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Syntax Samples
2▲ 2 ▼ 0
Test cases for the syntax of Cuuyamu
This public article was written by Elinnea, and last updated on 1 Feb 2016, 03:33.

[comments] The following sentences are designed to test the syntax of a conlang. (Source) I will be working through them slowly, as an exercise to stretch my use of Cuuyamu's grammar.

  1. The sun shines.
    Cúuts pats.
    cúu-uts
    shine-3SThird person singular (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .INANInanimate (gender/class)
    inanimate, sessile
    .FDISDistant future (tense)
    something that will happen far into the future
    pats
    sun

    I have translated this one as a general statement about the sun, which is said using the distant future tense.
  2. The sun is shining.
    Cúutan pats.
    cúu-tan
    shine-3SThird person singular (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .INANInanimate (gender/class)
    inanimate, sessile
    .PRSPresent tense (tense)
    pats
    sun

  3. The sun shone.
    Cúutan pats.
    cúu-tan
    shine-3SThird person singular (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .INANInanimate (gender/class)
    inanimate, sessile
    .PDISDistant past (tense)
    events which occurred a long time ago
    pats
    sun

    For inanimate objects, there is no conjugation difference between present and past, though a time can be specified with additional words if necessary.
  4. The sun will shine.
    Cúuts pats.
    cúu-uts
    shine-3SThird person singular (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .INANInanimate (gender/class)
    inanimate, sessile
    .FNEANear future (tense)
    something that will happen in not much time
    pats
    sun

  5. The sun has been shining.
    Shintu cúutan pats.
    shintu
    IPFVImperfective (aspect)
    'interrupted or incomplete'
    .ATLAtelic (aspect)
    partially completed event
    cúu-tan
    shine-3SThird person singular (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .INANInanimate (gender/class)
    inanimate, sessile
    .PRProper
    marks a noun as referring to a unique entity
    pats
    sun

  6. The sun is shining again.
    Dadalii cúutan pats.
    da~dalii
    again~IPFVImperfective (aspect)
    'interrupted or incomplete'
    .TELTelic (aspect)
    completed event
    cúu-tan
    shine-3SThird person singular (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .INANInanimate (gender/class)
    inanimate, sessile
    .PRProper
    marks a noun as referring to a unique entity
    pats
    sun

  7. The sun will shine tomorrow.
    Cúuts caayaçi pats.
    cúu-uts
    shine-3SThird person singular (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .INANInanimate (gender/class)
    inanimate, sessile
    .FNEANear future (tense)
    something that will happen in not much time
    caayaçi
    tomorrow
    pats
    sun

    Generic time information that modifies a verb comes before the verb (such as "every day"), but specific time locators like caayaçi follow the verb.
  8. The sun shines brightly.
    Manaati cúuts pats.
    manaati
    strongly
    cúu-uts
    shine-3SThird person singular (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .INANInanimate (gender/class)
    inanimate, sessile
    .FDISDistant future (tense)
    something that will happen far into the future
    pats
    sun

  9. The bright sun shines.
    Cúuts cúuita pats.
    cúu-uts
    shine-3SThird person singular (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .INANInanimate (gender/class)
    inanimate, sessile
    .FDISDistant future (tense)
    something that will happen far into the future
    cúu-ita
    shine-ADJAdjectival
    syntactic
    pats
    sun

    The suffix -ita functions as an adjectivizer for verbs. Using the same word in both forms in one sentence would be correct, if slightly redundant.
  10. The sun is rising now.
    Jubtalitan dáá pats.
    jubtali-tan
    rise-3SThird person singular (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .INANInanimate (gender/class)
    inanimate, sessile
    .PRSPresent tense (tense)
    dáá
    now
    pats
    sun

  11. All the people shouted.
    Báádziiç yúu lìilu.
    báádzii-iç
    shout-3PThird person plural (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee, they/them
    .ANAnimate (gender/class)
    alive, moving
    .PNEANear past (tense)
    past events that occurred recently
    yúu
    all
    lìilu
    person

  12. Some of the people shouted.
    Báádziiç duu lìilu.
    báádzii-iç
    shout-3PThird person plural (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee, they/them
    .ANAnimate (gender/class)
    alive, moving
    .PNEANear past (tense)
    past events that occurred recently
    duu
    part_of_a_group
    lìilu
    person

  13. Many of the people shouted twice.
    Aqni báádziiç pashduu lìilu.
    aqni
    twice
    báádzii-iç
    shout-3PThird person plural (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee, they/them
    .ANAnimate (gender/class)
    alive, moving
    .PNEANear past (tense)
    past events that occurred recently
    pashduu
    large_part_of_a_group
    lìilu
    person

    There would likely be a different way to translate if there were a specific group of people we're talking about.
  14. Happy people often shout.
    Báádziizisaña sutaañiita lìilu.
    báádzii~zisa-ña
    shout~HABHabitual (aspect)
    done often or out of habit
    -3PThird person plural (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee, they/them
    .ANAnimate (gender/class)
    alive, moving
    .FDISDistant future (tense)
    something that will happen far into the future
    sutaañi-ita
    be_happy-ADJAdjectival
    syntactic
    lìilu
    person

    I used the habitual aspect here as well as the gnomic/distant future to indicate that not only do happy people shout, they are in the regular practice of doing so.
  15. The kitten jumped up.
    Píitadshu jañaamu.
    píitad-shu
    jump_up-3SThird person singular (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ANAnimate (gender/class)
    alive, moving
    .PNEANear past (tense)
    past events that occurred recently
    ja-ñàamu
    child-cat

