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EBKSG verbs
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Types of verbs, negation, tense and aspect
This public article was written by brblues, and last updated on 27 May 2020, 08:38.

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2. Copulas ? ?
Verb types

All EBKSG verbs (including the verb-like adjectives) are derived from a combination of a noun and a suffixed dummy verb or copula:




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DYNAMIC VERBS                STATIVE VERBS               
   Suffix      Derived from / meaning      Examples      Suffix      Derived from / meaning      Examples   
   -ma    Dummy verb “to do”; this is simply the
primary “catch-all” ending for dynamic verbs
- “lama” = to prepare food; from “la” = “food” [+ “ma” = “do”]
- sama = (archaic) "to speak"; from “sa” = “speech”
-
   -hɛ    From a copula that is in turn derived from the genitive marker for alienable possession;
the two different stative verb types often form word pairs with a difference in meaning*
- “behɛ” = “to be scared”
- “tagohɛ” = “to know”
- “ninhɛ” = “to be cold” (when a person freezes)
   -som    Dummy verb roughly equivalent to
“to take / consume / experience”
- “tassom” = “to drink”; from “tas” = “water” [+ “som” = “consume”]
- “lasom” = “to eat”; from “la” = “food”
- tagosom = “to study”; from “tago” = “knowledge”
- “sasom” = “to listen”; from “sa” = “speech”
   -he    From a copula that is in turn derived from the genitive marker for inalienable possession;
the two different stative verb types often form word pairs with a difference in meaning*
- “behe” = “to be scary”
- “tagohe” = “to be wise”
- “ninhe” = “to be cold” (of weather, or cold to the touch)


Negation

The general form of negation is to add the negative particle “sɛ” in front of the verb.

Tense and aspect

Tense and aspect are marked by suffixes on the verb; while the markers, each of which is specific to either tense or aspect, most often occur individually with a verb, they usually encode a specific combination of tense and aspect.

The perfective suffix -mɛ conveyes a perfective past, while the imperfective suffix -ka alone expresses a habitual present tense; to form the imperfect (an imperfective past tense), -ka is combined with the past marker to -kali. The past marker -li is furthermore suffixed to verbs to encode a past meaning in subordinate clauses, in which the verb simply precedes the referent noun. The future tense is expressed by a combination of bo - originally the lative case marker - and lu , the word for time , to form the future marker -bolu.

Example sentences:

sa
DEMDemonstrative
e.g. this/ that
.DISTDistal (proximity)
far from speaker (and addressee)
lu-mɛ
time-LOCLocative (case)
'in, on, at' etc
sohe
many
kiki
people
inudhe-ka-li
be.lazy-IPFVImperfective (aspect)
'interrupted or incomplete'
-PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech

“In that time, many people were lazy/wasteful.”

Sothuka
Sothuka
nɛki
REFLReflexive (valency)
argument acts on itself
nuɣehɛ-nɛ
annoy-and
pima-mɛ
say-PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action

“Sothuka [name of a deity] got angry, and said:”

kiki
people
tagoma-bolu
teach-FUTFuture (tense)
action occurring after the moment of speech

“I will teach the people!”
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