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Proto-Suvo-Poshumic -> Poshumi
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in several phases
This public article was written by miles, and last updated on 23 Apr 2016, 22:28.

[comments] Menu 1. Proto-Suvo-Poshumic -> Proto-Poshumic 2. Sound Correspondances/Examples 3. Proto-Poshumic -> Old Poshumi 4. Old Poshumi -> Poshumi 5. Sound Correspondances/Examples 6. Results: the shape of old words
This article is a work in progress! Check back later in case any changes have occurred.

[top]Proto-Suvo-Poshumic -> Proto-Poshumic

Between two vowels, t͡s > s.

A following yod causes affrication of /t d/ and frication of /p b k g q ɢ/, e.g:
ty > /t͡s/, dy > /d͡z/
py > /f/, by > /v/
ky > /ʃ/, gy > /ʒ/
qy > /χ/, ɢy > /ʁ/
Remaining instances of /j/ after a consonant are deleted.

Beside /ʔ/, /b d g ɢ/ devoice. /p t k q/ next to /ʔ/ then become ejective /pʼ tʼ kʼ qʼ/

All remaining instances of /ɢ/ become /ʁ/.

Clusters with external /s χ/ (/sp st sk χp χt χk ps ts ks pχ tχ kχ/) lose the fricative /s χ/.

Consonantal chain shift /χ/ -> /h/ -> ∅.

All instances of /ʔ/ are deleted. Coda /h/ is deleted with compensatory lengthening.

All instances of /ɬ/ > /ʃ/.

Long vowels ā ū ī and short a u i are kept as-is. For diphthongs, the following occurs when there is not a following vowel:
ay > e
aw > o
āy > aj
āw > aw
uw, ūw > uu
iy, īy > ii

Between two vowels, as in *nāwa, it just > *naawa.

Final nasals are deleted, resulting in nasalized ã ĩ ũ ẽ õ.

All non-/a/ vowels now in hiatus before another vowel gain an offglide, e.g. pasūhi > pasuui > pasuuwi. Where back round or front vowels follow an /a/, they become a glide, /j w/, e.g. *pae > paj.

[top]Sound Correspondances/Examples

PSP "soul" *nānpya > PP *nããfa
PSP "bright" *sīx > PP *sii
PSP "jump" *qāshu > PP *qaasu
PSP "dawn *sīxtyu > PP *siitsu

A theoretical *sā'gya would > *saazha (modern sazhy) while *sā'ga would > *saak'a (modern sak'y)

[top]Proto-Poshumic -> Old Poshumi

Short /a/ -> /ə/ and short /i, u/ both -> /ɨ/. Length distinction is lost; vowel system now /a ə i e u o ɨ/.

In 3+ syllable words, initial /ə/ is deleted. (e.g. əshəsuh > shəsuh).

All instances of /h/ are deleted.

/a/ -> /e/ before /ħ/, and then /ħ/ > /h/.

/s/ > /ʃ/ before /i/

/t͡s/ > /s/ -> /h/ and /d͡z/ -> /z/ -> /h/ except in the coda (= when before a vowel), where /t͡s d͡z s z/ > /t d h h/.

/t͡s d͡z/ deaffricate to /s z/, except after a sonorant (/l/), where they -> /t d/.

Nazalization is lost, leaving lengthened vowels /a: ə: i: e: u: o:/ where it was once present.

Coda /h/ is deleted, with compensatory lengthening on preceding /a ə i e u o/.

Long /ə: e: o:/ become high /ɨ i u/. Long /a: i: u:/ become /a ej ow/

/ə/ becomes /e/ before a following front vowel /e i/, /o/ before a following round vowel /o u/, and is unchanged elsewhere.

At the end of multi-syllable words, the short high vowels /i u ɨ/ are deleted. Word-finally and at the end of a word before a glide, /e o ə/ rise to /i u ɨ/

Remaining instances of /ə/ become /a/.

New coda sequences -uw, -iw, -yw, -ij, -uj, -yj -ow, -ew, -ej, -oj are permitted to stay. (For now; yw and yj will be lost).

Where a word that is two or more syllables long begins with no consonant and any vowel, that vowel is deleted.

Ejective shoehorning: Words beginning with a voiceless stop that denote abrupt activity and do not contain an ejective consonant now begin with an ejective.

Stress moves to the first syllable (instead of the penultimate one).

/l/ vocalizes to /w/ in the coda and after another consonant. (This does not occur after /w j/, e.g. as in *awla).

Before /j/, the vowel /ɨ/ fronts /ɨ/ > /i/.

/ɨ/ moves back to /ɯ/.

Before /w/, /ɯ/ becomes rounded, /ɯ/ -> /u/

Voiced obstruents /v z ʒ ʁ b d g/ in the syllable coda are deleted.

[top]Old Poshumi -> Poshumi

In syllables without primary or secondary stress, the high and mid vowels /i e u o ɯ/ are deleted, e.g. /'avɯˌpesɯk/ > avpesk /'avpesk/ or /'ʃeheˌti/ > /'ʃehti/

Nasal metasthesis: A consonant followed by a nasal is voiced and prenasalized (*atna > *aⁿdna), and then the following nasal is deleted (*aⁿdna > *anda). This results in *atna > *anda and *azmta > *anzta.

Any consonant now squished between two obstruents is deleted. (e.g. *azbta > *azta)

New obstruent clusters reduce unless Fricative + Stop at the end of a word (stop-fricative word-final clusters are affected), with the second element assimilating to the place of the first consonant. /k g/ become /h j/ after fricatives regardless of what they follow, and do not cause voicing assimilation. /ʃ ʒ/ become /t͡ʃ d͡ʒ/ after stops; /q/ becomes /ʁ/ after voiced stops or fricatives. (This produces e.g. *avpesk > avvesk, *shehti > shehsi, *adqa > adra and *azta > *aza).

In new two-stop clusters, the first stop becomes a fricative; /k g/ become /h j/ and /q/ is [χ].

New [χ] becomes /h/.

/h/ is deleted after an obstruent. (But not between a glide and a vowel).

In the syllable coda, /h/ is deleted with compensatory lengthening. (Long vowels are still indicated by a following ⟨h⟩).

All instances of /t͡ʃ d͡ʒ/ deaffricate > /ʃ ʒ/.

In new two-fricative clusters, the second fricative becomes a stop (unless it is /ʁ/); /ʃ ʒ/ become /t d/. (This produces *avza > avda).

[top]Sound Correspondances/Examples

PSP "soul" *nānpya > PP *nããfa > OP nafy > P. naf
PSP "bright" *sīx > PP *sii > OP śi > P. shi "flash, burst of light"
PSP "jump" *qāshu > PP *qaasu > OP q'a > P. q'a "jump"
PSP "dawn *sīxtyu > PP *siitsu > OP śis > P. shi(s) "dawn"

[top]Results: the shape of old words

There are no instances of /s/ medially after historic /l/, but since coda /l/ became /w/, this only results in a lower proportion of /ws/ clusters than otherwise expected.

Two obstruents beside each other must always be of the form fricative + stop, with exceptions for /q ʁ/.

/n m/ cannot occur after an obstruent.

/ɯ/ does not like either of the glides /w j/ and will not occur in front of them.

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