumental (case)
'with', 'using'
сунѵ
LOCLocative (case)
'in, on, at' etc
суну́суну́ссунос


4th declension nouns
The 4th declension nouns are a relatively large class of entirely masculine nouns, which end in -ѡ in the nominative and have an -н in every single other case.
ватѡ ‘water’ (M)
SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
DUDual (number)
two
PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
NOMNominative (case)
TRANS subject, INTR argument
ватѡватенуватеніс
VOCVocative (case)
'O [addressee]'
ватен
ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
ватенус
GENGenitive (case)
possessive
ватенсватенісватенѡ
DATDative (case)
indirect object; recipient, beneficiary, location
ватеніватенамуватенам
INSInstrumental (case)
'with', 'using'
ватене
LOCLocative (case)
'in, on, at' etc
ватене́ватенíсватенос


5th and 6th declension nouns
The 5th and 6th declension nouns make up the vast majority of feminine nouns in the language, both native and foreign. 5th declension nouns mostly end in -a, with some nouns ending in -у in the nominative singular, whereas 6th declension nouns always end in -е or -ѣ.
лѧра ‘glass’ (F)балу ‘evil’ (F)рібе ‘rib’ (F)амѣ ‘ability’ (F)
SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
DUDual (number)
two
PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
DUDual (number)
two
PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
DUDual (number)
two
PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
DUDual (number)
two
PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
NOMNominative (case)
TRANS subject, INTR argument
лѧралѧрілѧрасбалубалубалусріберібирібесамѣамиамѣс
VOCVocative (case)
'O [addressee]'
аме
ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
лѧрурібі
GENGenitive (case)
possessive
лѧраслѧріслѧрѡбалусбалѡсбалѡрібесрібісрібѫамѣсамісамѫ
DATDative (case)
indirect object; recipient, beneficiary, location
лѧрайлѧра́мулѧра́мбалуйбалу́мубалу́мрібейрібе́мурібе́мамейаме́муаме́м
INSInstrumental (case)
'with', 'using'
лѧрыбалырібыамы
LOCLocative (case)
'in, on, at' etc
лѧра́лѧрíслѧра́сбалу́балу́сбалу́срібе́ріби́срібе́саме́ами́саме́с


7th declension nouns
The 7th declension nouns are the feminine counterpart of the 4th declension nouns, and function very similarly. They can either end in -е́ or -у́ in the nominative singular. The subclass of nouns ending in -е́ are usually nominalised adjectives.
цыку́ ‘cheek’ (F)боде́ ‘load’ (F)
SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
DUDual (number)
two
PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
DUDual (number)
two
PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
NOMNominative (case)
TRANS subject, INTR argument
цыку́цыкуніцыкунісбоде́боденібоденіс
VOCVocative (case)
'O [addressee]'
цыкунбоден
ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
цыкунусбоденус
GENGenitive (case)
possessive
цыкунсцыкунісцыкунубоденсбоденісбодену
DATDative (case)
indirect object; recipient, beneficiary, location
цыкуніцыкумуцыкумасбоденібодемубодемас
INSInstrumental (case)
'with', 'using'
цыкунецыкумісбоденебодеміс
LOCLocative (case)
'in, on, at' etc
цыкуне́цыкумíсцыкума́сбодене́бодемíсбодема́с


8th declension nouns
The 8th nouns are a relatively small class of nouns, of both genders, although there are more feminine than masculine nouns. However, for historical reasons, the nominatives of this case, if they end in -тс, -дс, -кс or-пс, they are written as -ц, -ѕ, -ѯ and -ѱ. Also note, as well as к turning to ц before j-vowels, it turnes to кь before е or і in the declension.
арнс ‘eagle’ (M)па́ц ‘foot’ (F)ба́ѯ ‘book’ (F)
SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
DUDual (number)
two
PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
DUDual (number)
two
PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
DUDual (number)
two
PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
NOMNominative (case)
TRANS subject, INTR argument
арнсарнюарніспа́цпа́шіпа́тісба́ѯба́ціба́кис
ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
арніарнюспа́тіпа́шусба́киба́цус
GENGenitive (case)
possessive
арнісарнисарнѫпа́тіспа́шіспа́шѡба́кисба́цісба́цѡ
DATDative (case)
indirect object; recipient, beneficiary, location
арнíарнѧмуарнíмпа́тíпа́тíмупа́тíмба́ки́ба́ки́муба́ки́м
INSInstrumental (case)
'with', 'using'
арнэпа́шеба́це
LOCLocative (case)
'in, on, at' etc
арнэ́арни́сарнíспа́ше́па́шíспа́тíсба́це́ба́цíсба́ки́с

