Lesson #4 - Articles, Noun Affixes & Sentence Structure
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Learn definite and indefinite Noun articles, Noun and Verb affixes, and how Sentences are formed.
This public article was written by Zfeinst, and last updated on 14 Jul 2020, 05:45.
[comments] trsnlessonslesson 4
1. Lesson #0
11. ProverbsFor Lesson 1, click here!
For the previous lesson, click here!
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Table of Contents
Now that you’ve (hopefully) gotten the hang of how tareséasen is written, as well as how numbers work, it’s time to learn about articles, noun affixes, and how sentences are constructed in the language.
NOTE: Starting with this lesson, Romanization will no longer be provided. To refer back to the Romanization of tareséasen letters, refer to Lesson 1.
In tareséasen, there is only one definite article - da.
▼ Click here to toggle hidden content below“The person” would be da permon
Indefinite articles follow the same rules as definite articles. Again, there are two singular indefinite articles. These are un and unch’
unch’ is used before vowels...
▼ Click here to toggle hidden content below“A country” would be unch’ éa
...while un is used before consonants.
▼ Click here to toggle hidden content below“A horse” would be un hars
There is also one plural indefinite article - ch’uplu. This one is always used, regardless of whether the word begins with a vowel or a consonant.
▼ Click here to toggle hidden content below“Some cows” would be ch’uplu tanch’as
[top]Affixes of Nouns
A noun can have six affixes added to it - two prefixes and four suffixes.
THE SIZE PREFIXES:
The two prefixes - ga- and sma- - relate to the size of the noun.
When ga- is added, it means the noun in question is physically larger than what is considered average.
▼ Click here to toggle hidden content below“The big book” would be da gabúch’
When sma- is added, the noun in question is physically smaller than average.
▼ Click here to toggle hidden content below“A small bird” would be un sma-aram
Note that these prefixes can only be added to physical nouns - things that can be observed by sight, sound, or touch.
▼ Click here to toggle hidden content belowWhile you can have un ga-am (a big animal), you can’t have un gademrep (a big politics) or un smaveda (a small life)
However, in some rare cases, they can be added to abstract nouns (non-physical nouns) where they function to turn the abstract noun into an adjective.
▼ Click here to toggle hidden content belowTo describe whether da dólar (the price) of something is expensive or cheap, you would say either es ben gadólar, or es ben smadólar, respectively.
Size prefixes can sometimes be compounded with a noun to form a new noun, which can then have the prefix added to it again to indicate its size.
▼ Click here to toggle hidden content belowgader (Moose) is a compound of ga and der(Deer). “A big moose“ would be un gagader, and “a small moose” would be un smagader
▼ Click here to toggle hidden content belowga-úsh(Ocean) is a compound of ga and úsh (Water). “The big ocean” would be da gaga-úsh, and “the small ocean” would be da smaga-úsh.
The first noun suffix is the pluralizer. The pluralizer has three forms, -s , -en , and -es . Each is used depending on which letter the noun ends with.
-s is used if the noun ends with a vowel.
▼ Click here to toggle hidden content belowThe plural form of lentó (House/Building) is lentós
-en is used if the noun ends with the consonants g,h,l,r, and t (Note: this doesn’t apply to nouns ending in ch’)
▼ Click here to toggle hidden content belowThe plural form of gader (Moose) is gaderen
-es is used if the noun ends with all other consonants.
▼ Click here to toggle hidden content belowThe plural form of am (Animal) is ames
Note that, like with the size prefixes, pluralizers can only be used on physical nouns.
THE P.O.S. CHANGERS:
The last three suffixes, -on , -lax, and -ne , change the part of speech of the noun.
-on turns the noun into an adjective denoting having the quality or relationship to the noun. (Note that in most cases, if the noun ends in a vowel, the vowel is dropped.)
▼ Click here to toggle hidden content belowalxon(Drunk) is composed of the word alx(Alcohol) and -on. Therefore the word for “Drunk” literally means “relating to alcohol”.
