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Byvnish Verbs
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Overview of Byvnish's 3 verb classes, verb conjugation bases, and conjugation patterns
This public article was written by [Deactivated User], and last updated on 11 May 2020, 22:58.

[comments] VERBS (ÉVÁNSÁSÁN)

Byvnish verbs end with au/áu. Verbs can be conjugated into various forms and connected to particles and verbs for special grammatical meanings and functions. Each verb can be conjugated into six base forms, which are referred to with shorthand terms like BI (Base I), BII, etc.:

    - Predicative Form (BI): also known as “terminal form”, this indicates the completion of a sentence. It may be followed by some particles. Serves as the infinitive or dictionary form.
    - Attributive Form (BII): used when modifying a noun or pronoun as a participial.
    - Continuative Form (BIII): indicates actions that are in the process of being carried out, and has either taken or is taking place. Often followed by auxiliary verbs and particles, most notably -in which marks the preterit or past tense, and -su, the most common conjunctive auxiliary.
    - Realis Form (BIV): indicates actions that have already occurred.
    - Irrealis Form (BV): indicates actions that have not yet taken place; e.g. negation (-vó), and hypothesis (-ttó)
    - Imperative Form (BVI): indicates a command.

Verbs are also separated into three different classes affecting the conjugation of base forms known as Class 1, Class 2, and Class 3 verbs. Conjugations for particularly BII and BVI vary between them. Class 1 verbs are verbs ending with a consonant + -au, e.g. aítau ‘to stop’, fángáu ‘to light on fire’. Class 2 verbs are verbs ending with a vowel + -au, e.g. ásíáu ‘to make wet’, oikeau ‘to correct’. This class also includes some exceptions in which a final a/á is part of the root, e.g. cau ‘to meet’, ilsau ‘to glow’, nekáu ‘to give’; these are marked as “Class 2” and conjugated as if -aau/-ááu (e.g. BI cau, BII cau, BIII cae, BIV ca, BV cai, BVI caó) (NOTE: temporarily these verbs are written with -aau/ááu until the code that conjugates these verbs can be rewritten.) Class 3 verbs are verbs ending with either nau or sau, e.g. nau ‘to be, exist’, álvásáu ‘to sleep’. The copula dau also belongs to this class.

(cons. + -au)
(vow. + -au)
(-sau / -nau)

    * = Class 2 Continuative Form does not require an additional e if the preceding vowel is e; e.g. oikeau ‘to correct’ → oike, not oikee.
    ** = ending in -óau become -óu in the imperative; e.g. sóau ‘to save’ > sóu ‘save (command)’. Meanwhile, verbs ending in -éáu become ; e.g. lántéáu ‘to give’ > lántē ‘give (command)’.

Auxiliary verbs and suffixes are attached to these base forms to alter the verb in various ways. Modifiers are almost always attached in the following order: root + auxiliary verb + causation + passivity + potentiality + aspect + auxiliary adjectives + polarity + mood + tense + conjunctive auxiliary. For example, the word íretemiciniretesauvucian is made up of íre (to write) + temi (to finish) + ci (causative voice) + ni (passive voice) + re (potential voice) + te (progressive aspect) + sau (desiderative auxiliary) + vu (negative marker) + cia (counterfactual tentative mood marker) + n (past tense), yielding the approximate meaning ‘(I) probably could not have wanted to be made to be finishing writing.’ Note that modality is only expressed at the end of a sentence, and so it is impossible to attach conjunctive auxiliaries to the above word. An example of the same word without modality + -ttó (auxiliary expressing ‘when, because’) would be íretemiciniretesauvaínottó (meaning approximately ‘because/when (I) could not have wanted to have been made to be finishing writing.’) A verb with this level of complexity in its conjugation is unlikely, but possible by Byvnish verbal conjugation rules. More information regarding individual forms can be found under Grammar Patterns.

Verbs have four basic forms for aspect: imperfective, perfective, progressive, and perfect.

Imperfective: conveys either present or future tense. Expressed with the dictionary form of the verb.
    e.g. esau ‘to eat/will eat’.

Perfective: generally conveys simple past tense. Expressed by BIII + -in.
    e.g. esau ‘to eat/will eat’ → esein ‘ate’.

Progressive: conveys a current state or habitual action. Expressed by BIII + -c. Assuming there are no modifiers between aspect and tense, past progressive is expressed by BIII + -ten.
    e.g. esauesec ‘to be eating’ → esten ‘was eating’

Perfect: also conveys the pluperfect and perfect progressive aspects. Expressed by BIII + -sun.
    e.g. esauesesun ‘to have eaten/had eaten/had been eating’.

Each also has an attributive form: the nonpast is listed above, while the past is BIII + -inu (e.g. esu dolóe ‘food that is/will be eaten’ – eseinu dolóe ‘food that was eaten’). Currently occurring actions can also be expressed using BIII + -c (e.g. dolóai esec ‘be eating food’) and then put into past tense by changing -c to -ten (e.g. dolóai eseten ‘was eating food’). More information including that regarding conjugated base forms can be found under Grammar Patterns.

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