  16. The kitten jumped onto the table.
    Piishupu jañaamu dzaal zitsmaa.
    pii-shu-pu
    jump-3SThird person singular (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ANAnimate (gender/class)
    alive, moving
    .PNEANear past (tense)
    past events that occurred recently
    -3SThird person singular (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .INANInanimate (gender/class)
    inanimate, sessile
    .OBJObject (argument)
    ja-ñàamu
    child-cat
    dzaal
    OBJObject (argument)
    zitsmaa
    table

    The verb pii can either be intransitive (to jump) or take an object, in which case it means to jump onto something.
  17. My little kitten walked away.
    Dudaanidzshu anlu diçiita jañaamu.
    dudaanidz-shu
    walk_away-3SThird person singular (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ANAnimate (gender/class)
    alive, moving
    .PNEANear past (tense)
    past events that occurred recently
    anlu
    this
    diçi-ita
    small-ADJAdjectival
    syntactic
    ja-ñàamu
    child-cat

  18. It's raining.
    Sàatadtsa shaaj.
    sàatad-tsa
    fall-3PThird person plural (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee, they/them
    .INANInanimate (gender/class)
    inanimate, sessile
    .PRSPresent tense (tense)
    shaaj
    rain

  19. The rain came down.
    Sàatadtsa shaaj.
    sàatad-tsa
    fall-3PThird person plural (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee, they/them
    .INANInanimate (gender/class)
    inanimate, sessile
    .PNEANear past (tense)
    past events that occurred recently
    shaaj
    rain

  20. The kitten is playing in the rain.
    Suyi shaaj tsàanlu jañaamu.
    suyi
    under
    shaaj
    rain
    tsàan-lu
    play-3SThird person singular (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ANAnimate (gender/class)
    alive, moving
    .PRSPresent tense (tense)
    ja-ñaamu
    child-cat

  21. The rain has stopped.
    Mansàatadtsa shaaj.
    man-sàatad-tsa
    stop-fall-3PThird person plural (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee, they/them
    .INANInanimate (gender/class)
    inanimate, sessile
    .PNEANear past (tense)
    past events that occurred recently
    shaaj
    rain

  22. Soon the rain will stop.
    Jìi mansaatadi shaaj.
    jìi
    soon
    man-sàatad-di
    stop-fall-3PThird person plural (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee, they/them
    .INANInanimate (gender/class)
    inanimate, sessile
    .FNEANear future (tense)
    something that will happen in not much time
    shaaj
    rain

  23. I hope the rain stops soon.
    Yashuwu jìi mansaatadbudi shaaj.
    yashu-wu
    hope-1SFirst person singular (person)
    speaker, signer, etc.; I
    .PRSPresent tense (tense)
    jìi
    soon
    man-sàatad-bu-di
    stop-fall-IRRIrrealis
    mood
    -3PThird person plural (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee, they/them
    .INANInanimate (gender/class)
    inanimate, sessile
    .FNEANear future (tense)
    something that will happen in not much time
    shaaj
    rain

  24. Once wild animals lived here.
    Ta tiuus saaluutsu zaziqi.
    ta
    in
    tiuus
    here
    saaluuts-u
    live-3PThird person plural (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee, they/them
    .ANAnimate (gender/class)
    alive, moving
    .PDISDistant past (tense)
    events which occurred a long time ago
    zaziqi
    wild_animal

  25. Slowly she looked around.
    Yuupii laatsishu.
    yuupii
    slowly
    laatsi-shu
    look_around-3SThird person singular (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ANAnimate (gender/class)
    alive, moving
    .PNEANear past (tense)
    past events that occurred recently

  26. Go away!
    Íidi cáapcuujuu çadi!
    íidi
    IMPImperative (mood)
    command
    .SGSingular (number)
    one countable entity
    cáapcuu-juu
    leave-2SSecond person singular (person)
    addressee (you)
    .PRProper
    marks a noun as referring to a unique entity
    çadi
    2SSecond person singular (person)
    addressee (you)

    Íidi cáapcuu çadi tsáá!
    íidi
    IMPImperative (mood)
    command
    .SGSingular (number)
    one countable entity
    cáapcuu
    leave
    çadi
    2SSecond person singular (person)
    addressee (you)
    tsáá
    emphatic

    The second sentence is more casual. In a casual register, an imperative verb's agreement suffixes or the subject pronoun can be omitted (but not both).
  27. Let's go!
    Shíid nutish wacushi!
    shíid
    IMPImperative (mood)
    command
    .PLPlural (number)
    more than one/few
    nut-ish
    go_to-12DFirst person inclusive dual (person)
    1 speaker, 1 listener
    .PRSPresent tense (tense)
    wacushi
    12DFirst person inclusive dual (person)
    1 speaker, 1 listener

  28. You should go.
    Nuti titsshaajuu.
    nut-i
    go-CMPComplementiser (syntactic)
    [clause] that [clause]
    titsshaa-juu
    ought-2SSecond person singular (person)
    addressee (you)
    .PRProper
    marks a noun as referring to a unique entity

    This is literally saying "You ought to go", which is different from "I think you should go."
  29. I will be happy to go.
    Nuti siiwa.
    nut-i
    go-CMPComplementiser (syntactic)
    [clause] that [clause]
    sii-wa
    be_willing-1SFirst person singular (person)
    speaker, signer, etc.; I
    .FNEANear future (tense)
    something that will happen in not much time

  30. He will arrive soon.
    Bunjanaqa.
    bunja-naqa
    arrive-3SThird person singular (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ANAnimate (gender/class)
    alive, moving
    .FNEANear future (tense)
    something that will happen in not much time

