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Verbs
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Verbs
This public article was written by Наток Маркс, and last updated on 23 Jun 2019, 00:27.

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2. Verbs
Menu 1. Imperfective VS Perfective
[top]Imperfective VS Perfective


In general, the Imperfective aspect describes the actions that are taking place at the moment of speaking, actions with no indication of the start and the end, and actions that haven’t finished yet or repeat.

The Perfective aspect is used to talk about the actions that happened or were supposed to happen once, actions that have finished with success. The Perfective aspect, due to the fact that it implies a finished action, is never used in the Present tense.

Formations:

The imperfective for Class I & II is formed by adding personal endings to the verb stem. For Class III along with personal endings attached to the stem there is also the -si- infix added.
The perfective is formed by the main verb in the supine and the verb 'to do' (klъtak) conjugated by person and number in both the past tense and future tense.

Past Imperfective usages:

1.) Used to designate an action that began and ended at a particular time in the past; the result is not important for the speaker.

Iwtuwi iwtusu þem čitapon basilantъ.
Evening-INSTInstrument (gender/class)
tool, machine
evening-LOCLocative (case)
'in, on, at' etc
3rd-NOMNominative (case)
TRANS subject, INTR argument
.SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
book-ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
read-PASPast
action occurred before moment of speech

Yesterday evening he was reading the book.

2.) Used for an action that occurred over period of time but was completed in the past; the action, not duration, is emphasized.

Bonъn palun þem mon pišinusu masiðantъ.
All-ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
.SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
day-ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
.SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
3rd-NOMNominative (case)
TRANS subject, INTR argument
.SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
reflexive swimming pool-LOCLocative (case)
'in, on, at' etc
.SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
bathe-PASPast
action occurred before moment of speech
.3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.SGSingular (number)
one countable entity

He was swimming in the swimming pool all day.

3.) Used for an activity that took place regularly in the past.

Gažin þaðem lomači harъn waralanšun činem wosiþane.
Through time-ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
.SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
school vacation-GENGenitive (case)
possessive
.PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
every-ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
.SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
morning-ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
.SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
movie theater-ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
.SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
walk-PASPast
action occurred before moment of speech
.1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
.PLPlural (number)
more than one/few

During break, we walked to the movies every morning.

4.) Used for actions occurred over period of time simultaneously but were completed in the past.

Cuwetъhuči čitapon basilan, monhambik muširojehajšun kasicantъ.
When book-ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
.SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
read -PASPast
action occurred before moment of speech
.1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
.SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
brother-NOMNominative (case)
TRANS subject, INTR argument
.SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
television-ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
.SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
watch-PASPast
action occurred before moment of speech
.3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.SGSingular (number)
one countable entity

When I was reading the book, my brother was watching TV.

5.) Used when the result of an action is nullified, i.e. an opposite action occurred.

Tilusu jejitlъm, nušesu cem ðot matbikon zeþečiksajent. (n.w. zeþečiksajektan čet neniþečiksajektan klъsitan)
Room-LOCLocative (case)
'in, on, at' etc
.SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
cold-NEUUnknown code.INSTInstrument (gender/class)
tool, machine
.SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
because 1st-MASCMasculine (gender)
masculine or male
.SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
window-ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
.SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
open-PASPast
action occurred before moment of speech
.1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
.SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
(that is open-SPNSupine
a verbal form
and close-SPNSupine
a verbal form
do-PASPast
action occurred before moment of speech
.1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
.SGSingular (number)
one countable entity

It is cold in the room, because I opened the window. (i.e. opened and closed)

6.) Used for an action that occurred over period of time but was completed in the past. The duration is emphasized.

Bonъn wolanun þem numbun membojentъ.
All-ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
.SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
month-ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
.SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
3-SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
house-ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
.SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
build-PASPast
action occurred before moment of speech
.3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.SGSingular (number)
one countable entity

He was building a/the house all month.

Past Perfective usages:

1.) Used to emphasize the result of an action that began and ended at a particular time in the past.

Iwtuwi iwtusu þem čitapon balaktan šinþaðeksašu do šugamosu klъsitantъ.
Evening-INSTInstrument (gender/class)
tool, machine
evening-LOCLocative (case)
'in, on, at' etc
3rd-NOMNominative (case)
TRANS subject, INTR argument
.SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
book-ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
read-SPNSupine
a verbal form
start-ABLAblative (case)
away from
.SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
up to end-GENGenitive (case)
possessive
.SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
do-PASPast
action occurred before moment of speech
.3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.SGSingular (number)
one countable entity

Yesterday evening he read the book from start to finish.

2.) Used for a past action that had a result before another past action that also had a result.

Cuwetъhuči dojipaktan lekcijun klъsitane, lizaklъt jipaktan numbun klъsitantъ.
When come-SPNSupine
a verbal form
lesson-ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
.SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
do-PASPast
action occurred before moment of speech
.1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
.PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
teacher-NOMNominative (case)
TRANS subject, INTR argument
.SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
go-SPNSupine
a verbal form
house-ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
.SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
do-PASPast
action occurred before moment of speech
.3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.SGSingular (number)
one countable entity

When we arrived to class, the teacher went home.

3.) Used when the result of an action remains.

Þem watipagajektan sočen čembikon klъsitantъ.
3rd-NOMNominative (case)
TRANS subject, INTR argument
.SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
put on-SPNSupine
a verbal form
new-MASCMasculine (gender)
masculine or male
.ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
.SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
shirt-ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
.SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
do-PASPast
action occurred before moment of speech
.3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.SGSingular (number)
one countable entity

He put on a new shirt.

4.) Used to designate an action that began and ended at a particular time in the past; the time during which the result was achieved is emphasized.

Gažin wolanun þem membojektan numbun klъsitantъ.
Across month-ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
.SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
3rd-NOMNominative (case)
TRANS subject, INTR argument
.SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
build-SPNSupine
a verbal form
house-SPNSupine
a verbal form
do-PASPast
action occurred before moment of speech
.3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.SGSingular (number)
one countable entity

He built the house in a month.
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