cws
Greetings Guest
home > library > journal > view_article
« Back to Articles » Journal
Ngeyv verb morphology
0▲ 0 ▼ 0
This public article was written by protondonor, and last updated on 1 Jan 2021, 17:55.

[comments] Menu 1. Agreement 2. Tense 3. Moods 4. Aspects 5. Negative 6. Voice 7. Suffix order 8. Non-finite forms
?FYI...
This article is a work in progress! Check back later in case any changes have occurred.


[top]Agreement

Ngeyv verbs agree with the subject of the sentence in the present tense, and the object in the past tense.

Only the first and second persons are marked. The first person is marked with -b, which becomes -v preceding another consonant. The second person is marked with -k.

Singular is unmarked, plural is marked with -t following the person marking, and dual is marked as plural.

[top]Tense

Ngeyv verbs have two tenses, present and past. In addition to determining tense, these also affect agreement, as described in the previous section. Transitive verbs which take agreement with the subject (i.e., present tense verbs) also put the subject in the nominative, and verbs which take agreement with the object (i.e. past tense verbs) put the subject in the ergative. In each type of clause, the object of a transitive verb takes the accusative, and the subject of an intransitive verb takes the nominative.

The present tense is unmarked, and the past tense is marked by the suffix -ns. Preceding another consonant, an epenthetic e or o is added.

[top]Moods

The indicative in Ngeyv is unmarked.

Desiderative is marked by -bie (back-vowel form -bʉə). Unlike an optative, the desiderative marks an action that is desired by the subject of the verb, rather than the speaker.

Ģieɂmvam seiɂkeŋqvamt ģaagbie.
husband-1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
home-INSInstrumental (case)
'with', 'using'
-1PFirst person plural (person)
we (inclusive or exclusive)
stay-DESDUnknown code
My husband wants to stay at home.

Ngeyv has a single mood, marked with the suffix -is (or -ʉs for roots containing back vowels) that combines imperative and hortative uses. In the second person, it functions as an imperative, and in the first person plural it functions as a hortative. It is not used in the third person.

Misaŋ guɂarŋ guoɂrlʉsk, bieņeg mis duomyou ģieņid yoɂka!
DISTDistal (proximity)
far from speaker (and addressee)
-ELAElative (case)
'out of, from'
lake-ELAElative (case)
'out of, from'
swim-IMPImperative (mood)
command
-2Second person (person)
addressee (you)
before DISTDistal (proximity)
far from speaker (and addressee)
walrus 2SGUnknown code-ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
attack
Get out of the lake, before that walrus attacks you!

(Note that Ngeyv does not have a subjunctive or conditional mood—in this example, an irrealis subordinate clause takes the indicative mood.)

[top]Aspects

Unlike most other East Mirarian languages, Ngeyv is primarily tense-oriented, and not aspect-oriented. The past tense morpheme -ns is cognate with the Mahavic perfective, and the future tense -v is cognate with the Mahavic progressive aspect. Ngeyv does retain a few aspect morphemes from Proto-East-Mirarian, however.

The inchoative aspect, marked with -(ə)sm, has slightly different meanings for stative and dynamic verbs. It turns a stative verb meaning "to be X" into a dynamic verb meaning "to become X."

Ķaagŋei taan.
short.faced.bear stand
The bear is standing.

Ķaagŋei taanəsm.
short.faced.bear stand-INCHInchoative (aspect)
'beginning, becoming'

The bear stands up.

When used with a dynamic verb, the inchoative aspect indicates the beginning of a process or action.

Huogŋ ŋeil ɂaasməns.
river sea-LATLative (case)
movement, towards
flow-INCHInchoative (aspect)
'beginning, becoming'
-PASTPast tense (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech

The river started to flow to the sea.

The momentane aspect, marked with -t-, indicates a quick action or a state that is only briefly true.

Guok qaaqttəns.
herdsman sleep-MOMMomentane (aspect)
brief, temporary
-PASTPast tense (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech

The herder dozed off for a moment.

The cessative aspect, marked with -mp-, indicates the end of an action or state.

Mieņ siɂtamp.
1SGUnknown code speak-CESSUnknown code
I'm done talking.

[top]Negative

Verbal negation is formed by the circumfix ier- -t.

[top]Voice

Ngeyv has four grammatical voices: the active (unmarked), passive, inverse, and causative.

The passive is marked with the suffix -lom (-ləm for front-vowel roots). In the passive, the direct object of a transitive or ditransitive verb is promoted to subject, and the verb agrees with the former object. The former subject may be omitted.

Petpekləmnsəb.
beat-PASSPassive voice (valency)
be verb-ed
-PASTPast tense (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
-1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I

I was beaten.

The inverse is marked with the suffix -da. In the inverse, similar to the passive, the patient of a (di)transitive verb is promoted to syntactic subject. However, the agent remains obligatory, taking ergative case, and continues to agree with the verb. Inverses are commonly used when the patient is more topical than the agent, but the agent is still topical.

Inverse past tense verbs, like active voice past tense verbs, agree with the patient. Compare the following examples:

Mieņid ģierselk petpekda.
1SGUnknown code-ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
man-PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
-ERGErgative (case)
TRANS subject; agent
beat-INVInverse marker (valency)
AKA action redirector

I am beaten by the men.

Ģierselk mieņid petpeknset.
man-PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
-ERGErgative (case)
TRANS subject; agent
1SGUnknown code-ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
beat-INVInverse marker (valency)
AKA action redirector
-PASTPast tense (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
-1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I

The men beat me.

Mieņid ģierselk petpekdanset.
1SGUnknown code-ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
man-PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
-ERGErgative (case)
TRANS subject; agent
beat-INVInverse marker (valency)
AKA action redirector
-PASTPast tense (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
-1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I

I was beaten by the men.

Ngeyv also has a valency-increasing voice, the causative, marked by -uoq. Verbs such as gaalm "melt" and ģan "burn" tend to be intransitive, and the causative is required to form transitive constructions like the following example.

Kintŋ rʉənd gaalmuoq.
fire ice-ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
melt-CAUSCausative (valency/mood)
cause an action to occur, force another argument to act

The fire is melting the ice.

The causative can also be used with transitive verbs, making them ditransitive. In this case, the agent of the original transitive verb is demoted to dative. The patient remains in the accusative case, and the new agent takes the nominative or ergative case, depending on tense.

Ŋaapa ɂieņh dars laŋrsəd ķoɂruoq.
mother 3SGUnknown code-GENGenitive (case)
possessive
son-DATDative (case)
indirect object; recipient, beneficiary, location
seal-ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
hunt-CAUSCausative (valency/mood)
cause an action to occur, force another argument to act

The mother is making her son hunt seal.

WIP - causative/passive and causative/inverse interactions

[top]Suffix order

The order of suffixes on the Ngeyv verb is voice, mood, aspect, tense, then agreement, then the suffixal part of the polarity affix.

Koubmul kultbiensekt
orca eat-DESDUnknown code-PASTPast tense (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
-2PSecond person plural (person)
addressee (plural)

The orca wants to eat you.

[top]Non-finite forms

WIP
vuot/vʉət - forms action nominals
mieɂteh ŋaavuot
sun-GENGenitive (case)
possessive
come-GERGerund
verbal noun

the sun's return
Comments (0)
privacy | FAQs | rules | statistics | graphs | donate | api (indev)
Viewing CWS in: English | Time now is 28-Feb-21 00:19 | Δt: 101.0351ms