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Lesson #4 - Articles, Noun Affixes & Sentence Structure
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Learn definite and indefinite Noun articles, Noun and Verb affixes, and how Sentences are formed.
This public article was written by Zfeinst, and last updated on 14 Jul 2020, 05:45.

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11. Proverbs
Menu 1. Definite Articles 2. Indefinite Articles 3. Affixes of Nouns 4. Declarative Sentence Structure 5. Questions (Review) 6. Adjectives and Adverbs in Sentences 7. Your Turn For Lesson 1, click here!
For the previous lesson, click here!
For the next lesson, click here!
Table of Contents



¡salwe!


¡banvedó a da U-on tacen en tareséasen!

(Welcome to the 4th Lesson in Taresian!)


Now that you’ve (hopefully) gotten the hang of how tareséasen is written, as well as how numbers work, it’s time to learn about articles, noun affixes, and how sentences are constructed in the language.


NOTE: Starting with this lesson, Romanization will no longer be provided. To refer back to the Romanization of tareséasen letters, refer to Lesson 1.


[top]Definite Articles


In tareséasen, there is only one definite article - da.

Example:
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[top]Indefinite Articles


Indefinite articles follow the same rules as definite articles. Again, there are two singular indefinite articles. These are un and unch’

unch’ is used before vowels...

Example:
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...while un is used before consonants.

Example:
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There is also one plural indefinite article - ch’uplu. This one is always used, regardless of whether the word begins with a vowel or a consonant.

Example:
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[top]Affixes of Nouns


A noun can have six affixes added to it - two prefixes and four suffixes.

THE SIZE PREFIXES:

The two prefixes - ga- and sma- - relate to the size of the noun.

When ga- is added, it means the noun in question is physically larger than what is considered average.

Example:
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When sma- is added, the noun in question is physically smaller than average.

Example:
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Note that these prefixes can only be added to physical nouns - things that can be observed by sight, sound, or touch.

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However, in some rare cases, they can be added to abstract nouns (non-physical nouns) where they function to turn the abstract noun into an adjective.

Examples:
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Size prefixes can sometimes be compounded with a noun to form a new noun, which can then have the prefix added to it again to indicate its size.

Examples:
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THE PLURALIZER:

The first noun suffix is the pluralizer. The pluralizer has three forms, -s , -en , and -es . Each is used depending on which letter the noun ends with.

-s is used if the noun ends with a vowel.
Example:
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-en is used if the noun ends with the consonants g,h,l,r, and t (Note: this doesn’t apply to nouns ending in ch’)
Example:
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-es is used if the noun ends with all other consonants.
Example:
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Note that, like with the size prefixes, pluralizers can only be used on physical nouns.


THE P.O.S. CHANGERS:

The last three suffixes, -on , -lax, and -ne , change the part of speech of the noun.

-on turns the noun into an adjective denoting having the quality or relationship to the noun. (Note that in most cases, if the noun ends in a vowel, the vowel is dropped.)

Examples:
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-lax turns the noun into an adjective comparing something’s physical features to the noun. If the noun is a word for an animal, it can also be added to compare something to the habits/behavior of the animal. Note that if the noun ends in an s, it is dropped. If the noun ends in c or sh, the x is marked, becoming -lax’

Example:
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-ne turns the noun into a verb.

Example:
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[top]Declarative Sentence Structure


Sentences in tareséasen, like in English, are in the SVO (Subject,Verb,Object) form.

Examples:
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If there is an indirect object in the sentence, then the order is SViOdO (Subject, Verb, Indirect Object, Direct Object)

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Note that these examples are all in the present tense. We’ll be talking about the past and future tenses in a later lesson.

[top]Questions (Review)


The format for questions in tareséasen has already been discussed in a previous lesson, but it’s only right to at least refer to question sentence structure briefly here.

There are three basic types of question phrases - those that use question words (who, what, where, etc.), ‘How’ questions (‘How fast did you run’?), and verb questions(i.e. ‘Did you run?’)

When asking question word questions, the question word is placed at the beginning of the phrase , followed by the interrogative form of the word “to be”, iz.

Example:
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When asking a verb question, the verb is placed before the direct object/pronoun.

Example:
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Asking a ‘how’ question is similar, with the addition of the desired adverb placed before the verb. If the ‘how’ question is using an adjective, it, and iz are placed before the direct object of the sentence.

Examples:
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For more on how to ask and answer questions in tareséasen work, take a look at Lesson 3.

[top]Adjectives and Adverbs in Sentences


ADJECTIVES

Unlike English, adjectives describing nouns within a larger sentence are placed AFTER the noun.

Examples:
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The only exceptions to this rule are the Size Prefixes we just discussed, and the ordinal numbers (first, second, etc.) discussed in Lesson 2.


If you wanted to create a sentence devoted to JUST describing the noun, the adjective is placed after the noun with the normal form of “to be” - ben - placed between them.

Examples:
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ADVERBS:

Similarly to English, adverbs are placed after the direct object, or the verb itself if there is none.

Examples:
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[top]Your Turn

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