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Lesson 3c
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Grammatical Cases Related to the Concept of Space
This public article was written by Cirton Historian, and last updated on 26 Jun 2020, 22:05.

10. Lesson 2d
11. Lesson 2e
12. Lesson 2f
13. Lesson 3a
14. Lesson 3b
15. Lesson 3c
16. Lesson 3d
17. Lesson 3d
18. Lesson 3e
19. Lesson x
20. Lesson x2
21. Lesson x3
This article is a work in progress! Check back later in case any changes have occurred.

When talking about someone's or something's place in relation to another, languages may have different strategies:

Languages like English use the prepositions "in", "on" or "at", or maybe words like "inside", "outside" and so on.
In Cirtunese, we'll be using the letter t- mostly, since we're ultimately talking about "space".

Locative Case

When thinking about nouns in Cirtunese, one must also have in mind two important questions:

[1] What does one usually do with this noun?
[2] What is the usual position of a person (or another object) in relation to that noun?

In Cirtunese, one does not need to specify certain actions or concepts, unless they are unusual or the speaker/writer is being emphatic. And so, when talking about one's positioning related to the object, the casual register tends to simplify much of the sentences.
For example:

- "I have the book with me" would translate to dya h-kemt. ("I book-LOCATIVE CASE") or dyamt h-k. ("I-LOCATIVE CASE book").
That's analogous to saying something like "I'm at the book" or "The book is at me".
Yes, anything can be considered a "place".
The way this works is:
Since a "book" is (usually) a small object that one can carry around, if you want to say that you have it with you, all you have to do is say "I", "book" and the relationship between those words, which in this case is implied to be "be with".
In a simple sentence such as this, either of the words can be marked.

...but wait! What if you want to say that "I am IN the book"? As in, inside of it, metaphorically (as a character) or literally (yikes...)?
Well, in that case, one should use the preposition ta0-ha0 "inside", and optionally mark the word considered as the "container".
dya tja0jha0 hjkemt. /ja tʌhʌ χakɛtɐ̆/ - I am inside the book.

dyamt tja0jha0 hjke. /'jatɐ̆ tʌhʌ χakɛ/ - The book is inside me.

- "I am near you" or "I am with you" would be dya dyemt. ("I you-LOCATIVE CASE").
In this case, we are talking about two of the same "category": People.
If the subject and the modified word are of the same category, the locative case implies that both are "standing next to each other".
Conversely, "You are near me" would be dyamt dye. or dye dyamt..
The word order doesn't really matter, as long as the structure is "I" + LOCATIVE CASE and "you".

When talking about words referring to things with very different sizes, it's implied that the bigger one "contains" the smaller one.
For example:
tjpjsmt dya. /tʰaʃatɐ̆ ja/ "I'm in my residence."
No need to use tja0jha0 here, though it can be used to show emphasis.

Lative Case

The Lative Case is analogous to the "to" in English, in sentences like "I am going to her house."
It shows the direction or objective of one's movement.
In Cirtunese, that idea can be expressed via the suffix momt- /tŏ/.
dya tae2mr tjpjsmomt. /ja ta'ɛɾɐ̆ tʰaʃatŏ/ I am going to my residence.

Side note¹: There are a few ways to say that sentence, but I'll be focusing solely in the usage of that suffix for now.
Side note²: this suffix may also be used to denote one's objective, regardless of the idea of "space" between the used words.

Ablative Case

This case is similar to the word "from" in English, in phrases like "I am coming from my residence."
The origin of one's movement is shown.
In CTX, that can be expressed by using memt- /tɛ̆/.
In practice:
dya tea2mr tjpjsmemt. /ja tɛ'aɾɐ̆ tʰaʃatɛ̆/ I am coming from my residence.

Side note: Similar to the Lative Case, this sentence can be expressed in other ways and this suffix also has other uses.

Terminative Case

Similar to the word "until" in English, as in "Go south until you reach the hospital."
Refers to the length of an action.
In Cirton, a similar meaning can be expressed through mimumt- /tiu/ or /tui/, or just mimu-- /iu/ or /ui/
A final example:
hae2mr tjpjsmimumt. /χa'ɛɾɐ̆ tʰaʃatĭŭ/ "Speak until (we) reach the residence."

The same side note from the Lative and Ablative cases apply here.

This is getting quite complex and fun~
Thanks for reading!


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