However, a small group of 8th declension nouns, mostly ending in -нс or -Vс undergo additional changes from their nominative form to their oblique forms. Furthermore, there is the case of алу – beer, and мылі – honey, which are quite irregular.
пранс ‘friend’ (M)ме́нас ‘month’ (F)алу ‘beer’ (F)
SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
DUDual (number)
two
PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
DUDual (number)
two
PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
DUDual (number)
two
PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
NOMNominative (case)
TRANS subject, INTR argument
пранспрандупрандісме́нас ме́наѳіме́наѳісалуалуѳіалуѳис
ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
прандіпрандусме́наѳіме́наѳусалуѳус
GENGenitive (case)
possessive
прандіспрандіспрандѡме́наѳісме́наѳісме́наѳѫалуѳісалуѳісалуѳѡ
DATDative (case)
indirect object; recipient, beneficiary, location
прандíпрандамупрандíмме́наѳíме́наѳíмуме́наѳíмалуѳíалуѳíмуалуѳíм
INSInstrumental (case)
'with', 'using'
прандеме́наѳеалуѳе
LOCLocative (case)
'in, on, at' etc
пранде́прандíспрандíсме́наѳе́ме́наѳíсме́наѳíсалуѳе́алуѳíсалуѳíс


9th declension nouns
9th declension nouns are virtually all masculine agent nouns, as agent nouns are formed by adding -те́ at the end of the verb. Additionally, there are the kinship terms, паде́ (father), мате́ (mother), праѳе́ (brother), свесте́ (sister) and дукте́ (daughter).
возте́ ‘ruler’ (M)паде́ ‘father’ (M)свесте́ ‘sister’ (F)
SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
DUDual (number)
two
PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
DUDual (number)
two
PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
DUDual (number)
two
PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
NOMNominative (case)
TRANS subject, INTR argument
возте́возтрувозтріспаде́ падрупадріссвесте́свестрісвестріс
VOCVocative (case)
'O [addressee]'
возтепадесвесте
ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
возтрувозтруспадрупадруссвеструсвеструс
GENGenitive (case)
possessive
возтросвозтрісвозтрѡпадроспадріспадрѡтросѳіссвестріссвестроѡ
DATDative (case)
indirect object; recipient, beneficiary, location
возтрівозтрамувозтрíмпадріпадрамупадрíмсвестрісвестрíмусвестрíм
INSInstrumental (case)
'with', 'using'
возтрыпадрысвестры
LOCLocative (case)
'in, on, at' etc
возтре́возтрíсвозтре́спадре́падрíспадре́ссвестре́свестрíссвестре́с


[edit] [top]introduction to adjectives

Adjective declension is highly regular, with the only irregularity being found in the stem used to conjugate the comparative and superlative of a few common adjectives. Adjectives agree with the nouns they modify in number, case and gender.

[edit] [top]indefinite declensions

Tuldian indefinite adjectives have 3 declensions, determined by the ending of the nominative singular in the masculine. In Tuldian, there are no definite articles, so the only way of expressing definiteness is through the adjectival declensions. Some grammarians call these adjectives ‘strong adjectives’ and the definite adjectives ‘weak adjectives’, but they are most often called definite and indefinite adjectives. There is no vocative in the indefinite declensions, as the definite is always used in direct address, thus indefinite adjectives only decline to 6 cases.

