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Gutiskar Adverbs
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Adverbs in Gutiskar
This public article was written by [Deactivated User], and last updated on 20 Dec 2016, 23:51.

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Menu 1. Derivation from adjectives 2. Adverbs of place and time 3. Directional adverbs 4. Comparison of adverbs
[edit] [top]Derivation from adjectives

Adverbs are most commonly derived from adjectives, by means of adding an adverbial suffix.

There are two productive ways:
  • with the suffix added to the neuter nominative/accusative singular of the strong past participle, very often omitting the vowel before the final consonant
  • with the suffix -vé added to the same stem as above

Example: svivnó “finally” from svivan, from the verb svívan “finish”.

[edit] [top]Adverbs of place and time

Gutiskar inherited the Proto-Germanic system of adverbs denoting place and time. These adverbs were most commonly derived from demonstratives/interrogatives, but it is possible to derive them from other adverbs as well, and even some common nouns.

The suffixes:
  • -r (or -ur) denotes stationary location
  • -ðrá denotes motion from a place
  • or -ðré denote motion toward a place
  • -n (or -un) denotes time

Base formLocationFromToward
hiz “this”hér “here”héðrá “hence”héðré, héð “hither”
þa “that”þar “there”þaðrá “thence”þaðré, það “thither”
ƕar “who”ƕær “where”ƕæðrá “whence”ƕæðré, ƕæð “whither”
aljar “other, else”aljur “elsewhere”ælðrá “elsewhence”ælðré, ælð “elsewhither”

Some examples of adverbs derived from nouns:
Base formLocationFromTowardTime
hæmar “home”hæmur “at home”hæmðrá “(away) from home”hæmðré, hæmð “(going) home”-
vintrur “winter”---vintrun “at/during winter”
dagar “day”---dagun “at/during day”
nahtar “night”---nahtun “at/during day”

[edit] [top]Directional adverbs

Directional adverbs are another feature Gutiskar inherited from Proto-Germanic. These adverbs are formed from prepositions with various suffixes, giving them directional meaning.

There are three distinctions:
  • locative: “at/by (something)”
  • allative: “to (somewhere)”
  • ablative: “from (somewhere)”

i “in”ínæ “within”ín “into”íné “from within”
uv “up”ýpæ “above”ýp “upward”ýné “from above”
ur “out of”ýtæ “without/outside”ýt “outward”ýtné “from without/outside”

[edit] [top]Comparison of adverbs

Like adjectives, adverbs inflect for comparison, ie. they have a comparative and a superlative form. Both are formed more or less the same way as the adjectival comparison.

  • comparative: -ir
  • superlative: -ist

Some adverbs, however, have irregular comparative/superlative forms:
góðar “good”væl “well”batir, bær “better”batist, bæst “best”
ellar “bad”eltó “badly”virrir, vír “worse”virrist, víst “worst”
(miklar “large”)-mær “more”mæst “most”
(lítlar “little”)-minir, mín “less”minist, míst “least”
néƕar “near”néh “near”néƕir “nearer”néƕist “nearest”

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