  31. The baby's ball has rolled away.
    Paa utiuus zimtan maba júún míiña.
    paa
    to
    utiuus
    elsewhere
    zim-tan
    roll-3SThird person singular (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .INANInanimate (gender/class)
    inanimate, sessile
    .PNEANear past (tense)
    past events that occurred recently
    maba
    baby
    júún
    POSSPossessive (case)
    owns, has
    míiña
    ball

  32. The two boys are working together.
    Díiwiazci tìi shu.
    díiwiaz-ci
    cooperate-3PThird person plural (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee, they/them
    .ANAnimate (gender/class)
    alive, moving
    .PRProper
    marks a noun as referring to a unique entity
    tìi
    two
    shu
    boy

  33. This mist will probably clear away.
    Tsáátiwu mançuutadbudi anlish ipaawutad.
    tsááti-wu
    think-1SFirst person singular (person)
    speaker, signer, etc.; I
    .PRSPresent tense (tense)
    man-çùutad-bu-di
    stop-hang_around-IRRIrrealis
    mood
    -3PThird person plural (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee, they/them
    .INANInanimate (gender/class)
    inanimate, sessile
    .FNEANear future (tense)
    something that will happen in not much time
    anlish
    these
    ipaawutad
    mist

  34. Lovely flowers are growing everywhere.
    Ta yúudziq tìicatsa ñàalita júú.
    ta
    in
    yúudziq
    everywhere
    tìica-tsa
    grow-3PThird person plural (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee, they/them
    .INANInanimate (gender/class)
    inanimate, sessile
    .PRProper
    marks a noun as referring to a unique entity
    ñàal-ita
    be_pretty-ADJAdjectival
    syntactic
    júú
    flower

  35. We should eat more slowly.
    Ip yuupiipi patsyimi titsshaamu.
    ip
    more
    yuupii~pi
    slowly~more
    patsyim-i
    eat-CMPComplementiser (syntactic)
    [clause] that [clause]
    titsshaa-mu
    ought-1PFirst person plural (person)
    we (inclusive or exclusive)
    .PRProper
    marks a noun as referring to a unique entity

  36. You have come too soon.
    Caayani bunjaçi.
    caaya-ni
    PFVPerfective (aspect)
    completed action
    .TELTelic (aspect)
    completed event
    -MIRMirative/admirative (mood/emotive)
    surprise, doubt
    bunja-çi
    arrive-2SSecond person singular (person)
    addressee (you)
    .PNEANear past (tense)
    past events that occurred recently

    This actually means something more like "You're already here?!" but I wanted to show off that construction.
  37. You must write more neatly.
    Ip wáañaña múúii titsshaajuu.
    ip
    more
    wáaña~ña
    neatly~more
    múúii-i
    draw-CMPComplementiser (syntactic)
    [clause] that [clause]
    titsshaa-juu
    ought-2SSecond person singular (person)
    addressee (you)
    .PRProper
    marks a noun as referring to a unique entity

    I changed it to drawing, since Cuuyamu is unwritten. There is a separate word for must, but it is a very strong directive and would only apply to this sentence in some bizarre contexts.
  38. Directly opposite stands a wonderful palace.
    Adzats tiuss dibunutan pàalijita shííçiitushqa.
    adzats
    across
    tiuss
    here
    dibunu-tan
    stand-3SThird person singular (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .INANInanimate (gender/class)
    inanimate, sessile
    .PRSPresent tense (tense)
    pàalijita
    impressive
    shííçiitushqa
    palace

  39. Henry's dog is lost.
    Datsiiplu Çanli tali wáantacaa.
    datsiip-lu
    be_lost-3SThird person singular (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ANAnimate (gender/class)
    alive, moving
    .PRProper
    marks a noun as referring to a unique entity
    Çanli
    Henry
    tali
    POSSPossessive (case)
    owns, has
    .associated
    wáantacaa
    dog

    This form of being lost only applies to animate nouns.
  40. My cat is black.
    Apislu anlu ñàamu.
    apis-lu
    be_black-3SThird person singular (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ANAnimate (gender/class)
    alive, moving
    .PRProper
    marks a noun as referring to a unique entity
    anlu
    this
    ñàamu
    cat

  41. The little girl's doll is broken.
    Ubuqnutan jaçaaj júún tijapaa.
    ubuq-nu-tan
    break-PASSPassive voice (valency)
    be verb-ed
    -3SThird person singular (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .INANInanimate (gender/class)
    inanimate, sessile
    .PRProper
    marks a noun as referring to a unique entity
    ja-çāaj
    child-girl
    júún
    POSSPossessive (case)
    owns, has
    .own
    tijapaa
    doll

  42. I usually sleep soundly.
    Jaatu ulununusawu.
    jaatu
    deeply
    ulunu~nusa-wu
    sleep~HABHabitual (aspect)
    done often or out of habit
    -1SFirst person singular (person)
    speaker, signer, etc.; I
    .PRSPresent tense (tense)

    Jaatu ulunui shìilwu.
    jaatu
    deeply
    ulunu-i
    sleep-CMPComplementiser (syntactic)
    [clause] that [clause]
    shìil-wu
    is_normal-1SFirst person singular (person)
    speaker, signer, etc.; I
    .PRSPresent tense (tense)