1st declension adjectives
masculinefeminine
SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
DUDual (number)
two
PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
DUDual (number)
two
PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
NOMNominative (case)
TRANS subject, INTR argument
улбсулбуулбіулбаулбіулбас
ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
улбанулбусулбу
GENGenitive (case)
possessive
улбаулбісулбѡулбрасулбрісулбрѡ
DATDative (case)
indirect object; recipient, beneficiary, location
улбамулбамуулбамулбрайулбра́муулбемас
INSInstrumental (case)
'with', 'using'
улбанулбемулбрыулбеміс
LOCLocative (case)
'in, on, at' etc
улба́улбíсулбосулбра́улбрíсулбеніс

2nd declension adjectives
masculinefeminine
SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
DUDual (number)
two
PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
DUDual (number)
two
PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
NOMNominative (case)
TRANS subject, INTR argument
ѯы́нісѯы́нюѯы́ниѯы́ніѯы́ниѯы́нѧс
ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
ѯы́нѧнѯы́нюсѯы́ню
GENGenitive (case)
possessive
ѯы́нѣѯы́нисѯы́нѫѯы́нерасѯы́нерісѯы́нерѡ
DATDative (case)
indirect object; recipient, beneficiary, location
ѯы́нѣмѯы́нѧмуѯы́нѣмѯы́нерайѯы́нера́муѯы́нэмас
INSInstrumental (case)
'with', 'using'
ѯы́нѣнѯы́нэмѯы́нерыѯы́нэміс
LOCLocative (case)
'in, on, at' etc
ѯы́нѧ́ѯы́ни́сѯы́нѫсѯы́нера́ѯы́нерíсѯы́нэніс

3rd declension adjectives
masculinefeminine
SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
DUDual (number)
two
PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
DUDual (number)
two
PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
NOMNominative (case)
TRANS subject, INTR argument
наруснарунаринарінаринарѧс
ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
наруннаруснарю
GENGenitive (case)
possessive
нарунарѡснарѫнарераснареріснарерѡ
DATDative (case)
indirect object; recipient, beneficiary, location
нарумнарумунарумнарерайнарера́мунарэмас
INSInstrumental (case)
'with', 'using'
наруннарерынарэміс
LOCLocative (case)
'in, on, at' etc
нару́нару́снароснарера́нарерíснарэніс

Second and third declension adjectives are only distinct in their masculine indefinite forms; their feminine forms and definite forms are entirely identical to each other. Thus, although there are three indefinite declensions, there are only two definite declensions in Tuldian.

[edit] [top]definite declensions

The definite declension is used to refer to specific individuals, known people or things or things for which the adjective is a defining characteristic. Definite adjectives are also used in vocative statements, possessive pronouns and determiners. Otherwise indefinite adjectives are used. The definite declension is descended from the 4th and 7th nominal declensions, and its forms closely resemble them.
Another thing to note is that all ordinal numbers, and the adjective вѣкнѡ – own, are always definite, other than анѳарс – second, which is always indefinite.

1st declension adjectives
masculinefeminine
SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
DUDual (number)
two
PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
DUDual (number)
two
PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
NOMNominative (case)
TRANS subject, INTR argument
улбѡулбенуулбенісулбу́улбуніулбуніс
VOCVocative (case)
'O [addressee]'
улбенулбун
ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
улбенусулбунус
GENGenitive (case)
possessive
улбенсулбенісулбенѡулбунсулбунісулбунѡ
DATDative (case)
indirect object; recipient, beneficiary, location
улбеніулбенамуулбенамулбуніулбуна́муулбумас
INSInstrumental (case)
'with', 'using'
улбенеулбунеулбуміс
LOCLocative (case)
'in, on, at' etc
улбене́улбенíсулбеносулбуне́улбунíсулбуніс


2nd and 3rd declension adjectives
masculinefeminine
SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
DUDual (number)
two
PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
DUDual (number)
two
PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
NOMNominative (case)
TRANS subject, INTR argument
шы́нѫшы́нэнушы́нэнісшы́ню́шы́нюнішы́нюніс
VOCVocative (case)
'O [addressee]'
шы́нэншы́нюн
ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
шы́нэнусшы́нюнус
GENGenitive (case)
possessive
шы́нэнсшы́нэнісшы́нэнѡшы́нюнсшы́нюнісшы́нюнѡ
DATDative (case)
indirect object; recipient, beneficiary, location
шы́нэнішы́нэнамушы́нэнамшы́нюнішы́нюна́мушы́нюмас
INSInstrumental (case)
'with', 'using'
шы́нэнешы́нюнешы́нюміс
LOCLocative (case)
'in, on, at' etc
шы́нэне́шы́нэнíсшы́нэносшы́нюне́шы́нюнíсшы́нюніс

