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Qgam Dzwo Verb Conjugation
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This public article was written by clawgrip, and last updated on 9 Feb 2019, 14:07.

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Menu 1. Auxiliary Verbs 2. Main Verbs A clause in Qgam Dzwo requires at least two verbal elements: the auxiliary verb and the main verb. Their functions are outlined below.

[top]Auxiliary Verbs

Auxiliary verbs appear directly after the subject of a clause and indicate tense, aspect, mood, or voice. Auxiliary verbs agree with their subject in number only, by means of umlaut, and it is auxiliary verbs that take negative marking.

Auxiliaries fall into two main types: tense/aspect/mood auxiliaries, and voice auxiliaries. Only one of auxiliary each category may appear in conjunction with a single main verb, though one of each may appear together, with the voice auxiliary appearing after the TAM auxiliary.

Subject plurality is marked orthographically by means of the pluralizer which appears after the auxiliary, e.g.: do (SG), 得刁 dea (PL).

The inventory of possible auxiliary verbs varies among dialects. A full list appears below:

Tense / Aspect Auxiliaries
auxiliaryWestern QgamEastern QgamSouthern Qgam
SGPLSGPLSGPL
do
dea
present indicative
𠃐
way
wey
present indicative
ey
iya
iy
iya
yaa, yaw
yea, yew
emphatic indicative
emphatic indicative
present indicative
qaam
qeam
haam
heam
progressive
progressive
wea
wiy
perfective; past
šruo
šroy
šro
šre
emphatic indicative
emphatic indicative
bwoy, boy
bweay, beay
present indicative
𢪽
yam
yem
desiderative/imminent
çe
çi
relative auxiliary
Tense / Aspect Auxiliaries
auxiliaryWestern QgamEastern QgamSouthern Qgam
SGPLSGPLSGPL
meaĝ
meaĝ
potential; abilitative
mdzaa
mdzea
desiderative
cam
cem
cam
cem
cam
cem
adhortative ("should")
adhortative ("should")
(formal)
necessitative ("must")
çuo
çoy
çuo
çoy
adhortative ("should")
(informal)
adhortative ("should")
blsa
blse
potential ("may; might")
(formal)
bsa
bse
blsa, bldza
blse, bldze
bsa
bse
potential ("may; might")
potential ("may; might")
potential ("may; might")
(informal)
jer
jir
necessitative ("must")
Tense / Aspect Auxiliaries
auxiliaryWestern QgamEastern QgamSouthern Qgam
SGPLSGPLSGPL
𢪽
šraa
šrea
passive
𢪽
bluo
bloy
causative


When auxiliaries of two separate types cooccur, tense/modal auxiliaries come before voice auxiliaries:

那木要不被切落
Qhwam mduo ma jer šraa kar la.
here tree NEGNegative (polarity)
not
must PASSPassive voice (valency)
be verb-ed
cut fall
''That tree must not be cut down.''


As auxiliaries of a single class cannot cooccur, instead, the connecting particle ay is used to link clauses, e.g.:

伊被而允了去
Ĝwa šraa ay bluo wea arna.
3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
PASSPassive voice (valency)
be verb-ed
and CAUSCausative (valency/mood)
cause an action to occur, force another argument to act
PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
leave<br>
''He was forced to leave.''

[top]Main Verbs

====Main Verbs====
Main verbs occur at the end of a clause and conjugate for certain aspects only. This is accomplished either by means of a prefix or reduplication, depending both on the aspect and the specific auxiliary verb used.

The perfect aspect is marked with the prefix sak- (sometimes reduced to sk- or sĝ-), e.g.:

* tem "ask" → 畢問 saktem
* 靠話 orsra "declare" → 畢靠話 skorsra
* geaw "own" → 畢有 sĝgeaw

The iterative aspect is marked with the prefix bis- (sometimes reduced to bs-), e.g.:

* sa "dwell" → 屢住 bissa
* arna "leave" → 屢去 bsarna

The progressive aspect is indicated by an auxiliary for the present tense, but in the past and future tenses, it is instead indicated through reduplication of the main verb, e.g.:

* hnsa "get" → 獲獲 hnsa hnsa
* 離跑 rimbaaĝ "run away" → 離跑離跑 rimbaaĝ rimbaaĝ

圭葉得畢去
Kea Yaw do skarna.
Kea Yaw PRESPresent tense (tense)
current
PERFPerfect (aspect/tense)
have verb-ed
-leave
''Kea Yaw has left.''

它了刁券券於賣賣
Ĝwea wiy kyom kyom am ĝea ĝea.
3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
/PL ticket ticket ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
sell sell
''They were selling tickets.''
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