    Two alternative ways of making the same statement. The first emphasizes the habitual nature of sleeping soundly. The second emphasizes that sleeping soundly is the norm (implying that there is an unusual situation in contrast).
  43. The children ran after Jack.
    Tsúúnalu nutiiliiçja ja dzaal Jaq.
    tsúú-nalu
    run-ADVAdverbial
    e.g. English '-ly'
    nutiili-iç-ja
    follow-3PThird person plural (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee, they/them
    .ANAnimate (gender/class)
    alive, moving
    .PNEANear past (tense)
    past events that occurred recently
    -3SThird person singular (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ANAnimate (gender/class)
    alive, moving
    .OBJObject (argument)
    ja
    child
    dzaal
    OBJObject (argument)
    Jaq
    Jack

  44. I can play after school.
    Tsàan ap daziitsii sajuutnuwa.
    tsàan
    play
    ap
    after
    daziitsi-i
    school_day-CMPComplementiser (syntactic)
    [clause] that [clause]
    sajuut-nu-wa
    allow-PASSPassive voice (valency)
    be verb-ed
    -1SFirst person singular (person)
    speaker, signer, etc.; I
    .FNEANear future (tense)
    something that will happen in not much time

    Tsàandawa ap daziitsi.
    tsàan-da-wa
    play-possible-1SFirst person singular (person)
    speaker, signer, etc.; I
    .FNEANear future (tense)
    something that will happen in not much time
    ap
    after
    daziitsi
    school_day

    The first translation is "I will have permission to play after school." The second is "I will be able to play after school." (It's a physical possibility.) I assumed this is talking about a specific after-school time in the near future.
  45. We went to the village for a visit.
    Sisha ziquuni acaalapja dzaal imza.
    sisha
    purpose
    ziquun-i
    visit-CMPComplementiser (syntactic)
    [clause] that [clause]
    acaa-lap-ja
    enter-1PFirst person plural (person)
    we (inclusive or exclusive)
    .PNEANear past (tense)
    past events that occurred recently
    -3SThird person singular (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ANAnimate (gender/class)
    alive, moving
    .OBJObject (argument)
    dzaal
    OBJObject (argument)
    imza
    village

  46. We arrived at the river.
    Mutsshaa bunjalap.
    muts-shàa
    destination-river
    bunja-lap
    arrive-1PFirst person plural (person)
    we (inclusive or exclusive)
    .PNEANear past (tense)
    past events that occurred recently

  47. I have been waiting for you.
    Shintu ñapuutwujaa.
    shintu
    IPFVImperfective (aspect)
    'interrupted or incomplete'
    .ATLAtelic (aspect)
    partially completed event
    ñapuut-wu-jaa
    wait-1SFirst person singular (person)
    speaker, signer, etc.; I
    .PRSPresent tense (tense)-2SSecond person singular (person)
    addressee (you)
    .OBJObject (argument)

  48. The campers sat around the fire.
    Tsumam açtani zúutsilshu úuztsulunuli.
    tsumam
    around
    açtani
    fire
    zúutsil-shu
    sit-3PThird person plural (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee, they/them
    .ANAnimate (gender/class)
    alive, moving
    .PNEANear past (tense)
    past events that occurred recently
    úuztsulunuli
    camper

  49. A little girl with a kitten sat near me.
    Çip wacu zúutsilshu jaçaaj san talijatuuja dzaal jañaamu.
    çip
    near
    wacu
    1SFirst person singular (person)
    speaker, signer, etc.; I
    zúutsil-shu
    sit-3SThird person singular (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ANAnimate (gender/class)
    alive, moving
    .PNEANear past (tense)
    past events that occurred recently
    ja-çāaj
    child-girl
    san
    RELZRelativiser (derivation)
    talijat-uu-ja
    have-RELRelative-3SThird person singular (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ANAnimate (gender/class)
    alive, moving
    .OBJObject (argument)
    dzaal
    OBJObject (argument)
    ja-ñàamu
    child-cat

  50. The child waited at the door for her father.
    Ta itsziduu ñapuutshuja ja dzaal sinpi ñaji.
    ta
    at
    itsziduu
    door
    ñapuut-shu-ja
    wait-3SThird person singular (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ANAnimate (gender/class)
    alive, moving
    .PNEANear past (tense)
    past events that occurred recently
    -3SThird person singular (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ANAnimate (gender/class)
    alive, moving
    .OBJObject (argument)
    ja
    child
    dzaal
    OBJObject (argument)
    sinpi
    that.OBJObject (argument)
    ñaji
    father

  51. Yesterday the oldest girl in the village lost her kitten.
    Datsiipañishuja wuduu çááj, san nuatuzuu san núutuutsauuja dzaal imza, dzaal sinpi jañaamu.
    datsiip-añi-shu-ja
    be_lost-CAUSCausative (valency/mood)
    cause an action to occur, force another argument to act
    -3SThird person singular (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ANAnimate (gender/class)
    alive, moving
    .PNEANear past (tense)
    past events that occurred recently
    -3SThird person singular (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ANAnimate (gender/class)
    alive, moving
    .OBJObject (argument)
    wuduu
    yesterday
    çááj
    girl
    san
    RELZRelativiser (derivation)
    nuatuz-uu
    be_old-RELRelative
    san
    RELZRelativiser (derivation)
    núut-tuutsa-uu-ja
    top-exceed-RELRelative-3SThird person singular (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ANAnimate (gender/class)
    alive, moving
    .OBJObject (argument)
    dzaal
    OBJObject (argument)
    imza
    village
    dzaal
    OBJObject (argument)
    sinpi
    that.OBJObject (argument)
    ja-ñàamu
    child-cat

  52. Were you born in this village?
    Tsui ta anlu imza jaunuçi qa?
    tsui
    QInterrogative
    question
    ta
    in
    anlu
    this.SUBSubject (argument)
    imza
    village
    jau-nu-çi
    give_birth-PASSPassive voice (valency)
    be verb-ed
    -2SSecond person singular (person)
    addressee (you)
    .PDISDistant past (tense)
    events which occurred a long time ago
    qa
    QInterrogative
    question