Some examples of situations when the different declensions are used includes:
- ѧпа ѕемт па́тренс плодус рѧ́ Рíгас – japa dzemt mīns pātrens plodus ŗā Rīgas – a stupid cousin from Rīga is coming as well
- ѧпа ѕемт мíнс па́тренс пложѡ рѧ́ Рíгас – japa dzemt mīns pātrens pložuo no Rīgas – my stupid cousin from Rīga is coming as well (definite due to the possessive pronoun)
- шы́ні ѕенс ста́т эре – šȳni dzens stāt jere– a beautiful woman is over there right now
- шы́ню́ ѕенс ста́т эре – šȳņū dzens stāt jere – the beautiful woman is over there right now
- геб инь сытѣм бе́рнам– geb jiņ sytėm bērnam – give it to (some) hungry children
- геб инь сышенам бе́рнам– geb jiņ syšenam bērnam – give it to the hungry children

[edit] [top]degrees of comparison

Tuldian adjectives also decline for two different degrees of comparison, the comparative and the superlative. They are the equivalents of the English -er and -est endings of adjectives. There are a small number of adjectives that have irregular comparative and superlative stems:
positivemeaningcomparativesuperlative
ѵдіс goodбетрѡбестс
мілкс bigма́рѡместс
ма́гс manyлирѡлистс
лайѕс smallміжѡмінѧстс
мíніс badвессѡвестс
пѣ́с fewлассѡлѣстс


comparative adjectives
Comparative adjectives are always definite, and almost always end in -р(ел)ѡ, aside from a few irregular comparatives. For 1st declension adjectives, the ending is added directly to the stem, but for 2nd and 3rd declension adjectives, they both end in -ір(ел)ѡ. Also, unlike the standard definite declension, the feminine ends in -е́ rather than -у́. The (ел) that can be added to the ending changes the meaning to be “a little bit more”. For example, ма́рѡ means ‘bigger’, but ма́релѡ means ‘a little bigger’.
masculinefeminine
SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
DUDual (number)
two
PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
DUDual (number)
two
PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
NOMNominative (case)
TRANS subject, INTR argument
улбрѡулбренуулбренісулбре́улбреніулбреніс
VOCVocative (case)
'O [addressee]'
улбренулбрен
ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
улбренусулбренус
GENGenitive (case)
possessive
улбренсулбренісулбренѡулбренсулбренісулбренѡ
DATDative (case)
indirect object; recipient, beneficiary, location
улбреніулбренамуулбренамулбреніулбрена́муулбремас
INSInstrumental (case)
'with', 'using'
улбренеулбренеулбреміс
LOCLocative (case)
'in, on, at' etc
улбрене́улбренíсулбеносулбрене́улбренíсулбреніс


Superlative adjectives
Superlative adjectives can be both definite and indefinite, although the indefinite is normally used even in contexts where a definite adjective is normally used. 1st declension nouns end in –астс, and 2nd and 3rd declension nouns in -істс. Superlative adjectives have both definite and indefinite forms.
masculinefeminine
SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
DUDual (number)
two
PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
DUDual (number)
two
PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
NOMNominative (case)
TRANS subject, INTR argument
улбастсулбастуулбастіулбастаулбастіулбастас
ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
улбастанулбастусулбасту
GENGenitive (case)
possessive
улбастаулбастісулбастѡулбастрасулбастрісулбастрѡ
DATDative (case)
indirect object; recipient, beneficiary, location
улбастамулбастамуулбастамулбастрайулбастра́муулбастемас
INSInstrumental (case)
'with', 'using'
улбастанулбастемулбастрыулбастеміс
LOCLocative (case)
'in, on, at' etc
улбаста́улбастíсулбастосулбастра́улбастрíсулбастеніс