▼ Click here to toggle hidden content belowferon (Hot) is composed of the word fera (Fire) and -on. Therefore, the word for “Hot” literally means “having the quality of fire”. Notice how the vowel at the end of fera is dropped.
-lax turns the noun into an adjective comparing something’s physical features to the noun. If the noun is a word for an animal, it can also be added to compare something to the habits/behavior of the animal. Note that if the noun ends in an s, it is dropped. If the noun ends in c or sh, the x is marked, becoming -lax’
▼ Click here to toggle hidden content belowersúlax (Hairy) is comprised of the noun ersús (Bear) and -lax. Therefore the word for for “Hairy” literally means “having the physical appearance of a bear. Note how the s In ersús was dropped.
-ne turns the noun into a verb.
▼ Click here to toggle hidden content belowch’omdane (Eat) is formed from the noun ch’omda (Food) and -ne. Therefore, the verb for “Eat” literally means “to food”.
[top]Declarative Sentence Structure
Sentences in tareséasen, like in English, are in the SVO (Subject,Verb,Object) form.
▼ Click here to toggle hidden content belowda re tóhane da ch’a-och’ (the man chops the wood)
▼ Click here to toggle hidden content belownó bata pró da mandúrat (We haggled over the map)
If there is an indirect object in the sentence, then the order is SViOdO (Subject, Verb, Indirect Object, Direct Object)
▼ Click here to toggle hidden content belowim gav da gat ch’uplu ch’omda (he gave the cat some food)
▼ Click here to toggle hidden content belowme max’t nó daneró (I make us money)
Note that these examples are all in the present tense. We’ll be talking about the past and future tenses in a later lesson.
The format for questions in tareséasen has already been discussed in a previous lesson, but it’s only right to at least refer to question sentence structure briefly here.
There are three basic types of question phrases - those that use question words (who, what, where, etc.), ‘How’ questions (‘How fast did you run’?), and verb questions(i.e. ‘Did you run?’)
When asking question word questions, the question word is placed at the beginning of the phrase , followed by the interrogative form of the word “to be”, iz.
▼ Click here to toggle hidden content below‘Who is the teacher?’ would be ch’ú iz da ch’íron?
When asking a verb question, the verb is placed before the direct object/pronoun.
▼ Click here to toggle hidden content below’Did you swim yesterday?’ would be úshgó vú yeda?
Asking a ‘how’ question is similar, with the addition of the desired adverb placed before the verb. If the ‘how’ question is using an adjective, it, and iz are placed before the direct object of the sentence.
▼ Click here to toggle hidden content below‘How fast did the horse go?’ would be chó rapa gó da hars?
▼ Click here to toggle hidden content below‘How old are you?’ would be ch’ó eld iz vú?
For more on how to ask and answer questions in tareséasen work, take a look at Lesson 3.
[top]Adjectives and Adverbs in Sentences
Unlike English, adjectives describing nouns within a larger sentence are placed AFTER the noun.
▼ Click here to toggle hidden content belowIf you wanted to say ‘the old man eats bread’, you’d say da re eld ch’omdane bret
▼ Click here to toggle hidden content belowTo say ‘the fat cow sleeps’, you’d say da tanch’a thérlax napane
▼ Click here to toggle hidden content belowTo say ‘you have personal posessions’, you’d say vú hab shtich’ permonon
The only exceptions to this rule are the Size Prefixes we just discussed, and the ordinal numbers (first, second, etc.) discussed in Lesson 2.
If you wanted to create a sentence devoted to JUST describing the noun, the adjective is placed after the noun with the normal form of “to be” - ben - placed between them.
▼ Click here to toggle hidden content belowto say ‘the building is large’, you’d say da lentó ben ga
▼ Click here to toggle hidden content belowto say ‘the woman is rude’, you’d say da ra ben rúd
▼ Click here to toggle hidden content belowto say ‘the food is hot’, you’d say da ch’omda ben feron
Similarly to English, adverbs are placed after the direct object, or the verb itself if there is none.
▼ Click here to toggle hidden content belowme tenóch’e snaple úsh masemó (I need to drink water soon)
▼ Click here to toggle hidden content belowbódavú gó zúza (Both of you go together)