  53. Can your brother dance well?
    Tsui tsazi ñuzuudalu çalu shuti qa?
    tsui
    QInterrogative
    question
    tsazi
    well
    ñuzuu-da-lu
    dance-possibility-3SThird person singular (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ANAnimate (gender/class)
    alive, moving
    .PRSPresent tense (tense)
    çalu
    that.MEDMedial (proximity)
    not too far from speaker; close to addressee
    .SUBSubject (argument)
    shuti
    brother
    qa
    QInterrogative
    question

  54. Did the man leave?
    Tsui cáapcuushu jipa qa?
    tsui
    QInterrogative
    question
    cáapcuu-shu
    leave-3SThird person singular (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ANAnimate (gender/class)
    alive, moving
    .PNEANear past (tense)
    past events that occurred recently
    jipa
    man
    qa
    QInterrogative
    question

  55. Is your sister coming for you?
    Tsui sisha çadi liaalu çalu çati qa?
    tsui
    QInterrogative
    question
    sisha
    purpose
    çadi
    you
    liaal-lu
    come-3SThird person singular (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ANAnimate (gender/class)
    alive, moving
    .PRSPresent tense (tense)
    çalu
    that.MEDMedial (proximity)
    not too far from speaker; close to addressee
    .SUBSubject (argument)
    çati
    sister
    qa
    QInterrogative
    question

  56. Can you come tomorrow?
    Tsui liaaldazin caayaçi qa?
    tsui
    QInterrogative
    question
    liaal-da-zin
    come-possibility-2SSecond person singular (person)
    addressee (you)
    .FNEANear future (tense)
    something that will happen in not much time
    caayaçi
    tomorrow
    qa
    QInterrogative
    question

  57. Have the neighbors gone away for the winter?
    Tsui mutsjiyaqnati cáapcuuiç çipña qa?
    tsui
    QInterrogative
    question
    muts-jiyaqnati
    until-spring
    cáapcuu-iç
    leave-3PThird person plural (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee, they/them
    .ANAnimate (gender/class)
    alive, moving
    .PNEANear past (tense)
    past events that occurred recently
    çipña
    neighbor
    qa
    QInterrogative
    question

  58. Does the robin sing in the rain?
    Tsui suyi shaaj wìituñadu azinaati qa?
    tsui
    QInterrogative
    question
    suyi
    under
    shaaj
    rain
    wìitu-ñadu
    sing-3SThird person singular (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ANAnimate (gender/class)
    alive, moving
    .FDISDistant future (tense)
    something that will happen far into the future
    azinaati
    robin
    qa
    QInterrogative
    question

  59. Are you going with us to the concert?
    Tsui yiçu nutcamipu dzaal láátinujita qa?
    tsui
    QInterrogative
    question
    yiçu
    together
    nut-cami-pu
    go_to-1PFirst person plural (person)
    we (inclusive or exclusive)
    .FNEANear future (tense)
    something that will happen in not much time
    -3SThird person singular (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .INANInanimate (gender/class)
    inanimate, sessile
    .OBJObject (argument)
    dzaal
    OBJObject (argument)
    láátinujita
    concert
    qa
    QInterrogative
    question

  60. Have you ever travelled in the jungle?
    Tsui ta yundzimba nidaa shùuamñaaçi qa?
    tsui
    QInterrogative
    question
    ta
    in
    yundzimba
    jungle
    nidaa
    before
    shùuamñaa-çi
    travel-2SSecond person singular (person)
    addressee (you)
    .PDISDistant past (tense)
    events which occurred a long time ago
    qa
    QInterrogative
    question

    "Have you ever?" is conveyed with a combination of the adverb for "before now" and a verb conjugated for the distant past.
  61. We sailed down the river for several miles.
    Ta shàa situul mutsqua juidz ááshupilap.
    ta
    in
    shàa
    river
    situul
    downstream
    muts-qua
    destination-several
    juidz
    mile
    ááshupi-lap
    boat-1PFirst person plural (person)
    we (inclusive or exclusive)
    .PNEANear past (tense)
    past events that occurred recently

  62. Everybody knows about hunting.
    Dzúúzai iuci yúulilu.
    dzúúza-i
    hunt-CMPComplementiser (syntactic)
    [clause] that [clause]
    iu-ci
    know_how-3PThird person plural (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee, they/them
    .ANAnimate (gender/class)
    alive, moving
    .PRSPresent tense (tense)
    yúulilu
    everyone

  63. On a Sunny morning after the solstice we started for the mountains.
    Ap yuizii, wim cúuita ib, paa yáájup cáapcuulap.
    ap
    after
    yuizii
    summer_solstice
    wim
    during
    cúuita
    bright
    ib
    morning
    paa
    towards
    yáájup
    mountain
    cáapcuu-lap
    leave-1SFirst person singular (person)
    speaker, signer, etc.; I
    .PLPlural (number)
    more than one/few
    .PDISDistant past (tense)
    events which occurred a long time ago

  64. Tom laughed at the monkey's tricks.
    Shaçishupaqi Tam dzaal dziiti tali papi.
    shaçi-shu-paqi
    laugh-3SThird person singular (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ANAnimate (gender/class)
    alive, moving
    .PNEANear past (tense)
    past events that occurred recently
    -3PThird person plural (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee, they/them
    .INANInanimate (gender/class)
    inanimate, sessile
    .OBJObject (argument)
    Tam
    Tom
    dzaal
    OBJObject (argument)
    dziiti
    monkey
    tali
    associated
    papi
    trick