masculinefeminine
SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
DUDual (number)
two
PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
DUDual (number)
two
PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
NOMNominative (case)
TRANS subject, INTR argument
улбастѡулбастенуулбастенісулбасте́улбастеніулбастеніс
VOCVocative (case)
'O [addressee]'
улбастенулбастен
ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
улбастенусулбастенус
GENGenitive (case)
possessive
улбастенсулбастенісулбастенѡулбастенсулбастенісулбастенѡ
DATDative (case)
indirect object; recipient, beneficiary, location
улбастеніулбастенамуулбастенамулбастеніулбастена́муулбастемас
INSInstrumental (case)
'with', 'using'
улбастенеулбастенеулбастеміс
LOCLocative (case)
'in, on, at' etc
улбастене́улбастенíсулбеносулбастене́улбастенíсулбастеніс

Some examples of degrees of adjectives include:
- ір ѕенс шы́ніста ѣвра́ жеменс – dzens šȳnista ir jėvrā žemens – she’s the most beautiful woman in all the world
- ца́кирелѡ ѣм пар инь – cāķireluo jėm par jiņ– I’m a little bit stronger than him
- ір манюс лиренус шіра́ пробле́мы – ir maņus ļirenus širā problēmy – there are more people with this problem

[edit] [top]personal pronouns

Tuldian is a pro-drop language, meaning that use of personal pronouns is optional, as the verb conjugation already indicates the subject of a verb. Thus, including the pronouns can be used for emphasis. Also, despite the fact that the dual number has entirely died out in the verbal paradigm and is largely restricted to formal speech and writting for most speakers, the dual personal pronouns are used freely in normal everyday speech.

1.SG1.DU1.PL2.SG2.DU2.PLREFL
NOMNominative (case)
TRANS subject, INTR argument
асметме́сѳую́тю́с-
ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
меусмыѳеырссе
GENGenitive (case)
possessive
мінауцімусѳінаыпіырасіна
DATDative (case)
indirect object; recipient, beneficiary, location
міреуцісмумсѳіреыпісымссіре
INSInstrumental (case)
'with', 'using'
міраѳірасіра
LOCLocative (case)
'in, on, at' etc
мíнау́цімы́сѳíнаы́піы́рссíна


1.SG1.DU1.PL2.SG2.DU2.PL
NOMNominative (case)
TRANS subject, INTR argument
исидуи́ссіиду́игѧс
ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
иньидунинсигь
GENGenitive (case)
possessive
есижіерѡирасижіерѡ
DATDative (case)
indirect object; recipient, beneficiary, location
имаижамимсирайижамира́м
INSInstrumental (case)
'with', 'using'
инѧира
LOCLocative (case)
'in, on, at' etc
и́нѧи́жіи́раи́раи́жіи́ра

As mentioned above, given that the conjugation of verbs already specifies the subject of a verb, the subject pronoun is not required for a sentence to make sense. Its inclusion is often used to intensify the action of a verb. For example:
- ражну бру́тс – he will destroy the house
- ис пру́тс ражну – it is him that will destroy the house
- рíце ѣм ере́жінс – I have spoken to the king
- ас ѣм рíце ере́жінс – It is me that has spoken to the king

Sometimes, with perfect transitive verbs, it is even possible to omit third person object pronouns, especially if it is already clear from the context, as the past participle is conjugated to the accusative which indicates the presence of the object pronoun. For example:
- ѣм егуѳенан – I have said it
- іс риегубену – you have forgiven her
- ерум еѯо́нус– we have seen them

[edit] [top]introduction to numerals

Numbers in Thuldian are quite complicated in how they work. With numbers 1-19, they are treated like adjectives, which agree with the noun that follows them. For larger numbers, they function as nouns, with the noun following them in the genitive. For example, “I gave food to six men” would be written габу падан сеѯам вíрам – gabu padan sexam vīram, whereas “I gave food to sixty men” would be габу падан сеѯтíндай вíрѡ – gabu padan sextīndai vīruo.

[edit] [top]cardinal numbers

0 нулле 10 тежу 20 двантігь
1 вѣнс 11 вѣныпі 30 ѳрíтігь
2 двай 12 двалпі 40 піртігь
3 ѳрíс 13 ѳріте́ну 50 піктігь
4 підра́ 14 пірте́ну 60 сеѯтíнда
5 пенки 15 пікте́ну 70 сеѱтíнда
6 сеѯі 16 сеѯте́ну 80 актíнда
7 сеѱу 17 сеѱте́ну 90 невтíнда
8 акта́ 18 акте́ну 100 жунда
9 неву 19 невте́ну 1000 ѳу́сунде


вѣнс
The number вѣнс (1) is declined as a regular first declension adjective. The plural forms are used to mean “some”, as in вѣні бе́рні – some children.
masculinefeminine
SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
DUDual (number)
two
PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
DUDual (number)
two
PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
NOMNominative (case)
TRANS subject, INTR argument
вѣнсвѣнувѣнівѣнавѣнівѣнас
ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
вѣнанвѣнусвѣну
GENGenitive (case)
possessive
вѣнавѣнісвѣнѡвѣнрасвѣнрісвѣнрѡ
DATDative (case)
indirect object; recipient, beneficiary, location
вѣнамвѣнамувѣнамвѣнрайвѣнра́мувѣнемас
INSInstrumental (case)
'with', 'using'
вѣнанвѣнемвѣнрывѣнеміс
LOCLocative (case)
'in, on, at' etc
вѣна́вѣнíсвѣносвѣнра́вѣнрíсвѣненіс


двай and ѳрíс
Numbers 2 and 3 are highly irregular in comparison to other numbers.
двайѳрíс
MMasculine gender (gender)
masculine or male
FFeminine gender (gender)
feminine or female
MMasculine gender (gender)
masculine or male
FFeminine gender (gender)
feminine or female
NOMNominative (case)
TRANS subject, INTR argument
двайдвѣѳрíсѳріѧ
ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
дванс
GENGenitive (case)
possessive
двагѫѳріѫ
DATDative (case)
indirect object; recipient, beneficiary, location
двамдва́мѳрíм
INSInstrumental (case)
'with', 'using'
LOCLocative (case)
'in, on, at' etc
двагѫсдвагѧ́сѳрíс


Numbers 4-19
The declension of numbers larger than 4 is more regular, and can be roughly divided into 3 different classes depending on the ending of the number, although all of them decline rather similarly.
-а́
MMasculine gender (gender)
masculine or male
FFeminine gender (gender)
feminine or female
MMasculine gender (gender)
masculine or male
FFeminine gender (gender)
feminine or female
MMasculine gender (gender)
masculine or male
FFeminine gender (gender)
feminine or female
NOMNominative (case)
TRANS subject, INTR argument
підра́підрассеѯісеѯессеѱусеѱус
ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
підруссеѯуссеѱус
GENGenitive (case)
possessive
підрѡсеѯѡсеѱѡ
DATDative (case)
indirect object; recipient, beneficiary, location
підрампідра́мсеѯамсеѯа́мсеѱамсеѱа́м
INSInstrumental (case)
'with', 'using'
підремсеѯемсеѱем
LOCLocative (case)
'in, on, at' etc
підроспідра́ссеѯоссеѯа́ссеѱоссеѱа́с


Numbers 20-90
Numbers 20-50 decline as a plural 3rd declension masculine nouns, whereas 60-90 as 5th declension singular feminine nouns. They do not agree with the gender of a noun.
-тігь-тíнда
NOMNominative (case)
TRANS subject, INTR argument
-тігь-тíнда
ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
-тігус-тíнду
GENGenitive (case)
possessive
-тігѫ-тíндас
DATDative (case)
indirect object; recipient, beneficiary, location
-тігум-тíндай
INSInstrumental (case)
'with', 'using'
-тíнды
LOCLocative (case)
'in, on, at' etc
-тігос-тíнда́