  65. An old man with a walking stick stood beside the fence.
    Çip çíiti dibunushu nuatuzita jipa san utazuupu dzaal mucasha.
    çip
    near
    çíiti
    fence
    dibunu-shu
    stand-3SThird person singular (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ANAnimate (gender/class)
    alive, moving
    .PNEANear past (tense)
    past events that occurred recently
    nuatuz-ita
    be_old-ADJAdjectival
    syntactic
    jipa
    man
    san
    RELZRelativiser (derivation)
    utaz-uu-pu
    hold-RELRelative-3SThird person singular (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .INANInanimate (gender/class)
    inanimate, sessile
    .OBJObject (argument)
    dzaal
    OBJObject (argument)
    mucasha
    staff

  66. The squirrel's nest was hidden by drooping boughs.
    Juulitsapu tàamuniita tuataz dzaal tsicits júún laam.
    juuli-tsa-pu
    cover-3PThird person plural (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee, they/them
    .INANInanimate (gender/class)
    inanimate, sessile
    .PNEANear past (tense)
    past events that occurred recently
    -3SThird person singular (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .INANInanimate (gender/class)
    inanimate, sessile
    .OBJObject (argument)
    tàamuni-ita
    droop-ADJAdjectival
    syntactic
    tuataz
    branch
    dzaal
    OBJObject (argument)
    tsicits
    squirrel
    júún
    POSSPossessive (case)
    owns, has
    laam
    nest

  67. The little seeds waited patiently under the snow for the warm spring sun.
    Suyi itan uwiilnalu ñapuutsapu diçiita cuyuib dzaal yaztsiita jiyaqnati tali pats.
    suyi
    under
    itan
    snow
    uwiil-nalu
    be_patient-ADVAdverbial
    e.g. English '-ly'
    ñapuut-tsa-pu
    wait-3PThird person plural (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee, they/them
    .INANInanimate (gender/class)
    inanimate, sessile
    .PDISDistant past (tense)
    events which occurred a long time ago
    -3SThird person singular (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .INANInanimate (gender/class)
    inanimate, sessile
    .OBJObject (argument)
    diçi-ita
    be_small-ADJAdjectival
    syntactic
    cuyuib
    seed
    dzaal
    OBJObject (argument)
    yaztsiita
    warm
    jiyaqnati
    spring
    tali
    associated
    pats
    sun

  68. Many little girls with wreaths of flowers on their heads danced around the bonfire.
    Tsumam açtani ñuzuu quaijaa diçiita jaçaaj, san quut saqa jubcaauupu dzaal zanijuu sautis.
    tsumam
    around
    açtani
    fire
    ñuzuu-u
    dance-3PThird person plural (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee, they/them
    .ANAnimate (gender/class)
    alive, moving
    .PDISDistant past (tense)
    events which occurred a long time ago
    quaijaa
    many
    diçi-ita
    be_small-ADJAdjectival
    syntactic
    ja-çááj
    child-girl
    san
    RELZRelativiser (derivation)
    quut
    on
    saqa
    head
    jubcaa-uu-pu
    wear-RELRelative-3SThird person singular (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .INANInanimate (gender/class)
    inanimate, sessile
    .OBJObject (argument)
    dzaal
    OBJObject (argument)
    zani-júú
    material-flower
    sautis
    crown

  69. The cover of the basket fell to the floor.
    Mutsliijitad sàatadtan ñud tali abal.
    muts-liijitad
    destination-floor
    sàatad-tan
    fall-3SThird person singular (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .INANInanimate (gender/class)
    inanimate, sessile
    .PNEANear past (tense)
    past events that occurred recently
    ñud
    basket
    tali
    associated
    abal
    lid

  70. The first boy in the line stopped at the entrance.
    Ta acaadziq manilaashu shu san ta anaish taasisjatuu.
    ta
    LOCLocative (case)
    'in, on, at' etc
    acaadziq
    entrance
    man-ilaa-shu
    stop-move-3SThird person singular (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ANAnimate (gender/class)
    alive, moving
    .PNEANear past (tense)
    past events that occurred recently
    shu
    boy
    san
    RELZRelativiser (derivation)
    ta
    LOCLocative (case)
    'in, on, at' etc
    anaish
    queue
    taasis-jat-uu
    first-VBLZUnknown code-RELRelative

  71. On the top of the hill in a little hut lived a wise old woman.
    Ta yitad tali núut, ta diçiita itushqatsi, saaluutsçiqii bitsudaita nuatuzita miitu.
    ta
    LOCLocative (case)
    'in, on, at' etc
    yitad
    hill
    tali
    associated
    núut
    top
    ta
    LOCLocative (case)
    'in, on, at' etc
    diçi-ita
    be_small-ADJAdjectival
    syntactic
    itushqatsi
    hut
    saaluuts-çiqii
    live-3SThird person singular (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ANAnimate (gender/class)
    alive, moving
    .PDISDistant past (tense)
    events which occurred a long time ago
    bitsuda-ita
    be_wise-ADJAdjectival
    syntactic
    nuatuz-ita
    be_old-ADJAdjectival
    syntactic
    miitu
    woman

  72. During our residence in the country we often walked in the pastures.
    Wim nati ta nùuqu saaluutslap, ta úudidziq amñaañasalap.
    wim
    during
    nati
    time
    ta
    LOCLocative (case)
    'in, on, at' etc
    nùuqu
    farm
    saaluuts-lap
    live-1PFirst person plural (person)
    we (inclusive or exclusive)
    .PDISDistant past (tense)
    events which occurred a long time ago
    ta
    LOCLocative (case)
    'in, on, at' etc
    úudidziq
    pasture
    amñaa~ñasa-lap
    walk_around~HABHabitual (aspect)
    done often or out of habit
    -1PFirst person plural (person)
    we (inclusive or exclusive)
    .PDISDistant past (tense)
    events which occurred a long time ago

  73. When will your guests from the city arrive?
    Tsui bunjapa çuqa çalish zanimzaijaa áadçi?
    tsui
    QInterrogative
    question
    bunja-pa
    arrive-3PThird person plural (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee, they/them
    .ANAnimate (gender/class)
    alive, moving
    .FNEANear future (tense)
    something that will happen in not much time
    çuqa
    when
    çalish
    those.MEDMedial (proximity)
    not too far from speaker; close to addressee
    .SUBSubject (argument)
    zan-imzaijaa
    from-city
    áadçi
    guest

  74. Near the mouth of the river, its course turns sharply towards the East.
    Çip lishan, paa daz çapnanalu çuujtauts shàa tali çaadzli.
    çip
    near
    lishan
    mouth
    paa
    towards
    daz
    east
    çapnanalu
    suddenly
    çuujta-uts
    turn-3SThird person singular (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .INANInanimate (gender/class)
    inanimate, sessile
    .FDISDistant future (tense)
    something that will happen far into the future
    shàa
    river
    tali
    associated
    çaadzli
    route

  75. Between the two lofty mountains lay a fertile valley.
    Ñiimut aq nááita yáájup tùucaatantan ilaazumita ùud.
    Ñiimut
    between
    aq
    two.INANInanimate (gender/class)
    inanimate, sessile
    náá-ita
    be_tall-ADJAdjectival
    syntactic
    yáájup
    mountain
    tùucaa-tan~tan
    spread_out-3SThird person singular (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .INANInanimate (gender/class)
    inanimate, sessile
    .PDISDistant past (tense)
    events which occurred a long time ago
    ~REFLReflexive (valency)
    argument acts on itself
    ilaazum-ita
    be_fertile-ADJAdjectival
    syntactic
    ùud
    valley

    It's pleasant to translate a sentence with word order which sounds poetic in English and which can be translated almost word-for-word directly into Cuuyamu.
  76. Among the wheat grew tall red poppies.
    Ñiimut caishña tìicatsa nááita azita júú.
    ñiimut
    between
    caishña
    wheat
    tìica-tsa
    grow-3PThird person plural (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee, they/them
    .INANInanimate (gender/class)
    inanimate, sessile
    .PDISDistant past (tense)
    events which occurred a long time ago
    náá-ita
    be_tall-ADJAdjectival
    syntactic
    az-ita
    be_red-ADJAdjectival
    syntactic
    júú
    flower

  77. The strong roots of the oak trees were torn from the ground.
    Zantad tsuqnutsa uldzush tali iqyauumita laliiq.
    zan-tad
    from-ground
    tsuq-nu-tsa
    yank-PASSPassive voice (valency)
    be verb-ed
    -3PThird person plural (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee, they/them
    .INANInanimate (gender/class)
    inanimate, sessile
    .PNEANear past (tense)
    past events that occurred recently
    uldzush
    oak
    tali
    associated
    iqyauum-ita
    be_tough-ADJAdjectival
    syntactic
    laliiq
    root

  78. The sun looked down through the branches upon the children at play.
    Ñiimut tuataz bìizuts láaqatanadtu pats dzaal ja san tsàanuu.
    ñiimut
    between
    tuataz
    branch
    bìizuts
    downward
    láaqa-tan-adtu
    look_at-3SThird person singular (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .INANInanimate (gender/class)
    inanimate, sessile
    .PDISDistant past (tense)
    events which occurred a long time ago
    -3PThird person plural (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee, they/them
    .ANAnimate (gender/class)
    alive, moving
    .OBJObject (argument)
    pats
    sun
    dzaal
    OBJObject (argument)
    ja
    child
    san
    RELZRelativiser (derivation)
    tsàan-uu
    play-RELRelative

  79. The west wind blew across my face like a friendly caress.
    Yaña shalinalu yuazñadu tunaju, yaña shùutanpu batsiyuu dzaal anpi bàaçi.
    yaña
    like
    shalinalu
    gently
    yuaz-ñadu
    touch-3SThird person singular (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ANAnimate (gender/class)
    alive, moving
    .FDISDistant future (tense)
    something that will happen far into the future
    tunaju
    friend
    yaña
    like
    shùu-tan-pu
    blow-3SThird person singular (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .INANInanimate (gender/class)
    inanimate, sessile
    .PNEANear past (tense)
    past events that occurred recently
    -3SThird person singular (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .INANInanimate (gender/class)
    inanimate, sessile
    .OBJObject (argument)
    bats-iyuu
    west-wind
    dzaal
    OBJObject (argument)
    anpi
    this.OBJObject (argument)
    bàaçi
    face

  80. The spool of thread rolled across the floor.
    Zimnalu jìiqatanpu sisha iwacid çaçuu dzaal liijitad.
    zim-nalu
    roll-ADVAdverbial
    e.g. English '-ly'
    jìiqa-tan-pu
    cross-3SThird person singular (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .INANInanimate (gender/class)
    inanimate, sessile
    .PNEANear past (tense)
    past events that occurred recently
    -3SThird person singular (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .INANInanimate (gender/class)
    inanimate, sessile
    .OBJObject (argument)
    sisha
    purpose
    iwacid
    sew
    çaçuu
    cylinder
    dzaal
    OBJObject (argument)
    liijitad
    floor