Numbers 100-900
Numbers 100-900 decline as regular 5th declension feminine nouns. 100 is declined as a singular noun, whereas 200-900 as plural nouns.
SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
NOMNominative (case)
TRANS subject, INTR argument
жундажундас
ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
жунду
GENGenitive (case)
possessive
жундасжундѡ
DATDative (case)
indirect object; recipient, beneficiary, location
жундайжунда́м
INSInstrumental (case)
'with', 'using'
жунды
LOCLocative (case)
'in, on, at' etc
жунда́жунда́с

The forms 200-900 are as follows: двіжундас (200), ѳріжундас (300), підрундас (400), пенкюндас (500), сеѯундас (600), сеѱундас (700), актундас (800) and невундас (900).

Numbers 1,000+
Numbers 1,000+ are declined as regular 6th declension feminine nouns.
SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
NOMNominative (case)
TRANS subject, INTR argument
ѳу́сундеѳу́сундес
ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
ѳу́сунді
GENGenitive (case)
possessive
ѳу́сундесѳу́суньжѡ
DATDative (case)
indirect object; recipient, beneficiary, location
ѳу́сундейѳу́сунде́м
INSInstrumental (case)
'with', 'using'
ѳу́сунды
LOCLocative (case)
'in, on, at' etc
ѳу́сунде́ѳу́сунде́с

The forms 2,000+ are as follows: двіѳу́сундес (2,000), ѳріѳу́сундес (3,000), підѳу́сундес (4,000), пенту́сундес (5,000), сеѯту́сундес (6,000), сеѱту́сундес (7,000), акту́сундес (8,000), невѳу́сундес (9,000), тежту́сундес (10,000), двантігьѳу́сундес (20,000), жундаѳу́сундес (100,000), and двіжундасту́сундес (200,000) etc. 

[edit] [top]counting

When counting in Tuldian from 20 up, the one comes before the ten like in German and unlike in English. For example, twenty-one in English is written вѣнсудвантігюс, or “one-and-twenty”. Twenty-one to twenty-nine is written as following:
- 21: вѣнсудвантігь
- 22: дваюдвантігь
- 23: ѳрíсудвантігь
- 24: підрудвантігь
- 25: пенкудвантігь
- 26: сеѯудвантігь
- 27: сеѱудвантігь
- 28: актудвантігь
- 29: невудвантігь
Long numbers are written as long words: ѳріжундаспідрудвантігьѳу́сундесневундаспенкусеѯтíнда – ţrižundaspidrūdvantiģţūsundesnevundaspenkusextīnda (324,965).
Tuldian uses a short-scale system to create large numbers, with each name of a number larger than 1,000,000 being 1000 times larger than the previous one. There is міліонс (million), міліардс (billion), тріліонс (trillion), квадріліонс (patrillion) etc. For numbers larger than 1,000,000, the scale word is set in the genitive. Thus for example, seven billion is септу міліардо.

[edit] [top]ordinal numbers

As mentioned in the adjective section, ordinal numbers (besides анѳарс – second, which uses both strong and weak declensions), are always declined definitely, although their declension in the feminine uses the -е́ forms like comparitive adjectives, rather than -у́. They are equivalent to the English -th.
0 - 10 теждѡ 20 двантігьѳѡ
1 пірмѡ 11 вѣныптѡ 30 ѳрíтігьѳѡ
2 анѳарс 12 двалтѡ 40 піртігьѳѡ
3 ѳріѕѡ 13 ѳріте́нѳѡ 50 піктігьѳѡ
4 пірѳѡ 14 пірте́нѳѡ 60 сеѯтíнѕѡ
5 пентѡ 15 пікте́нѳѡ 70 сеѱтíнѕѡ
6 сеѯтѡ 16 сеѯте́нѳѡ 80 актíнѕѡ
7 сеѱтѡ 17 сеѱте́нѳѡ 90 невтíнѕѡ
8 акцѡ 18 акте́нѳѡ 100 жунѕѡ
9 невтѡ 19 невте́нѳѡ 1000 ѳу́сунѕѡ

Numbers larger than a million just have -ѳа́ added to their ends to form the ordinal form.
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