    A "purpose sew cylinder" is a cylinder used for the purpose of sewing, i.e. a spool of thread.
  81. A box of growing plants stood in the Window.
    Ta zipñuu zúutsiltan jiçaz san tatazuupaqi dzaal tìicaita qib.
    ta
    LOCLocative (case)
    'in, on, at' etc
    zipñuu
    window
    zúutsil-tan
    sit-3SThird person singular (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .INANInanimate (gender/class)
    inanimate, sessile
    .PNEANear past (tense)
    past events that occurred recently
    jiçaz
    box
    san
    RELZRelativiser (derivation)
    tataz-uu-paqi
    contain-RELRelative-3PThird person plural (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee, they/them
    .INANInanimate (gender/class)
    inanimate, sessile
    .OBJObject (argument)
    dzaal
    OBJObject (argument)
    tìica-ita
    grow-ADJAdjectival
    syntactic
    qib
    plant

    Ta zipñuu ta jiçaz tìicatsa qib.
    ta
    LOCLocative (case)
    'in, on, at' etc
    zipñuu
    window
    ta
    LOCLocative (case)
    'in, on, at' etc
    jiçaz
    box
    tìica-tsa
    grow-3PThird person plural (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee, they/them
    .INANInanimate (gender/class)
    inanimate, sessile
    .PNEANear past (tense)
    past events that occurred recently
    qib
    plant

    The two translations differ in whether they put emphasis on the box or on the plants.
  82. I am very happy.
    Manaati sutaañiwu.
    manaati
    strongly
    sutaañi-wu
    be_happy-1SFirst person singular (person)
    speaker, signer, etc.; I
    .PRSPresent tense (tense)

  83. These oranges are juicy.
    Sááshtsa anlish niuqaz.
    sáásh-tsa
    be_juicy-3PThird person plural (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee, they/them
    .INANInanimate (gender/class)
    inanimate, sessile
    .PRSPresent tense (tense)
    anlish
    these.SUBSubject (argument)
    niuqaz
    fruit

  84. Sea water is salty.
    Yamidi lawiq.
    yami-di
    be_salty-3PThird person plural (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee, they/them
    .INANInanimate (gender/class)
    inanimate, sessile
    .FDISDistant future (tense)
    something that will happen far into the future
    lawiq
    sea_water

  85. The streets are full of people.
    Jùuts lìilu umushtsa amanut.
    jùuts
    INSTRInstrumental (case)
    'with' 'using'
    lìilu
    person
    umush-tsa
    be_crowded-3PThird person plural (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee, they/them
    .INANInanimate (gender/class)
    inanimate, sessile
    .PRSPresent tense (tense)
    amanut
    path

  86. Sugar tastes sweet.
    Qalii jíijyaqacuts ñúujil.
    qali-i
    be_sweet-CMPComplementiser (syntactic)
    [clause] that [clause]
    jíijyaqac-uts
    seem_taste-3SThird person singular (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .INANInanimate (gender/class)
    inanimate, sessile
    .FDISDistant future (tense)
    something that will happen far into the future
    ñúujil
    sugar

  87. The fire feels hot.
    Yazi jíijmiwitan açtani.
    yaz-i
    be_hot-CMPComplementiser (syntactic)
    [clause] that [clause]
    jíijmiwit-tan
    seem_feel-3SThird person singular (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .INANInanimate (gender/class)
    inanimate, sessile
    .PRSPresent tense (tense)
    açtani
    fire

    Yaznalu miiwitnutan açtani.
    yaz-nalu
    be_hot-ADVAdverbial
    e.g. English '-ly'
    miiwit-nu-tan
    feel-PASSPassive voice (valency)
    be verb-ed
    -3SThird person singular (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .INANInanimate (gender/class)
    inanimate, sessile
    .PRSPresent tense (tense)
    açtani
    fire

    There are multiple ways of describing the senses. The second sentence implies that someone is actually touching the fire to feel it, which is less likely (because it's fire) but still possible.
  88. The little girl seemed lonely.
    Çàashnii jíijatiqshu jaçaaj.
    çàashni-i
    be_lonely-CMPComplementiser (syntactic)
    [clause] that [clause]
    jíijatiq-shu
    seem-3SThird person singular (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ANAnimate (gender/class)
    alive, moving
    .PNEANear past (tense)
    past events that occurred recently
    ja-çááj
    child-girl

  89. The little boy's father had once been a sailor.
    Daliini lauliluçiqii jashu ta'ñaji.
    dalii-ni
    IMPVUnknown code.TELTelic (aspect)
    completed event
    -MIRMirative/admirative (mood/emotive)
    surprise, doubt
    laulilu-çiqii
    sailor-3SThird person singular (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ANAnimate (gender/class)
    alive, moving
    .PDISDistant past (tense)
    events which occurred a long time ago
    ja-shu
    child-boy
    ta'-ñaji
    associated-father

    This is casual speech, phrased as if passing along a rumor.
  90. I have lost my blanket.
    Nitsiipcijpu dzaal anpi yatsibaalin.
    nitsiip-cij-pu
    lose-1SFirst person singular (person)
    speaker, signer, etc.; I
    .PNEANear past (tense)
    past events that occurred recently
    -3SThird person singular (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .INANInanimate (gender/class)
    inanimate, sessile
    .OBJObject (argument)
    dzaal
    OBJObject (argument)
    anpi
    this.OBJObject (argument)
    yatsibaalin
    blanket



Continued in Syntax Samples Part 2
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